Stereoscopic surface models of human organs can be manipulated in real time. This is a significant feature of an interactive simulation system used for clinical practice. Objective surface models are obtainable from the accumulation of each structure's serial outlines, followed by surface reconstruction. The segmented images including the outlines can be divided into outlined images, white-filled images, and color-filled images. The purpose of this study was to report the benefits of the three types of segmented images for surface reconstruction. For the raw data, sectioned images of a male cadaver head were used. In the sectioned images, 91 structures were delineated for the preparation of 234 serial outlined images. The outlined images were converted into white-filled and color-filled images; the reverse conversion was also possible. The outlined images, including the original sectioned images, could be the source not only of surface models but also of volume models. The white-filled images, with a minimal file size, were preferred for separate surface reconstruction of the individual structures. The color-filled images, which allowed for recognition of the entire outlined structures simultaneously, were regarded as a good choice for the construction of several surface models. For the process, we employed a variety of software packages including those for animation, where the images were compatible. This information can be used by other investigators to build their own three-dimensional models. In addition, the surface models of detailed structures in the head, accompanied by the corresponding sectioned and segmented images, will hopefully contribute to various simulations that can be useful to clinicians.
Head; Cross-sectional anatomy; Computer-assisted image processing; Three-dimensional imaging; Anatomic models
Unlike volume models, surface models, which are empty three-dimensional images, have a small file size, so they can be displayed, rotated, and modified in real time. Thus, surface models of male urogenital organs can be effectively applied to an interactive computer simulation and contribute to the clinical practice of urologists. To create high-quality surface models, the urogenital organs and other neighboring structures were outlined in 464 sectioned images of the Visible Korean male using Adobe Photoshop; the outlines were interpolated on Discreet Combustion; then an almost automatic volume reconstruction followed by surface reconstruction was performed on 3D-DOCTOR. The surface models were refined and assembled in their proper positions on Maya, and a surface model was coated with actual surface texture acquired from the volume model of the structure on specially programmed software. In total, 95 surface models were prepared, particularly complete models of the urinary and genital tracts. These surface models will be distributed to encourage other investigators to develop various kinds of medical training simulations. Increasingly automated surface reconstruction technology using commercial software will enable other researchers to produce their own surface models more effectively.
Urogenital system; Visible Human Projects; Computer-assisted image processing; Three-dimensional imaging
Palm creases are helpful in revealing anthropologic characteristics and diagnosing chromosomal aberrations, and have been analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. However, previous methods of analyzing palm creases were not objective so that reproducibility could not be guaranteed. In this study, a more objective morphologic analysis of palm creases was developed. The features of the improved methods include the strict definition of major and minor palm creases and the systematic classification of major palm creases based on their relationships, branches, and variants. Furthermore, based on the analysis of 3,216 Koreans, palm creases were anthropologically interpreted. There was a tendency for palm creases to be evenly distributed on the palm, which was acknowledged by the relationship between major and minor creases as well as by the incidences of major creases types. This tendency was consistent with the role of palm creases to facilitate folding of palm skin. The union of major palm creases was frequent in males and right palms to have powerful hand grip. The new method of analyzing palm creases is expected to be widely used for anthropologic investigation and chromosomal diagnosis.
Dermatoglyphics; analysis; physical anthropology
In the Visible Korean project, 642 three-dimensional (3D) surface models have been built from the sectioned images of a male cadaver. It was recently discovered that popular PDF file enables users to approach the numerous surface models conveniently on Adobe Reader. Purpose of this study was to present a PDF file including systematized surface models of human body as the beneficial contents. To achieve the purpose, fitting software packages were employed in accordance with the procedures. Two-dimensional (2D) surface models including the original sectioned images were embedded into the 3D surface models. The surface models were categorized into systems and then groups. The adjusted surface models were inserted to a PDF file, where relevant multimedia data were added. The finalized PDF file containing comprehensive data of a whole body could be explored in varying manners. The PDF file, downloadable freely from the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr), is expected to be used as a satisfactory self-learning tool of anatomy. Raw data of the surface models can be extracted from the PDF file and employed for various simulations for clinical practice. The technique to organize the surface models will be applied to manufacture of other PDF files containing various multimedia contents.
Models, Anatomic; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted; Imaging, Three-Dimensional; User-Computer Interface; Visible Human Projects
Authors had prepared the high-quality sectioned images of a cadaver head. For the delineation of each cerebral gyrus, three-dimensional model of the same brain was required. The purpose of this study was to develop the segmentation protocol of cerebral gyri by referring to the three-dimensional model on the personal computer. From the 114 sectioned images (intervals, 1 mm), a cerebral hemisphere was outlined. On MRIcro software, sectioned images including only the cerebral hemisphere were volume reconstructed. The volume model was rotated to capture the lateral, medial, superior, and inferior views of the cerebral hemisphere. On these four views, areas of 33 cerebral gyri were painted with colors. Derived from the painted views, the cerebral gyri in sectioned images were identified and outlined on the Photoshop to prepare segmented images. The segmented images were used for production of volume and surface models of the selected gyri. The segmentation method developed in this research is expected to be applied to other types of images, such as MRIs. Our results of the sectioned and segmented images of the cadaver brain, acquired in the present study, are hopefully utilized for medical learning tools of neuroanatomy.
Visible Human Projects; Frozen Sections; Anatomy, Cross-Sectional; Cerebrum; Neuroanatomy; Brain Mapping; Imaging, Three-Dimensional
Sectional anatomy of human brain is useful to examine the diseased brain as well as normal brain. However, intracerebral reference points for the axial, sagittal, and coronal planes of brain have not been standardized in anatomical sections or radiological images. We made 2,343 serially-sectioned images of a cadaver head with 0.1 mm intervals, 0.1 mm pixel size, and 48 bit color and obtained axial, sagittal, and coronal images based on the proposed reference system. This reference system consists of one principal reference point and two ancillary reference points. The two ancillary reference points are the anterior commissure and the posterior commissure. And the principal reference point is the midpoint of two ancillary reference points. It resides in the center of whole brain. From the principal reference point, Cartesian coordinate of x, y, z could be made to be the standard axial, sagittal, and coronal planes.
Brain; Anatomy, Cross-Sectional; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Neuronavigation
Unlike volume models, surface models, which are empty three-dimensional images, have small file size, so that they can be displayed, rotated, and modified in a real time. For the reason, the surface models of liver and neighboring structures can be effectively applied to virtual hepatic segmentectomy, virtual laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and so on. The purpose of this research is to present surface models of detailed structures inside and outside the liver, which promote medical simulation systems. Forty-seven chosen structures were liver structures such as portal triad, hepatic vein, and neighboring structures such as the stomach, duodenum, muscles, bones, and skin. The structures were outlined in the serially sectioned images from the Visible Korean Human to prepare segmented images. From the segmented images, serial outlines of each structure were stacked; on the popular commercial software, advanced surface reconstruction technique was applied to build surface model of the structure. A surface model of the liver was divided into eight models of hepatic segments according to distribution of the portal vein. The surface models will be distributed to encourage researchers to develop the various kinds of medical simulation of the abdomen.
Liver; Portal Vein; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted; Models, Anatomic; Imaging, Three-Dimensional; Visible Korean Human; Computer Simulation
The purpose of this research is to enable users to semiautomatically segment the anatomical structures in magnetic resonance images (MRIs), computerized tomographs (CTs), and other medical images on a personal computer. The segmented images are used for making 3D images, which are helpful to medical education and research. To achieve this purpose, the following trials were performed. The entire body of a volunteer was scanned to make 557 MRIs. On Adobe Photoshop, contours of 19 anatomical structures in the MRIs were semiautomatically drawn using MAGNETIC LASSO TOOL and manually corrected using either LASSO TOOL or DIRECT SELECTION TOOL to make 557 segmented images. In a similar manner, 13 anatomical structures in 8,590 anatomical images were segmented. Proper segmentation was verified by making 3D images from the segmented images. Semiautomatic segmentation using Adobe Photoshop is expected to be widely used for segmentation of anatomical structures in various medical images.
Semiautomatic segmentation; Adobe Photoshop; MRIs; CTs; anatomical images; segmented images; three-dimensional images