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1.  Diabetic factors associated with gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with type 2 diabetes 
AIM: To determine whether gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are more frequent in type 2 diabetic patients and to examine which diabetic factors are associated with the symptoms.
METHODS: Consecutive subjects with diabetes and age-/gender-matched normal controls were recruited for this study. GI symptoms were assessed using a structured questionnaire divided into two GI symptom categories (upper and lower GI symptoms), and consisting of 11 individual symptoms. In the diabetic patient group, diabetic complications including peripheral neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level and diabetes duration were evaluated.
RESULTS: Among the total 190 diabetic patients and 190 controls enrolled, 137 (72%) of the diabetic patients and 116 (62%) of the controls had GI symptoms. In the diabetic patient group, 83 (43%) had upper GI symptoms and 110 (58%) lower GI symptoms; in the control group, 59 (31%) had upper GI symptoms and 104 (55%) lower GI symptoms. This difference between the two groups was significant for only the upper GI symptoms (P = 0.02). Among the diabetic factors, the HbA1c level was the only independent risk factor for upper GI symptoms in the multiple logistic regression analysis (odds ratio = 2.01, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-3.95).
CONCLUSION: Type 2 diabetes was associated with an increased prevalence of upper GI symptoms and these symptoms appeared to be independently linked to poor glycemic control, as measured by the HbA1c levels.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v16.i14.1782
PMCID: PMC2852829  PMID: 20380013
Diabetes; HbA1c; Upper gastrointestinal symptoms
2.  Superiority of split dose midazolam as conscious sedation for outpatient colonoscopy 
AIM: To elucidate the efficacy and safety of a split dose of midazolam in combination with meperidine for colonoscopy.
METHODS: Eighty subjects undergoing outpatient colonoscopy were randomly assigned to group A or B. Group A (n = 40) received a split dose of midazolam in combination with meperidine. Group B (n = 40) received a single dose of midazolam in combination with meperidine. Outcome measurements were level of sedation, duration of sedation and recovery, degree of pain and satisfaction, procedure-related memory, controllability, and adverse events.
RESULTS: Group A had a lower frequency of significant hypoxemia (P = 0.043) and a higher sedation score on withdrawal of the endoscope from the descending colon than group B (P = 0.043). Group B recovered from sedation slightly sooner than group A (P < 0.002). Scores for pain and memory, except insertion-related memory, were lower in group A one week after colonoscopic examination (P = 0.018 and P < 0.030, respectively). Poor patient controllability was noted by the endoscopist and nurse in group B (P = 0.038 and P = 0.032, respectively).
CONCLUSION: Split dose midazolam in combination with meperidine resulted in a safer, more equable sedation status during colonoscopic examination and a reduction in procedure-related pain and memory, but resulted in longer recovery time.
doi:10.3748/wjg.15.3783
PMCID: PMC2726457  PMID: 19673020
Amnesia; Colonoscopy; Conscious sedation; Midazolam
6.  Change in renal function after sodium phosphate preparation for screening colonoscopy 
AIM: To investigate the changes in renal function at 12-24 mo in patients following sodium phosphate (NaP) preparation for screening colonoscopy.
METHODS: We carried out a retrospective study on the results from patients who received health check-up services as part of an employer-provided wellness program performed between August 2006 and May 2008 and who were followed up for 12-24 mo. Prior to screening colonoscopy, 224 patients underwent bowel cleansing with NaP (NaP group) and 113 patients with polyethylene glycol (PEG group). The control group comprised 672 age-matched patients. We compared the changes in the creatinine levels and the glomerular filtration rates (GFRs) from baseline to 12-24 mo between the NaP, PEG, and control groups using two-way repeated measured analysis of variance. In addition, multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to assess the risk factors for a decreased GFR.
RESULTS: The baseline mean serum creatinine level in the NaP, PEG, and control groups was 1.12 ± 0.15, 1.12 ± 0.16, and 1.12 ± 0.15 mg/dL, which increased to 1.15 ± 0.15, 1.15 ± 0.18, and 1.15 ± 0.15 mg/dL, respectively, after 12-24 mo. The baseline mean GFR in the NaP, PEG, and control groups was 69.0 ± 7.7, 68.9 ± 8.0, and 69.6 ± 6.7 mL/min per 1.73 m2, which decreased to 66.5 ± 7.8, 66.5 ± 8.3, and 67.4 ± 6.4 mL/min per 1.73 m2, respectively, after 12-24 mo. The changes in serum creatinine levels and GFRs were not significantly between the NaP, PEG, and control groups (P = 0.992 and P = 0.233, respectively). Using multivariate linear regression analysis, only the baseline GFR was associated with the change in GFR (P < 0.001). Indeed, the bowel preparations were not associated with the change in GFR (P = 0.297).
CONCLUSION: NaP bowel preparation in subjects with normal renal function was not associated with renal injury, and NaP can thus be used safely for screening colonoscopy.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v16.i16.2010
PMCID: PMC2860079  PMID: 20419839
Sodium phosphate; Polyethylene glycol; Purgatives; Colonoscopy; Creatinine; Glomerular filtration rate
7.  Clinical Distinct Features of Noncardiac Chest Pain in Young Patients 
Background/Aims
Noncardiac chest pain (NCCP) is a very common disorder world-wide and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is known to be the most common cause. The prevalence of NCCP may tend to decrease with increasing age. However, there is little report about young aged NCCP. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of GERD and to evaluate the efficacy of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) test in the young NCCP patients.
Methods
Thirty patients with at least weekly NCCP less than 40 years were enrolled. The baseline symptoms were assessed using a daily symptom diary for 14 days. Esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (EGD) and 24 hr esophageal pH monitoring were performed for the diagnosis of GERD and esophageal manometry was done. Then, patients were tried with lansoprazole 30 mg twice daily for 14 days, considering positive if a symptom score improved ≥ 50% compared to the baseline.
Results
Nine (30%) of the patients were diagnosed with GERD at EGD and/or 24 hr esophageal pH monitoring, also, 3 (10%) were diagnosed with GERD-associated esophageal motility disorder and 3 (10%) were non GERD-associated. Concerning PPI test, GERD-related NCCP had a higher positive PPI test (n = 8, 89%) than non GERD-related NCCP (n = 5, 24%) (p = 0.002).
Conclusions
In young patients with NCCP, a prevalence of GERD diagnosed using EGD and/or 24 hr esophageal pH monitoring was 30%. PPI test was very predictable on diagnosis of GERD-related NCCP, thus, PPI test in young NCCP patients may assist to the physician's clinical judgment of NCCP.
doi:10.5056/jnm.2010.16.2.166
PMCID: PMC2879856  PMID: 20535347
Gastroesophageal reflux disease; Noncardiac chest pain; Proton pump inhibitor; Young adult
8.  Importance of the surrounding colonic mucosa in distinguishing between hyperplastic and adenomatous polyps during acetic acid chromoendoscopy 
AIM: To examine the characteristics of colonic polyps, where it is difficult to distinguish adenomatous polyps from hyperplastic polyps, with the aid of acetic acid chromoendoscopy.
METHODS: Acetic acid spray was applied to colonic polyps smaller than 10 mm before complete excision. Endoscopic images were taken before and 15-30 s after the acetic acid spray. Both pre- and post-sprayed images were shown to 16 examiners, who were asked to interpret the lesions as either hyperplastic or adenomatous polyps. Regression analysis was performed to determine which factors were most likely related to diagnostic accuracy.
RESULTS: In 50 cases tested by the 16 examiners, the overall accuracy was 62.4% (499/800). Regression analysis demonstrated that surrounding colonic mucosa was the only factor that was significantly related to accuracy in discriminating adenomatous from hyperplastic polyps (P < 0.001). Accuracy was higher for polyps with linear surrounding colonic mucosa than for those with nodular surrounding colonic mucosa (P < 0.001), but was not related to the shape, location, or size of the polyp.
CONCLUSION: The accuracy of predicting histology is significantly related to the pattern of colonic mucosa surrounding the polyp. Making a histological diagnosis of colon polyps merely by acetic acid spray is helpful for colon polyps with linear, regularly patterned surrounding colonic mucosa, and less so for those with nodular, irregularly patterned surrounding colonic mucosa.
doi:10.3748/wjg.14.1903
PMCID: PMC2700415  PMID: 18350630
Colon polyp; Chromoendoscopy; Acetic acid
9.  Risk Factors for Incomplete Polyp Resection during Colonoscopic Polypectomy 
Gut and Liver  2015;9(1):66-72.
Background/Aims
Colonoscopic polypectomy is highly efficient in preventing colorectal cancer, but polyps may not always be completely removed. Improved knowledge of the risk factors for incomplete polyp resection after polypectomy may decrease the cancer risk and additional costs. The aim of this study was to investigate the conditions that can cause incomplete polyp resection (IPR) after colonoscopic polypectomy.
Methods
A total of 12,970 polyps that were removed by colonoscopic polypectomy were investigated. Among them, we identified 228 cases with a positive resection margin and 228 controls with a clear resection margin that were matched for age, gender, and polyp size. We investigated the location, morphology, and histological type of the polyps and evaluated the skills of the endoscopist and assisting nurse.
Results
Multivariate analysis revealed that the polyps, which were located in the proximal part of the colon and rectum, were at significant risk of IPR. Histologically, an advanced polyp and an inexperienced assistant were also independent risk factors for IPR.
Conclusions
Polypectomy should be performed more carefully for polyps suspected to be cancerous and polyps located in the proximal part of the colon or rectum. A systematic training program for inexperienced assistants may be needed to decrease the risk of IPR.
doi:10.5009/gnl13330
PMCID: PMC4282859  PMID: 25170059
Colonic polyps; Colonoscopic polypectomy; Adenomatous polyps; Interval colorectal cancer; Polypectomy
10.  Clinical Evaluation of a New-Formula Shampoo for Scalp Seborrheic Dermatitis Containing Extract of Rosa centifolia Petals and Epigallocatechin Gallate: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Study 
Annals of Dermatology  2014;26(6):733-738.
Background
Scalp seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic type of inflammatory dermatosis that is associated with sebum secretion and proliferation of Malassezia species. Ketoconazole or zinc-pyrithione shampoos are common treatments for scalp seborrheic dermatitis. However, shampoos comprising different compounds are required to provide patients with a wider range of treatment options.
Objective
This study was designed to evaluate a new-formula shampoo that contains natural ingredients-including extract of Rosa centifolia petals and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)-that exert antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and sebum secretion inhibitory effects, and antifungal agents for the treatment of scalp seborrheic dermatitis.
Methods
Seventy-five patients were randomized into three treatment groups; new-formula shampoo, 2% ketoconazole shampoo, and 1% zinc- pyrithione shampoo. The clinical severity scores and sebum levels were assessed by the same dermatologists at baseline (week 0), and at 2 and 4 weeks after using the shampoo. User satisfaction and irritation were also assessed with the aid of a questionnaire.
Results
The efficacy of the new-formula shampoo was comparable to that of both the 1% zinc-pyrithione shampoo and the 2% ketoconazole shampoo. Furthermore, it was found to provide a more rapid response than the 1% zinc-pyrithione shampoo for mild erythema lesions and was associated with greater user satisfaction compared with the 2% ketoconazole shampoo. However, the new-formula shampoo did not exhibit the previously reported sebum inhibitory effect.
Conclusion
Extract of R. centifolia petals or EGCG could be useful ingredients in the treatment of scalp seborrheic dermatitis.
doi:10.5021/ad.2014.26.6.733
PMCID: PMC4252671  PMID: 25473226
Ellagitannins; Epigallocatechin gallate; Ketoconazole; Seborrheic dermatitis; Zinc pyrithione
11.  NF-κB/AP-1-Targeted Inhibition of Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses by Depigmenting Compound AP736 Derived from Natural 1,3-Diphenylpropane Skeleton 
Mediators of Inflammation  2014;2014:354843.
AP736 was identified as an antimelanogenic drug that can be used for the prevention of melasma, freckles, and dark spots in skin by acting as a suppressor of melanin synthesis and tyrosinase expression. Since macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses are critical for skin health, here we investigated the potential anti-inflammatory activity of AP736. The effects of AP736 on various inflammatory events such as nitric oxide (NO)/prostaglandin (PG) E2 production, inflammatory gene expression, phagocytic uptake, and morphological changes were examined in RAW264.7 cells. AP736 was found to strongly inhibit the production of both NO and PGE2 in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) treated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, AP736 strongly inhibited both LPS-induced morphological changes and FITC-dextran-induced phagocytic uptake. Furthermore, AP736 also downregulated the expression of multiple inflammatory genes, such as inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 2, and interleukin- (IL-) 1β in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. Transcription factor analysis, including upstream signalling events, revealed that both NF-κB and AP-1 were targeted by AP736 via inhibition of the IKK/IκBα and IRAK1/TAK1 pathways. Therefore, our results strongly suggest that AP736 is a potential anti-inflammatory drug due to its suppression of NF-κB-IKK/IκBα and AP-1-IRAK1/TAK1 signalling, which may make AP736 useful for the treatment of macrophage-mediated skin inflammation.
doi:10.1155/2014/354843
PMCID: PMC4217328  PMID: 25386046
12.  Pleural Metastasis as Initial Presentation of Occult Gastric Cardia Cancer: A Possible Role of PET-CT in Diagnosis 
We report on a case of malignant pleural effusion as initial metastatic presentation of occult gastric cardia cancer in a young woman. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of gastric adenocarcinoma metastasized to pleura as an initial presentation. Location of cardia and signet ring cell histology may contribute to the manifestation. Utilization of positron emission tomography-computed tomography was helpful for proper diagnosis. For patients with such distinct clinical presentations, it would be appropriate to consider gastric cancer as one of the possible primary sites.
doi:10.4143/crt.2013.068
PMCID: PMC4206069  PMID: 25036578
Pleura; Cardia; Signet ring cell carcinoma; Positron-emission tomography; Computed tomography
13.  Rebleeding after Initial Endoscopic Hemostasis in Peptic Ulcer Disease 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2014;29(10):1411-1415.
Endoscopic hemostasis is the first-line treatment for upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). Although several factors are known to be risk factors for rebleeding, little is known about the use of antithrombotics. We tried to verify whether the use of antithrombotics affects rebleeding rate after a successful endoscopic hemostasis for peptic ulcer disease (PUD). UGIB patients who underwent successful endoscopic hemostasis were included. Rebleeding was diagnosed when the previously treated lesion bled again within 30 days of the initial episode. Of 522 UGIB patients with PUD, rebleeding occurred in 93 patients (17.8%). The rate of rebleeding was higher with aspirin medication (P=0.006) and after a long endoscopic hemostasis (P<0.001). Of all significant variables, procedure time longer than 13.5 min was related to the rate of rebleeding (OR, 2.899; 95% CI, 1.768-4.754; P<0.001) on the logistic regression analysis. The rate of rebleeding after endoscopic hemostasis for PUD is higher in the patients after a long endoscopic hemostasis. Endoscopic hemostasis longer than 13.5 min is related to rebleeding after a successful endoscopic hemostasis for PUD.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2014.29.10.1411
PMCID: PMC4214943  PMID: 25368496
Hemostasis; Endoscopic; Peptic Ulcer; Rebleeding; Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding
14.  Post-Polio Syndrome and Risk Factors in Korean Polio Survivors: A Baseline Survey by Telephone Interview 
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine  2014;38(5):637-647.
Objective
To obtain information on the socioeconomic, medical, and functional status of polio survivors, and to use these results as the preliminary data for establishing the middle-aged cohort of polio survivors.
Methods
The subjects were recruited based on the medical records of multiple hospitals and centers. They were assessed through a structured questionnaire over the phone. Post-poliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) was identified according to the specified diagnostic criteria. Differences between polio survivors with or without PPS were evaluated, and the risk factors for PPS were analyzed by the odds ratio (OR).
Results
Majority of polio survivors were middle-aged and mean age was 51.2±8.3 years. A total of 188 out of 313 polio survivors met the adopted criteria for PPS based on the symptoms, yielding a prevalence of 61.6%. Mean interval between acute poliomyelitis and the development of PPS was 38.5±11.6 years. Female gender (OR 1.82; confidence interval [CI] 1.09-3.06), the age at onset of poliomyelitis (OR 1.75; CI 1.05-2.94), the use of orthoses or walking aids (OR 2.46; CI 1.44-4.20), and the history of medical treatment for paralysis, pain or gait disturbance (OR 2.62; CI 1.52-4.51) represented independent risk factors for PPS.
Conclusion
We found that the majority of Korean polio survivors entered middle age with many medical, functional, and social problems. Female gender, early age of onset of poliomyelitis, the use of orthoses or walking aids, and the history of medical treatment for paralysis, pain or gait disturbance were identified as the significant risk factors for PPS. A comprehensive and multidisciplinary plan should be prepared to manage polio survivors considering their need for health care services and the risk factors for late effects, such as PPS.
doi:10.5535/arm.2014.38.5.637
PMCID: PMC4221392  PMID: 25379493
Polio survivors; Postpoliomyelitis syndrome; Late effects; Telephone survey
15.  Korean Type Distal Radius Anatomical Volar Plate System: A Preliminary Report 
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery  2014;6(3):258-266.
Background
Distal radius fracture is the most common fracture of the upper extremity, and approximately 60,000 distal radius fractures occur annually in Korea. Internal fixation with an anatomical volar locking plate is widely used in the treatment of unstable distal radius fractures. However, most of the currently used distal radius anatomical plate systems were designed based on the anatomical characteristics of Western populations. Recently, the Korean-type distal radius anatomical volar plate (K-DRAVP) system was designed and developed based on the anatomical characteristics of the distal radius of Koreans. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the preliminary results of the new K-DRAVP system, and to compare its radiologic and functional results with those of the other systems.
Methods
From March 2012 to October 2012, 46 patients with acute distal radius fractures who were treated with the K-DRAVP system at three hospitals were enrolled in this study. Standard posteroanterior and lateral radiographs were obtained to assess fracture healing, and three radiographic parameters (volar tilt, radial inclination, and radial length) were assessed to evaluate radiographic outcomes. The range of motion and grip strength, the Gartland and Werley scoring system, and the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) questionnaire were used to assess clinical and functional outcomes.
Results
All radiologic parameters were restored to normal values, and maintained without any loosening or collapse until the time of final follow-up. Grip strength was restored to 84% of the value for the unaffected side. The mean range of motion of the wrist at final follow-up was restored to 77%-95% of the value for the unaffected side. According to the Gartland and Werley scoring system, there were 16 excellent, 26 good, and 4 fair results. The mean DASH score was 8.4 points. There were no complications after surgery.
Conclusions
The newly developed K-DRAVP system could be used to restore and maintain good anatomical parameters, and provide good clinical outcomes with low complication rates. This system is a promising surgical option for the treatment of distal radius fractures in the Korean population.
doi:10.4055/cios.2014.6.3.258
PMCID: PMC4143511  PMID: 25177449
Radius; Distal radius fracture; Volar locking plate; Anatomical plate
16.  Factors Associated with Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Undergoing an Ambulatory Hand Surgery 
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery  2014;6(3):273-278.
Background
Patients undergoing ambulatory surgery under general anesthesia experience considerable levels of postoperative nausea and vomiting (N/V) after their discharge. However, those complications have not been thoroughly investigated in hand surgery patients yet. We investigated factors associated with postoperative N/V in patients undergoing an ambulatory hand surgery under general anesthesia and determined whether patients' satisfaction with this setting is associated with postoperative N/V levels.
Methods
We prospectively evaluated 200 consecutive patients who underwent ambulatory hand surgeries under general anesthesia to assess their postoperative N/V visual analogue scale (VAS) levels during the first 24 hours after surgery and their satisfaction with an ambulatory surgery setting. Potential predictors of postoperative N/V were; age, sex, body mass index, smoking behavior, a history of postoperative N/V after previous anesthesia or motion sickness, preoperative anxiety level and the duration time of anesthesia. We conducted multivariate analyses to identify factors associated with postoperative N/V levels. We also conducted multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine whether the N/V levels are associated with the patients' satisfaction with this setting. Here, potential predictors for satisfaction were sex, age, postoperative pain and N/V.
Results
Postoperative N/V were associated with a non-smoking history, a history of motion sickness and a high level of preoperative anxiety. Twenty-two patients (11%) were dissatisfied with the ambulatory setting and this dissatisfaction was independently associated with moderate (VAS 4-7) and high (VAS 8-10) levels of postoperative N/V and with a high level (VAS 8-10) of postoperative pain.
Conclusions
Although most of the patients were satisfied with the ambulatory surgery setting, moderate to high levels of N/V were associated with dissatisfaction of patients with this setting, suggesting a need for better identifying and managing those patients at risk. The information regarding risk factors for N/V could help in preoperative patient consultation regarding an ambulatory hand surgery under general anesthesia.
doi:10.4055/cios.2014.6.3.273
PMCID: PMC4143513  PMID: 25177451
Ambulatory hand surgery; Nausea; Vomiting; Satisfaction
17.  Purification and Characterization of a Fibrinolytic Enzyme from Bacillus pumilus 2.g Isolated from Gembus, an Indonesian Fermented Food 
Bacillus pumilus 2.g isolated from gembus, an Indonesian fermented soybean cake, secretes several proteases that have strong fibrinolytic activities. A fibrinolytic enzyme with an apparent molecular weight of 20 kDa was purified from the culture supernatant of B. pumilus 2.g by sequential application of ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, and hydrophobic chromatography. The partially purified enzyme was stable between pH 5 and pH 9 and temperature of less than 60°C. Fibrinolytic activity was increased by 5 mM MgCl2 and 5 mM CaCl2 but inhibited by 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), 1 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The partially purified enzyme quickly degraded the α and β chains of fibrinogen but was unable to degrade the γ chain.
doi:10.3746/pnf.2014.19.3.213
PMCID: PMC4195627  PMID: 25320719
fibrinolytic enzyme; Bacillus pumilus; fermented food; gembus
18.  The influence of bile salt on the chemotherapeutic response of docetaxel-loaded thermosensitive nanomicelles 
The primary aim of this work was to investigate the potential of bile salt, sodium taurocholate (NaTC), in improving the bioavailability and anti-tumor efficacy of docetaxel (DCT) upon rectal administration. Poloxamer-based nanomicelles with thermosensitive and mucoadhesive properties were prepared using the cold method. The optimized nanomicellar formulation was evaluated in terms of physicochemical and viscoelastic parameters. Nanomicelles containing bile salt maintained sufficient gelation strength (234×102 mPa·s) and mucoadhesive force (17.3×102 dyne/cm2) to be retained in the upper part of the rectum. They significantly enhanced the DCT internalization across the rectal mucosa and showed a high plasma level during the first 4 hours of the study period, compared to nanomicelles with no bile salt. As a result, a slightly higher rectal bioavailability of ~33% was observed in nanomicelles containing bile salt, compared to ~28% from the latter system. The higher pharmacokinetic parameters for rectally administered DCT/P407/P188/Tween 80/NaTC (0.25%/11%/15%/10%/0.1% by weight, respectively) resulted in significant anti-tumor efficacy. However, the tumor regression rate for the NaTC group was not statistically different from that for nanomicelles without NaTC. Therefore, overall results suggest that thermosensitive nanomicelles could be a potential dosage form for improvement of the bioavailability and chemotherapeutic profile of DCT.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S64794
PMCID: PMC4134046  PMID: 25143730
anti-cancer efficiency; bioavailability; docetaxel; liquid suppository; rectal delivery; thermosensitive
19.  G Protein β3 Subunit Polymorphism and Long-Term Prognosis of Functional Dyspepsia 
Gut and Liver  2013;8(3):271-276.
Background/Aims
A link between G protein β3 (GNB3) polymorphism and functional dyspepsia (FD) has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine the role of GNB3 polymorphism in the long-term prognosis of FD in Koreans.
Methods
FD patients and normal healthy controls were recruited from patients who visited our center between December 2006 and June 2007. All of the subjects completed Rome III questionnaires before undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy. Genomic DNA was extracted for GNB3 genotyping. After 5 years, the subjects were reevaluated using the same questionnaires.
Results
GNB3 825T carrier status was significantly related to FD in Koreans (p=0.04). After 5 years, 61.0% of the initial FD patients and 12.2% of the initial normal subjects were diagnosed with FD (odds ratio [OR], 11.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.3 to 31.1; p<0.001). Regardless of the GNB3 genotype (p=0.798), female sex was strongly correlated with FD after 5 years (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.2 to 9.1; p=0.017).
Conclusions
The T allele of GNB3 is linked to FD in Koreans but does not predict long-term prognosis. Female sex is related to a higher prevalence of FD after 5 years.
doi:10.5009/gnl.2014.8.3.271
PMCID: PMC4026644  PMID: 24827623
Functional dyspepsia; G protein β3; Polymorphism; Prognosis; Rome III
20.  The Effect of Preceding Biopsy on Complete Endoscopic Resection in Rectal Carcinoid Tumor 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2014;29(4):512-518.
Biopsy of rectal carcinoid tumor is commonly taken before endoscopic resection. However the preceding biopsy can inhibit complete resection by causing blurred tumor border and fibrosis of the tissue. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of preceding biopsy on complete endoscopic resection in rectal carcinoid tumor. It was also determined if rectal carcinoid tumors can be macroscopically distinguished by endoscopy. We reviewed retrospectively the records of patients with rectal carcinoid tumor who had undergone an endoscopic treatment at our hospital, during a 7-yr period. The resection margin was clear in 57 of 98 cases. The preceding biopsy was taken in 57 cases and the biopsy was significantly associated with the risk of incomplete tumor resection (OR, 3.696; 95% CI, 1.528-8.938, P = 0.004). In 95.9% of the cases, it was possible to suspect a carcinoid tumor by macroscopic appearance during initial endoscopy. The preceding biopsy may disturb complete resection of rectal carcinoid tumor. In most cases, the carcinoid tumor could be suspected by macroscopic appearance. Therefore the preceding biopsy is not essential, and it may be avoided for the complete resection.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.3346/jkms.2014.29.4.512
PMCID: PMC3991794  PMID: 24753698
Carcinoid Tumor; NETs; Rectal Carcinoid Tumor; Endoscopic Treatment; Biopsy
21.  Forensic Body Fluid Identification by Analysis of Multiple RNA Markers Using NanoString Technology 
Genomics & Informatics  2013;11(4):277-281.
RNA analysis has become a reliable method of body fluid identification for forensic use. Previously, we developed a combination of four multiplex quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) probes to discriminate four different body fluids (blood, semen, saliva, and vaginal secretion). While those makers successfully identified most body fluid samples, there were some cases of false positive and negative identification. To improve the accuracy of the identification further, we tried to use multiple markers per body fluid and adopted the NanoString nCounter system instead of a multiplex qRT-PCR system. After measuring tens of RNA markers, we evaluated the accuracy of each marker for body fluid identification. For body fluids, such as blood and semen, each body fluid-specific marker was accurate enough for perfect identification. However, for saliva and vaginal secretion, no single marker was perfect. Thus, we designed a logistic regression model with multiple markers for saliva and vaginal secretion and achieved almost perfect identification. In conclusion, the NanoString nCounter is an efficient platform for measuring multiple RNA markers per body fluid and will be useful for forensic RNA analysis.
doi:10.5808/GI.2013.11.4.277
PMCID: PMC3897857  PMID: 24465241
body fluids; forensic; RNA
22.  Management of Asymptomatic Erosive Esophagitis: An E-Mail Survey of Physician's Opinions 
Gut and Liver  2013;7(3):290-294.
Background/Aims
The management of asymptomatic erosive esophagitis is controversial. We surveyed physicians' opinions on asymptomatic erosive esophagitis using e-mail.
Methods
All members of the Korean Society of Neurogastro-enterology and Motility were invited to answer the questionnaire on the treatment and follow-up of patients with asymptomatic erosive esophagitis by e-mail.
Results
A total of 73 members answered the questionnaire (response rate, 18%). As initial management, 41% of respondents chose pharmacologic treatment, whereas 59% chose nonpharmacologic treatment. In the case of pharmacologic treatment, proton pump inhibitors were the preferred medication. The most common treatment duration was 4 weeks (43%), followed by 8 weeks (38%), and 6 months (11%). Sixty-two percent of the respondents recommended follow-up endoscopy annually, whereas 29% chose no endoscopic follow-up. Thirty-four percent of the respondents answered that they would talk about reflux-related sleep disturbances. Only 25% of the respondents explained the possibility of Barrett's esophagus or esophageal adenocarcinoma to their patients.
Conclusions
There are substantial practice variations in the management of asymptomatic erosive esophagitis in Korea.
doi:10.5009/gnl.2013.7.3.290
PMCID: PMC3661960  PMID: 23710309
Esophagitis; Endoscopy; Asymptomatic diseases; Therapeutics
23.  Early Gastric Cancer-Like Advanced Gastric Cancer versus Advanced Gastric Cancer-Like Early Gastric Cancer 
Clinical Endoscopy  2013;46(2):155-160.
Background/Aims
Improvements in the endoscopic evaluation and management of gastric cancer have made it possible to determine the depth of invasion during endoscopic examination. The aim of this study was to elucidate the differences between early gastric cancer (EGC) that resembles advanced gastric cancer (AGC) and AGC that resembles EGC.
Methods
We retrieved cases of EGC-like AGC and AGC-like EGC from consecutive gastric cancers that had been completely resected. The endoscopic diagnoses and clinicopathological findings were analyzed.
Results
AGC-like EGCs were located mainly in the distal part of the stomach, whereas EGC-like AGCs were located mainly in the proximal part of the stomach (p<0.001). Sixty percent of AGC-like EGCs were moderately differentiated adenocarcinomas, while 64% of EGC-like AGCs were poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas (p=0.015). According to Lauren's classification, 68% of AGC-like EGCs were intestinal type, whereas 71% of EGC-like AGCs were diffuse type (p=0.020).
Conclusions
AGC-like EGCs predominate in the distal part of the stomach, while EGC-like AGCs predominate in the proximal part. When evaluating the depth of a gastric cancer, care should be taken not to underestimate measurements in proximal gastric cancers since they tend to be poorly-differentiated adenocarcinomas, in Lauren's diffuse type, and invade deeper than their endoscopic appearance might suggest.
doi:10.5946/ce.2013.46.2.155
PMCID: PMC3630309  PMID: 23614125
Early gastric cancer; Advanced gastric cancer; Gastrointestinal endoscopy
24.  Wnt signaling in bone formation and its therapeutic potential for bone diseases 
The Wnt signaling pathway plays an important role not only in embryonic development but also in the maintenance and differentiation of the stem cells in adulthood. In particular, Wnt signaling has been shown as an important regulatory pathway in the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Induction of the Wnt signaling pathway promotes bone formation while inactivation of the pathway leads to osteopenic states. Our current understanding of Wnt signaling in osteogenesis elucidates the molecular mechanisms of classic osteogenic pathologies. Activating and inactivating aberrations of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in osteogenesis results in sclerosteosis and osteoporosis respectively. Recent studies have sought to target the Wnt signaling pathway to treat osteogenic disorders. Potential therapeutic approaches attempt to stimulate the Wnt signaling pathway by upregulating the intracellular mediators of the Wnt signaling cascade and inhibiting the endogenous antagonists of the pathway. Antibodies against endogenous antagonists, such as sclerostin and dickkopf-1, have demonstrated promising results in promoting bone formation and fracture healing. Lithium, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3β, has also been reported to stimulate osteogenesis by stabilizing β catenin. Although manipulating the Wnt signaling pathway has abundant therapeutic potential, it requires cautious approach due to risks of tumorigenesis. The present review discusses the role of the Wnt signaling pathway in osteogenesis and examines its targeted therapeutic potential.
doi:10.1177/1759720X12466608
PMCID: PMC3582304  PMID: 23514963
Wnt signaling; bone formation; osteoporosis; fracture healing; bone tumors
25.  The Effect of the Bowel Preparation Status on the Risk of Missing Polyp and Adenoma during Screening Colonoscopy: A Tandem Colonoscopic Study 
Clinical Endoscopy  2012;45(4):404-411.
Background/Aims
Although a small amount of fecal material can obscure significant colorectal lesions, it has not been well documented whether bowel preparation status affects the missing risk of colorectal polyps and adenomas during a colonoscopy.
Methods
We prospectively enrolled patients with one to nine colorectal polyps and at least one adenoma of >5 mm in size at the screening colonoscopy. Tandem colonoscopy with polypectomy was carried out within 3 months.
Results
A total of 277 patients with 942 polyps and 714 adenomas completed index and tandem examinations. At the index colonoscopy, 187 polyps (19.9%) and 127 adenomas (17.8%) were missed. The per-patient miss rate of polyps and adenomas increased significantly as the bowel cleansing rate declined from excellent to poor/inadequate on the Aronchick scale (polyps, p=0.024; adenomas, p=0.040). The patients with poor/inadequate bowel preparation were independently associated with an increased risk of having missed polyps (odds ratio [OR], 3.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13 to 9.15) or missed adenomas (OR, 3.04; 95% CI, 1.04 to 8.88) compared to the patients with excellent bowel preparation.
Conclusions
The risk of missing polyps and adenomas during screening colonoscopy is significantly affected by bowel preparation status. It seems appropriate to shorten the colonoscopy follow-up interval for patients with suboptimal bowel preparation.
doi:10.5946/ce.2012.45.4.404
PMCID: PMC3521943  PMID: 23251889
Bowel preparation; Polyp miss rate; Adenoma miss rate; Colonoscopy; Surveillance

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