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1.  Detection of multi-drug resistance & characterization of mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from North- Eastern States of India using GenoType MTBDRplus assay 
Background & objectives:
Information on drug resistance tuberculosis is sparse from North-East (N-E) States of India. We undertook this study to detect multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among MDR-TB suspects, and common mutations among MDR-TB cases using GenoType MTBDRplus.
All MDR suspect patients deposited sputum samples to peripheral designated microscopy centres (DMC) in North-East States. The district TB officers (DTOs) facilitated the transport of samples collected during January 2012 to August 2012 to our laboratory. The line probe assay to detect common mutations in the rpoB gene for rifampicin (RIF) and katG and inhA genes for isoniazid (INH), respectively was performed on 339 samples or cultures.
A total of 553 sputum samples from MDR suspects were received of which, 181 (32.7%) isolates were found to be multi-drug resistant. Missing WT8 along with mutation in codon S531L was commonest pattern for rifampicin resistant isolates (65.1%) and missing WT along with mutations in codon S315T1 of katG gene was commonest pattern for isoniazid resistant isolates (86.2%). Average turn-around time for dispatch of LPA result to these States from cultures and samples was 23.4 and 5.2 days, respectively.
Interpretations & conclusions:
The MDR-TB among MDR-TB suspects in North-Eastern States of India was found to be 32.7 per cent. The common mutations obtained for RIF and INH in the region were mostly similar to those reported earlier.
PMCID: PMC4277135  PMID: 25488443
Drug-resistant; isoniazid; line probe; line probe assay; MDR-TB; rifampicin; tuberculosis
2.  Plasma Free Fatty Acid Concentrations as a Marker for Acute Myocardial Infarction 
Background: Acute myocardial infarction carries a high mortality among cardiac patients.The discovery of the fact that certain enzymes like CPK, LDH liberated into circulation following necrosis of the myocardial cells came as boon for physicians and patients. There has been a constant search of different parameters for the diagnosis and management of CoronaryArtery Diseases (CAD).
Aim: The present study was undertaken to investigate a possible relation between the changes in plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentration and acute myocardial infarction.
Material and Methods: Fifty cases (25 males and 25 females) of acute myocardial infarction were selected for the present study. All the patients were in the age group of 40-70 years. For the control group fifty (25 male and 25 female) subjects of same age group were selected from patient’s relatives and friends.
Plasma free fatty acid concentration was estimated by Titrametric method of Trout et al., (1960), a modified version of Dole (1956).
Statistical Analysis: The statistical analysis of the data of the present study was done by using SPSS, version 14.0.1 was used.
Results: Our study showed a significant increase in plasma FFA in the first 24 hours of acute myocardial infarction with subsequent normalisation on the 7th day.The difference between the first and the seventh day was statistically significant.
Conclusion: The FFA were found raised in cases of acute myocardial infarction.On the basis of present study, it is worth to say that estimation of serum free fatty acid should be done routinely at the earliest opportunity in all cases of acute myocardial infarction.
PMCID: PMC3879868  PMID: 24392364
Plasma free fatty acid; FFA; Acute myocardial infarction; Coronary artery disease; Marker
4.  Effect of maternal Tp53 gene G412C polymorphism on neural tube defects: A study from North India 
Indian Journal of Human Genetics  2012;18(2):177-182.
Tumor protein 53 (tp53) is one of the candidate gene proposed for neural tube defects, which affects central nervous system during early embryonic development, on the basis of mouse models.
The present study is an attempt to unfold the possible role of tp53 G412C polymorphism in the incidence of neural tube defect (NTDs) in humans.
Case-control study was carried out in government hospitals of Delhi, India.
Subjects comprised of 100 mothers of NTD children and 100 matched control mothers. Information on some environmental exposures was collected along with blood samples. After DNA extraction, the genotyping of tp53 G412C polymorphism was carried out by PCR-RFLP method.
Statistical Analysys:
Fisher Exact or Chi square test, binary logistic model, and odds ratio (95% confidence interval) calculations were used to evaluate effect of risk factors on NTDs using SPSS v17.0.
The ‘CC’ genotype of tp53 G412C showed protective effect towards the development of anencephaly and/or encephalocele (OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.19-1.00); however, no significant difference among overall NTD cases and controls was observed (P>0.05). Further segregation of all subjects based on 2 different communities, Hindus and Muslims, the association of ‘CC’ genotype of the polymorphism with reduced NTD risk was observed among Hindu community (OR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.13-0.79).
The study highlights the selective advantage provided by maternal ‘CC’ genotype, thereby reducing risk of cephalic NTDs, probably due to the lower apoptotic activity of the protein, however, more specifically in the presence of community-specific microenvironment.
PMCID: PMC3491290  PMID: 23162292
R72P; cephalic NTDs; Hindus; dietary habits
5.  Bipartite clavicular attachment of the sternocleidomastoid muscle: a case report 
Anatomy & Cell Biology  2012;45(1):66-69.
Morphological variations of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle assume relevance during attempted surgical interventions in the cervical region. The present study reports bipartite clavicular attachment of the SCM in the neck of an adult male cadaver during performance of a routine anatomy demonstration. The anomaly was unilaterally observed on the left side of the neck. The clavicular head of the muscle exhibited two bellies, one medial and one lateral. While the medial belly was fused with the sternal head, the lateral belly appeared to blend with the medial. Cranially, the SCM attached to the mastoid process and superior nuchal line. We have attempted to elucidate the embryological basis of the above muscular variant. Additionally, we discuss its clinical relevance, highlighting the utility of the SCM in various reconstructive procedures. We assert that detailed anatomical knowledge of such SCM variants is of utility not only to the gross anatomist, but also for neck and orthopaedic surgeons and anaesthetists. Moreover, radiologists require familiarity with such aberrations to decipher magnetic resonance imaging scans of the cervical region.
PMCID: PMC3328744  PMID: 22536555
Sternocleidomastoid; Variation; Clavicular head; Additional head
6.  Quasi-Cubic Magnetite/Silica Core-Shell Nanoparticles as Enhanced MRI Contrast Agents for Cancer Imaging 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(7):e21857.
Development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents that can be readily applied for imaging of biological tissues under clinical settings is a challenging task. This is predominantly due to the expectation of an ideal MR agent being able to be synthesized in large quantities, possessing longer shelf life, reasonable biocompatibility, tolerance against its aggregation in biological fluids, and high relaxivity, resulting in better contrast during biological imaging. Although a repertoire of reports address various aforementioned issues, the previously reported results are far from optimal, which necessitates further efforts in this area. In this study, we demonstrate facile large-scale synthesis of sub-100 nm quasi-cubic magnetite and magnetite/silica core-shell (Mag@SiO2) nanoparticles and their applicability as a biocompatible T2 contrast agent for MRI of biological tissues. Our study suggests that silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles reported in this study can potentially act as improved MR contrast agents by addressing a number of aforementioned issues, including longer shelf life and stability in biological fluids. Additionally, our in vitro and in vivo studies clearly demonstrate the importance of silica coating towards improved applicability of T2 contrast agents for cancer imaging.
PMCID: PMC3128619  PMID: 21747962
8.  Unilateral Anomalous Arterial Pattern of Human Upper Limb 
A unilateral case of variations in the brachial and antebrachial arterial branching pattern of a human upper limb is reported. A high bifurcation of brachial artery along with superficial course of ulnar artery was observed. Additionally, the profunda brachii and common interosseous artery originated from the radial artery instead of brachial and ulnar arteries respectively. An atypical branching pattern of arteries in an upper limb could pose a challenging problem to vascular surgeons while performing reconstructive procedures.
PMCID: PMC3074820  PMID: 21748065
Brachial artery; Anomalies; Case Report; India
9.  Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex genetic diversity: mining the fourth international spoligotyping database (SpolDB4) for classification, population genetics and epidemiology 
BMC Microbiology  2006;6:23.
The Direct Repeat locus of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) is a member of the CRISPR (Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) sequences family. Spoligotyping is the widely used PCR-based reverse-hybridization blotting technique that assays the genetic diversity of this locus and is useful both for clinical laboratory, molecular epidemiology, evolutionary and population genetics. It is easy, robust, cheap, and produces highly diverse portable numerical results, as the result of the combination of (1) Unique Events Polymorphism (UEP) (2) Insertion-Sequence-mediated genetic recombination. Genetic convergence, although rare, was also previously demonstrated. Three previous international spoligotype databases had partly revealed the global and local geographical structures of MTC bacilli populations, however, there was a need for the release of a new, more representative and extended, international spoligotyping database.
The fourth international spoligotyping database, SpolDB4, describes 1939 shared-types (STs) representative of a total of 39,295 strains from 122 countries, which are tentatively classified into 62 clades/lineages using a mixed expert-based and bioinformatical approach. The SpolDB4 update adds 26 new potentially phylogeographically-specific MTC genotype families. It provides a clearer picture of the current MTC genomes diversity as well as on the relationships between the genetic attributes investigated (spoligotypes) and the infra-species classification and evolutionary history of the species. Indeed, an independent Naïve-Bayes mixture-model analysis has validated main of the previous supervised SpolDB3 classification results, confirming the usefulness of both supervised and unsupervised models as an approach to understand MTC population structure. Updated results on the epidemiological status of spoligotypes, as well as genetic prevalence maps on six main lineages are also shown. Our results suggests the existence of fine geographical genetic clines within MTC populations, that could mirror the passed and present Homo sapiens sapiens demographical and mycobacterial co-evolutionary history whose structure could be further reconstructed and modelled, thereby providing a large-scale conceptual framework of the global TB Epidemiologic Network.
Our results broaden the knowledge of the global phylogeography of the MTC complex. SpolDB4 should be a very useful tool to better define the identity of a given MTC clinical isolate, and to better analyze the links between its current spreading and previous evolutionary history. The building and mining of extended MTC polymorphic genetic databases is in progress.
PMCID: PMC1468417  PMID: 16519816
10.  Predominant Tuberculosis Spoligotypes, Delhi, India 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2004;10(6):1138-1142.
One hundred five Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from the Delhi area were typed by spoligotyping; 45 patterns were identified. Comparison with an international spoligotype database showed type 26, Delhi type (22%), type 54 (12%), and type 1, Beijing type (8%), as the most common. Eighteen spoligotypes did not match any existing database pattern.
PMCID: PMC3323169  PMID: 15207071
Mycobacterium tuberculosis; spoligotyping; spoligotype; cluster; direct repeat locus; dendrogram; prevalence; spoligo database; transmission; CAS-I family; Beijing genotype

Results 1-10 (10)