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1.  Protective efficacy of an Ecklonia cava extract used to treat transient focal ischemia of the rat brain 
Anatomy & Cell Biology  2012;45(2):103-113.
Phlorotannins (marine algal polyphenols) have been reported to exhibit beneficial biological activities, serving as both antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents. Among marine algae, Ecklonia cava, a member of the Laminariaceae, is a very popular food regarded as healthy in Korea and Japan. Recently, benefits afforded by phlorotannins in the treatment of various clinical conditions have been reported, but any therapeutic effects of such materials in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as stroke remain unclear. Also, the mechanisms of action of the algal components remain poorly understood. In the present in vivo study, administration of Ecklonia cava polyphenols (ECP) at 10 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.) significantly decreased infarct size and the extent of brain edema in the rat after induction of transient focal ischemia via middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Further, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay revealed dose-dependent blockage of neuronal apoptosis upon intravenous ECP treatment. Neurobehavioral tests performed over the 6 days after MCAO revealed a reduction in neurological motor performance in control animals, but administration of ECP (50 mg/kg i.p.) prevented this decline. In vitro, a significant neuroprotective effect of ECP was evident when cell viability was assayed after induction of H2O2-mediated oxidative stress, upon retinoic acid treatment, in the differentiated neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Interestingly, ECP blocked the rise in cytosolic calcium, in a dose-dependent manner, in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells exposed to H2O2. Together, the results suggest that ECP exerts neuroprotective effects in the focally ischemic brain by reducing Ca2+-mediated neurotoxicity.
PMCID: PMC3398172  PMID: 22822465
Ecklonia cava; Middle cerebral artery infarction; Neurodegenerative diseases; SH-SY5Y cells
2.  Sex determination using upper limb bones in Korean populations 
Anatomy & Cell Biology  2014;47(3):196-201.
The purpose of this research is to establish metric standards for the determination of sex from the upper limb bones of Korean. We took a set of eleven measurements on each of 175 right sides of adult skeletons chosen at Korean sample. Classification accuracy dropped only one or two individuals when only vertical head diameter of humerus is used. Variables in relation with maximal length were less accurate than head diameter of humerus. Two variables were selected by the stepwise procedure: maximal length of humerus, vertical head diameter of humerus. The combined accuracy was 87%. This study of modern Korean skeletons underscores the need for population-specific techniques, not only for medicolegal investigations, but also for the study of population affinities and factors affecting bone configurations.
PMCID: PMC4178195  PMID: 25276479
Sex determination; Upper limb bone; Partial measurements; Korean
3.  Pes anserinus and anserine bursa: anatomical study 
Anatomy & Cell Biology  2014;47(2):127-131.
This study investigated the boundary of anserine bursa with the recommended injection site and shape on the insertion area of pes anserinus (PA), with the aim of improving clinical practice. Eighty six legs from 45 Korean cadavers were investigated. The mixed gelatin solution was injected to identify the shape of anserine bursa, and then the insertion site of the PA tendons was exposed completely and carefully dissected to identify the shape of the PA. The sartorius was inserted into the superficial layer and gracilis, and the semitendinosus was inserted into the deep layer on the medial surface of the tibia. The number of the semitendinosus tendons at the insertion site varied: 1 in 66% of specimens, 2 in 31%, and 3 in 3%. The gracilis and semitendinosus tendons were connected to the deep fascia of leg. Overall, the shape of the anserine bursa was irregularly circular. Most of the anserine bursa specimens reached the proximal line of the tibia, and some of the specimens reached above the proximal line of the tibia. In the medial view of the tibia, the anserine bursa was located posteriorly and superiorly from the tibia's midline, and it followed the lines of the sartorius muscle. The injection site for anserine bursa should be carried out at 20┬░ from the vertical line medially and inferiorly, 15 or 20 mm deeply, and at the point of about 20 mm medial and 12 mm superior from inferomedial point of tibial tuberosity.
PMCID: PMC4076419  PMID: 24987549
Cadaver; Anserine bursa; Pes anserinus; Bursa injection

Results 1-3 (3)