Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is a common cause of infectious diarrhea, especially in children living in poor-resource countries. In this article, we present a SYBR Green-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method for quantitative detection of EAEC in DNA directly extracted from human stool samples. In order to test the proposed qPCR system, we examined specificity, sensitivity, repeatability, and also the degree of DNA extraction efficiency using EAEC strain 042 spiked into EAEC-free stool sample. The specificity of this assay was proved using 6 strains of EAEC, 7 strains of other E. coli types, and one strain of Shigella. The detection limit of qPCR was 67 CFU/reaction. In naturally infected stool samples, we found EAEC in quantities varying from 6.7 × 105 to 2 × 109 CFU/g of feces. We could not detect any reduction after stool DNA extraction for the amounts of 107 and 106 CFU/mL of spiked EAEC. This qPCR assay is simple, rapid, reproducible, sensitive, specific, and allows rapid EAEC quantification to be used in a variety of further EAEC studies. This new quantitative method provides a relatively simple means to quantifify EAEC, which will likely be key to understanding the pathophysiology and impact of EAEC infection.
qPCR; Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli; DNA stool samples; childhood diarrhea
Given the increases in drug-resistant tuberculosis, laboratory capacities for drug susceptibility testing are being scaled up worldwide. A laboratory must decide among several endorsed methodologies. We evaluated 87 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates for concordance of susceptibility results across six methods: the L-J proportion method, MGIT 960 SIRE AST, Gene/Xpert MTB/RIF, GenoType MTBDRplus line probe assay, MycoTB MIC plate, and a laboratory-developed mycobacteriophage quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based method. Most (80%) isolates were multidrug resistant. Of the culture-based methods, the mycobacteriophage qPCR method was fastest, the L-J proportion method was the slowest, and the MGIT method required the most repeat testing (P < 0.05). For isoniazid (INH), 82% of isolates were susceptible by all methods or resistant by all methods, whereas for rifampin (RIF), ethambutol (EMB), and streptomycin (STR), such complete concordance was observed in 77%, 50%, and 51% of isolates, respectively (P < 0.05 for INH or RIF versus EMB or STR). The discrepancies of EMB and STR stemmed largely from diminished concordance of the MGIT EMB results (kappa coefficient range, 0.26 to 0.30) and the L-J STR result (kappa range, 0.35 to 0.45) versus other methods. Phage qPCR and the MycoTB MIC plate were the only methods that yielded second-line susceptibilities and revealed significant quantitative correlations for all drugs except cycloserine, as well as moderate to excellent kappa coefficients for all drugs except for para-aminosalicylic acid. In summary, the performance of M. tuberculosis susceptibility testing differs by platform and by drug. Laboratories should carefully consider these factors before choosing one methodology, particularly in settings where EMB and STR results are clinically important.
Giardia intestinalis is comprised of two major genotypes, A and B, which may vary in their propensity to cause disease. We tested for the presence of these two genotypes in stool samples from patients with gastrointestinal symptoms in Nepal. A total of 1,096 clinical specimens were screened by microscopy, and 45 samples with G. intestinalis were identified. Giardia infection was confirmed in 35 of 45 samples by a Giardia specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Genotyping of the Giardia PCR product by restriction fragment length polymorphism indicated that 74% (26 of 35) were assemblage B, 20% (7 of 35) were assemblage A, and 6% (2 of 35) were mixed assemblages.
Slow responders to tuberculosis (TB) treatment in Virginia have prolonged treatment duration and consume more programmatic resources. Diabetes is an independent risk factor for slow response and low serum anti-TB drug concentrations. Thus, a statewide initiative of early therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) for isoniazid and rifampin at 2 weeks after TB treatment was piloted for all diabetics with newly diagnosed TB. During the period of early TDM, 12/01/2011–12/31/2012, 21 diabetics had C2 hr
concentrations performed and 16 (76%) had a value below the expected range for isoniazid, rifampin, or both. Fifteen had follow-up concentrations after dose adjustment and 12 (80%) increased to within the expected range (including all for rifampin). Of 16 diabetic patients with pulmonary TB that had early TDM, 14 (88%) converted their sputum culture to negative in <2 months. Early TDM for diabetics was operationally feasible, may speed response to TB therapy, and can be considered for TB programs with high diabetes prevalence.
Nitroimidazole antibiotics are the mainstay of treatment of invasive amebiasis; however, few comparative studies of applicable antibiotics are available. Evidence of sporadic clinical failure and rare reports of metronidazole resistance have led to the investigation of novel antiamebic therapeutics. The goal of this study was to examine drug efficacy in both in vitro and in vivo models of intestinal amebiasis. We studied six current and three novel drugs. Many drugs, including metronidazole, nitazoxanide, and nitazoxanide derivatives, were shown to be potently inhibitory in vitro. However, metronidazole remained the most effective in vivo, both in preventative and curative regimens, underscoring the value of animal models in evaluating future therapies.
Amebiasis in the murine model can be prevented by vaccination with the Gal/GalNAc lectin through a T cell-dependent mechanism. In this work we further decipher the mechanism of this protection. Mice vaccinated with the recombinant “LecA” fragment of the Gal/GalNAc lectin with alum were capable of transferring protection to naïve recipients by both CD4+ T cells and surprisingly CD8+ T cells. We then examined the cytokine profile of these cells. CD4+ T cells from PBMC of LecA-alum vaccinated mice were observed to be a major source of IFN-γ, known to be a protective cytokine with this vaccine. In contrast, CD8+ T cells produced relatively little IFN-γ but more IL-17 than the CD4 compartment. We thus examined the role of IL-17 in vaccine mediated protection and found through neutralization experiments that this cytokine contributed to LecA-alum vaccine protection. In addition we examined whether these cells exhibited direct amebicidal activity in vitro and found that both populations had amebicidal activity at high concentrations (1000:1) but CD8+ T cells appeared more potent, capable of cytotoxicity at a 100:1 ratio. In conclusion, both CD4 and CD8 T cells exert protection with this amebiasis vaccine. The mechanism of CD8 T cell-mediated protection may include direct amebicidal activity and/or IL-17 production. Both IL-17 and IFN- γ are useful surrogates for immune protection.
Vaccine; Entamoeba histolytica; CD8+ T cell; IL-17; Amebicidal activity
Of 235 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients who had not received tuberculosis treatment in the Irkutsk oblast and the Sakha Republic (Yakutia), eastern Siberia, 61 (26%) were multidrug resistant. A novel strain, S 256, clustered among these isolates and carried eis-related kanamycin resistance, indicating a need for locally informed diagnosis and treatment strategies.
tuberculosis; multidrug-resistant tuberculosis; MDR TB; HIV; Siberia; Russian Federation; genotype; mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit; MIRU-VNTR; pncA; pyrazinamide; tuberculosis and other mycobacteria
Lack of rapid and reliable susceptibility testing for second-line drugs used in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) may limit treatment success.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients referred to Kibong’oto National TB Hospital in Tanzania for second-line TB treatment underwent confirmatory speciation and susceptibility testing. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing on MYCOTB Sensititre plates was performed for all drugs available in the second-line formulary. We chose to categorize isolates as borderline susceptible if the MIC was at or one dilution lower than the resistance breakpoint. M. tuberculosis DNA was sequenced for resistance mutations in rpoB (rifampin), inhA (isoniazid, ethionamide), katG (isoniazid), embB (ethambutol), gyrA (fluoroquinolones), rrs (amikacin, kanamycin, capreomycin), eis (kanamycin) and pncA (pyrazinamide).
Of 22 isolates from patients referred for second-line TB treatment, 13 (59%) were MDR-TB and the remainder had other resistance patterns. MIC testing identified 3 (14%) isolates resistant to ethionamide and another 8 (36%) with borderline susceptibility. No isolate had ofloxacin resistance, but 10 (45%) were borderline susceptible. Amikacin was fully susceptible in 15 (68%) compared to only 11 (50%) for kanamycin. Resistance mutations were absent in gyrA, rrs or eis for all 13 isolates available for sequencing, but pncA mutation resultant in amino acid change or stop codon was present in 6 (46%). Ten (77%) of MDR-TB patients had at least one medication that could have logically been modified based on these results (median 2; maximum 4). The most common modifications were a change from ethioniamide to para-aminosalicylic acid, and the use of higher dose levofloxacin.
In Tanzania, quantitative second-line susceptibility testing could inform and alter MDR-TB management independent of drug-resistance mutations. Further operational studies are warranted.
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis; Minimum inhibitory concentration; Aminoglycosides; Flouroquinolones; Para-aminosalicylic acid; Ethionamide; rpoB; inhA; embB; pncA
The TaqMan Array Card (TAC) system is a 384-well singleplex real-time PCR format that has been used to detect multiple infection targets. Here we developed an enteric TaqMan Array Card to detect 19 enteropathogens, including viruses (adenovirus, astrovirus, norovirus GII, rotavirus, and sapovirus), bacteria (Campylobacter jejuni/C. coli, Clostridium difficile, Salmonella, Vibrio cholerae, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains including enteroaggregative E. coli [EAEC], enterotoxigenic E. coli [ETEC], enteropathogenic E. coli [EPEC], and Shiga-toxigenic E. coli [STEC]), Shigella/enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), protozoa (Cryptosporidium, Giardia lamblia, and Entamoeba histolytica), and helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura), as well as two extrinsic controls to monitor extraction and amplification efficiency (the bacteriophage MS2 and phocine herpesvirus). Primers and probes were newly designed or adapted from published sources and spotted onto microfluidic cards. Fecal samples were spiked with extrinsic controls, and DNA and RNA were extracted using the QiaAmp Stool DNA minikit and the QuickGene RNA Tissue kit, respectively, and then mixed with Ag-Path-ID One Step real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) reagents and loaded into cards. PCR efficiencies were between 90% and 105%, with linearities of 0.988 to 1. The limit of detection of the assays in the TAC was within a 10-fold difference from the cognate assays performed on plates. Precision testing demonstrated a coefficient of variation of below 5% within a run and 14% between runs. Accuracy was evaluated for 109 selected clinical specimens and revealed an average sensitivity and specificity of 85% and 77%, respectively, compared with conventional methods (including microscopy, culture, and immunoassay) and 98% and 96%, respectively, compared with our laboratory-developed PCR-Luminex assays. This TAC allows fast, accurate, and quantitative detection of a broad spectrum of enteropathogens and is well suited for surveillance or clinical purposes.
Nucleic acid amplification for the enteropathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia is complicated by low target template concentrations and PCR inhibitors. In this work we designed dual capture oligonucleotides for both Cryptosporidium and Giardia 18S rRNA targets which when utilized during DNA extraction from stool improved the limit of detection of our multiplex PCR assay by 1-2 logs, to as little as 10 cysts. When applied to clinical specimens, the method improved the real-time PCR CT by an average of 10.7 9.7 cycles. This work provides a highly sensitive protocol for Cryptosporidium and Giardia when limit of detection is of utmost importance.
Cryptosporidium; Giardia; PCR; fecal
Determining the microbiologic etiology of enteric infection remains an elusive goal. Conventional approaches, including culture, microscopy, and antigen-based tests have significant limitations such as limit of detection and the need for multiple procedures. Molecular diagnostics, especially PCR based tests, are rapidly changing research and practice in infectious diseases. Diarrheal disease, with its broad range of potential infectious etiologies, is well suited for multiplex molecular testing. This review highlights examples of currently employed molecular tests, as well as ways in which these tests can be applied in the future. The absence of a gold standard for the microbiologic cause of diarrhea means that the clinical significance of detected organisms may not always be clear. Conventional wisdom is that there should be one main pathogen causing diarrhea, however our thinking is challenged by increased detection of mixed infections. Thus, the successful incorporation of molecular diagnostics for diarrheal disease into practice will require both a careful understanding of the technical aspects and research to define their clinical utility.
diarrhea; molecular diagnosis; PCR; enteropathogens
Cyclospora, Cystoisospora, and Microsporidia are eukaryotic enteropathogens that are difficult to detect in stool samples because they require special stains and microscopy. We developed a multiplex PCR reaction with 4 primer sets to amplify Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cystoisospora belli, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Encephalitozoon intestinalis. Detection of the amplicon is through specific probes coupled to Luminex beads. Sensitivity of the assay was evaluated using Encephalitozoon intestinalis spores and revealed detection of 101 spores spiked into stool. No cross reactivity was observed. We evaluated the assay on diarrheal specimens from Thailand, Tanzania, Indonesia, and the Netherlands that had been previously tested by microscopy and the assay yielded 87–100% sensitivity and 88–100% specificity. Microscopy negative/PCR positive samples had lower Luminex values suggesting they were true but lower burden infections. In summary this is a convenient single PCR reaction that can detect Cyclospora, Cystoisospora, and Microsporidia without the need for cumbersome microscopic analysis.
The gut microbiota, the collection of all bacterial members in the intestinal tract, plays a key role in health. Disruption of the indigenous microbiota by a variety of stressors, including antibiotic therapy and intestinal infections, is associated with multiple health problems. We sought to determine if infection with Norovirus disrupts the gut microbiota. Barcoded pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA-encoding gene was used to characterize the stool microbiota in Norovirus-infected human patients (n = 38). While the microbiota in most infected patients (n = 31) resembled that seen in uninfected healthy controls, a minority of patients (n = 7) possessed a significantly altered microbiota characterized by reduced relative numbers of Bacteriodetes and a corresponding increase in Proteobacteria. In these patients, the increase in Proteobacteria was due to a single operational taxonomic unit (OTU) of Escherichia coli. We cultured E. coli from Norovirus-infected patients and characterized them using PCR-ribotyping and virulence factor analysis. Multiple ribotypes were encountered, but none possessed typical virulence factors commonly carried by enteropathogenic E. coli strains. Microbiota disruption and elevated Proteobacteria were not significantly correlated to patient age, gender, sampling time following illness onset, or overall gut inflammation. These results demonstrate that some patients have a disrupted microbiota following Norovirus infection, and therefore may be at elevated risk for long-term health complications.
Diarrhea can be caused by a range of pathogens, including several bacteria. Conventional diagnostic methods, such as culture, biochemical tests, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are laborious. We developed a 7-plex PCR-Luminex assay to simultaneously screen for several of the major diarrhea-causing bacteria directly in fecal specimens, including pathogenic Aeromonas, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Salmonella, Shigella, enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC), Vibrio, and Yersinia. We included an extrinsic control to verify extraction and amplification. The assay was first validated with reference strains or isolates and exhibited a limit of detection of 103 to 105 CFU/g of stool for each pathogen as well as quantitative detection up to 109 CFU/g. A total of 205 clinical fecal specimens from individuals with diarrhea, previously cultured for enteric pathogens and tested for Campylobacter by ELISA, were evaluated. Using these predicate methods as standards, sensitivities and specificities of the PCR-Luminex assay were 89% and 94% for Aeromonas, 89% and 93% for Campylobacter, 96% and 95% for Salmonella, 94% and 94% for Shigella, 92% and 97% for Vibrio, and 100% and 100% for Yersinia, respectively. All discrepant results were further examined by singleplex real-time PCR assays targeting different gene regions, which revealed 89% (55/62 results) concordance with the PCR-Luminex assay. The fluorescent signals obtained with this approach exhibited a statistically significant correlation with the cycle threshold (CT) values from the cognate real-time PCR assays (P < 0.05). This multiplex PCR-Luminex assay enables sensitive, specific, and quantitative detection of the major bacterial causes of gastroenteritis.
Low antituberculosis (TB) drug levels are common, but their clinical significance remains unclear, and methods of measurement are resource intensive. Subjects initiating treatment for sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB were enrolled from Kibong'oto National TB Hospital, Tanzania, and levels of isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide were measured at the time of typical peak plasma concentration (C2 h). To evaluate the significance of the effect of observed drug levels on Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth, a plasma TB drug activity (TDA) assay was developed using the Bactec MGIT system. Time to detection of plasma-cocultured M. tuberculosis versus time to detection of control growth was defined as a TDA ratio. TDA assays were later performed using the subject's own M. tuberculosis isolate and C2 h plasma from the Tanzanian cohort and compared to drug levels and clinical outcomes. Sixteen subjects with a mean age of 37.8 years ± 10.7 were enrolled. Fourteen (88%) had C2 h rifampin levels and 11 (69%) had isoniazid levels below 90% of the lower limit of the expected range. Plasma spiked with various concentrations of antituberculosis medications found TDA assay results to be unaffected by ethambutol or pyrazinamide. Yet with a range of isoniazid and rifampin concentrations, TDA exhibited a statistically significant correlation with drug level and drug MIC, and a TDA of ∼1.0 indicated the presence of multidrug-resistant TB. In Tanzania, low (≤2.0) TDA was significantly associated with both lower isoniazid and rifampin C2 h levels, and very low (≤1.5) TDA corresponded to a trend toward lack of cure. Study of TDA compared to additional clinical outcomes and as a therapeutic management tool is warranted.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for intestinal parasites are increasingly being used on fecal DNA samples for enhanced specificity and sensitivity of detection. Comparison of these tests against microscopy and copro-antigen detection has been favorable, and substitution of PCR-based assays for the ova and parasite stool examination is a foreseeable goal for the near future. One challenge is the diverse list of protozoan and helminth parasites. Several existing real-time PCR assays for the major intestinal parasites—Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Ancylostoma duodenale, Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, and Strongyloides stercoralis—were adapted into a high throughput protocol. The assay involves two multiplex PCR reactions, one with specific primers for the protozoa and one with specific primers for the helminths, after which PCR products are hybridized to beads linked to internal oligonucleotide probes and detected on a Luminex platform. When compared with the parent multiplex real-time PCR assays, this multiplex PCR-bead assay afforded between 83% and 100% sensitivity and specificity on a total of 319 clinical specimens. In conclusion, this multiplex PCR-bead protocol provides a sensitive diagnostic screen for a large panel of intestinal parasites.
In Tanzania sputum culture for tuberculosis (TB) is resource intensive and available only at zonal facilities. In this study overnight pooled sputum collection technique was compared with standard spot morning collection among pulmonary TB suspects at Kibong'oto National TB Hospital in Tanzania. A spot sputum specimen performed at enrollment, an overnight pooled sputum, and single morning specimen were collected from 50 subjects and analyzed for quality, quantity, and time to detection in Bactec MGIT system. Forty-six (92%) subjects' overnight pooled specimens had a volume ≥5 mls compared to 37 (37%) for the combination of spot and single morning specimens (P < 0.001). Median time to detection was 96 hours (IQR 87–131) for the overnight pooled specimens compared to 110.5 hours (IQR is 137 right 137–180) for the combination of both spot and single morning specimens (P = 0.001). In our setting of limited TB culture capacity, we recommend a single pooled sputum to maximize yield and speed time to diagnosis.
Leptin is an adipocytokine that links nutrition to immunity. Previous observation that a genetic polymorphism in the leptin receptor affected susceptibility to Entamoeba histolytica infection led to the hypothesis that leptin signaling plays a protective role during intestinal amebic infection. Here we show that mice lacking the functional leptin receptor developed devastating mucosal destruction after E. histolytica infection. Bone marrow chimera experiments demonstrated that leptin receptor expressed on hematopoietic cells was not sufficient to confer resistance. Similarly peripheral knockout of the leptin receptor rendered animals susceptible, indicating that central expression of the leptin receptor was not sufficient to confer protection. The site of leptin action was localized to the gut via an intestinal epithelium-specific deletion of the leptin receptor, which rendered mice susceptible to infection and mucosal destruction by the parasite. Mutation of tyrosine 985 or 1138 in the intracellular domain of the leptin receptor, which mediates signaling through the SHP2/ERK and STAT3 pathways respectively, demonstrated that both were important for mucosal protection. We conclude that leptin-mediated resistance to amebiasis is via its actions on intestinal epithelium rather than hematopoietic cells or the brain, and requires leptin receptor signaling through both the STAT3 and SHP2/ERK pathways.
The enteric protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica causes amebic colitis through disruption of the mucus layer, followed by binding to and destruction of epithelial cells. However, it is not known whether ameba infections or ameba components can directly affect the enteric nervous system. Analysis of mucosal innervations in the mouse model of cecal amebiasis showed that axon density was diminished to less than 25% of control. To determine whether amebas directly contributed to axon loss, we tested the effect of either E. histolytica secreted products (Eh-SEC) or soluble components (Eh-SOL) to an established coculture model of myenteric neurons, glia, and smooth muscle cells. Neuronal survival and axonal degeneration were measured after 48 h of exposure to graded doses of Eh-SEC or Eh-SOL (10 to 80 μg/ml). The addition of 80 μg of either component/ml decreased the neuron number by 30%, whereas the axon number was decreased by 50%. Cytotoxicity was specific to the neuronal population, since the glial and smooth muscle cell number remained similar to that of the control, and was completely abrogated by prior heat denaturation. Neuronal damage was partially prevented by the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64, showing that a heat-labile protease was involved. E. histolytica lysates derived from amebas deficient in the major secreted protease EhCP5 caused a neurotoxicity similar to that of wild-type amebas. We conclude that E. histolytica infection and ameba protease activity can cause selective damage to enteric neurons.
In areas where both tuberculosis (TB) and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are prevalent, descriptive studies of the clinical features of individual mycobacteria are needed to inform clinical triage.
We queried the University of Virginia Clinical Data Repository for all mycobacterial infections from 2001-2009.
Of 494 mycobacterial infections in 467 patients there were 22 species. Patients with pulmonary Tb were more likely to be reported as immigrants (p < 0.001) and less likely to have a predisposing risk factor for NTM (pre-existing lung disease or host predisposition; p = 0.002). Review of chest CT scans revealed that TB infection was more likely to exhibit cavities and pleural effusion than NTM infection (p < 0.05). Among NTM infections M. kansasii, M. xenopi, and M. fortuitum were more likely than MAC to have cavities. There were at least 83 patients that met criteria for NTM lung disease and these were caused by 9 species. M. abscessus infection was associated with cystic fibrosis and M. xenopi infection was associated with male gender.
In our center mycobacterial infections were common and of diverse species. Immigrant status, cavities, and effusion were associated with TB vs. NTM.
Entamoeba histolytica is the agent of amebic colitis. In this work we examined the intestinal NF-κB response to this parasite. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, we found that the NF-κB subunit p50 predominated in nuclear extracts of whole cecal tissue and of isolated crypts from mice inoculated with E. histolytica. p50 was protective, since C57BL/6 and 129 mice in which there was targeted deletion of this subunit were more susceptible to E. histolytica infection as measured by culture results, cecal parasite ELISA results, and/or histologic scores. The transepithelial electrical resistance of cecal explants from C57BL/6 and 129 p50 knockout mice decreased markedly in response to the parasite compared with the transepithelial electrical resistance of their wild-type counterparts, suggesting that a protective function of p50 was present in the epithelium itself. This work shows that NF-κB activity, particularly activity of the p50 subunit, is one factor that contributes to resistance of the gut to E. histolytica infection.
TOC summary: Diabetes was associated with increased risk for slow response and low rifampin levels.
Therapeutic drug monitoring may be useful in tuberculosis management, but programmatic implementation is understudied. We performed a retrospective cohort study to determine prevalence of lower than expected levels of isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide measured at time of estimated peak serum concentration. Patients were tested for serum concentration at 2 hours after medication administration. When patients were tested, 22 had concentrations lower than expected range for rifampin, 23 of 39 patients had low levels of isoniazid, and 8 of 26 patients had low levels of ethambutol; all 20 patients tested for pyrazinamide were within expected range. Over 26 months, 42 patients met criteria for slow response. Diabetes was associated with slow response (p<0.001), and persons with diabetes were more likely than persons without diabetes to have low rifampin levels (p = 0.03). Dosage adjustment of rifampin was more likely to elevate serum concentration to the target range than adjustment of isoniazid given in daily doses (p = 0.01).
Tuberculosis and other mycobacteria; bacteria; therapeutic drug monitoring; rifampin; isoniazid; diabetes; pharmacokinetics; Virginia; slow response; research
We have previously shown that vaccination with purified Entamoeba histolytica Gal/GalNAc lectin or recombinant subunits can protect mice from intestinal amebiasis upon intracecal challenge. In this study, we demonstrated with adoptive-transfer experiments that this lectin vaccine protection is mediated by T cells but not serum. The cell-mediated immune (CMI) response was characterized by significant gamma interferon (IFN-γ), interleukin 12 (IL-12), IL-2, IL-10, and IL-17 production. To move toward a human vaccine, we switched to a recombinant protein and tested a range of adjuvants and routes appropriate for humans. We found that subcutaneous delivery of LecA with IDRI's adjuvant system EM014 elicited a potent Th1-type CMI profile and provided significant protection, as measured by culture negativity (79% efficacy); intranasal immunization with cholera toxin provided 56% efficacy; and alum induced a Th2-type response that protected 62 to 68% of mice. Several antibody and CMI cytokine responses were examined for correlates of protection, and prechallenge IFN-γ+ or IFN-γ-, IL-2-, and tumor necrosis factor alpha-triple-positive CD4 cells in blood were statistically associated with protection. To test the role of IFN-γ in LecA-mediated protection, we neutralized IFN-γ in LecA-immunized mice and found that it abrogated the protection conferred by vaccination. These data demonstrate that CMI is sufficient for vaccine protection from intestinal amebiasis and reveal an important role for IFN-γ, even in the setting of alum.