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1.  Diurnal cortisol amplitude and fronto-limbic activity in response to stressful stimuli 
Psychoneuroendocrinology  2009;34(5):694-704.
Summary
The development and exacerbation of many psychiatric and neurologic conditions are associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis as measured by aberrant levels of cortisol secretion. Here we report on the relationship between the amplitude of diurnal cortisol secretion, measured across 3 typical days in 18 healthy individuals, and blood oxygen level dependant (BOLD) response in limbic fear/stress circuits, elicited by in-scanner presentation of emotionally negative stimuli, specifically, images of the World Trade Center (WTC) attack. Results indicate that subjects who secrete a greater amplitude of cortisol diurnally demonstrate less brain activation in limbic regions, including the amygdala and hippocampus/parahippocampus, and hypothalamus during exposure to traumatic WTC-related images. Such initial findings can begin to link our understanding, in humans, of the relationship between the diurnal amplitude of a hormone integral to the stress response, and those neuroanatomical regions that are implicated as both modulating and being modulated by that response.
doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2008.11.011
PMCID: PMC4250041  PMID: 19135805
Amygdala; Medial prefrontal cortex; Hippocampus; Cortisol; Neuroimaging; Stress
2.  Pharmacological inhibition of O-GlcNAcase (OGA) prevents cognitive decline and amyloid plaque formation in bigenic tau/APP mutant mice 
Background
Amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are the defining pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Increasing the quantity of the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) post-translational modification of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins slows neurodegeneration and blocks the formation of NFTs in a tauopathy mouse model. It remains unknown, however, if O-GlcNAc can influence the formation of amyloid plaques in the presence of tau pathology.
Results
We treated double transgenic TAPP mice, which express both mutant human tau and amyloid precursor protein (APP), with a highly selective orally bioavailable inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for removing O-GlcNAc (OGA) to increase O-GlcNAc in the brain. We find that increased O-GlcNAc levels block cognitive decline in the TAPP mice and this effect parallels decreased β-amyloid peptide levels and decreased levels of amyloid plaques.
Conclusions
This study indicates that increased O-GlcNAc can influence β-amyloid pathology in the presence of tau pathology. The findings provide good support for OGA as a promising therapeutic target to alter disease progression in Alzheimer disease.
doi:10.1186/1750-1326-9-42
PMCID: PMC4232697  PMID: 25344697
tau; Amyloid precursor protein; O-GlcNAc; Thiamet-G
4.  HIV Protease Inhibitor Use During Pregnancy Is Associated With Decreased Progesterone Levels, Suggesting a Potential Mechanism Contributing to Fetal Growth Restriction 
Background. Protease inhibitor (PI)–based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is administered during pregnancy to prevent perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. However, PI use has been associated with adverse birth outcomes, including preterm delivery and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births. The mechanisms underlying these outcomes are unknown. We hypothesized that PIs contribute to these adverse events by altering progesterone levels.
Methods. PI effects on trophoblast progesterone production were assessed in vitro. A mouse pregnancy model was used to assess the impact of PI-based cART on pregnancy outcomes and progesterone levels in vivo. Progesterone levels were assessed in plasma specimens from 27 HIV-infected and 17 HIV-uninfected pregnant women.
Results. PIs (ritonavir, lopinavir, and atazanavir) but not nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors reduced trophoblast progesterone production in vitro. In pregnant mice, PI-based cART but not dual-NRTI therapy was associated with significantly lower progesterone levels that directly correlated with fetal weight. Progesterone supplementation resulted in a significant improvement in fetal weight. We observed lower progesterone levels and smaller infants in HIV-infected women receiving PI-based cART, compared with the control group. In HIV-infected women, progesterone levels correlated significantly with birth weight percentile.
Conclusions. Our data suggest that PI use in pregnancy may lead to lower progesterone levels that could contribute to adverse birth outcomes.
doi:10.1093/infdis/jiu393
PMCID: PMC4264589  PMID: 25030058
progesterone; protease inhibitors; lopinavir; small for gestational age; low birth weight; HIV; pregnancy
5.  Differential activity of rostral cingulate and brainstem in Panic Disorder and PTSD 
Journal of anxiety disorders  2010;25(2):251-257.
Most functional neuroimaging studies of panic disorder (PD) have focused on the resting state, and have explored PD in relation to healthy controls rather than in relation to other anxiety disorders. Here, PD patients, Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients, and healthy control subjects were studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging utilizing an instructed fear conditioning paradigm incorporating both Threat and Safe conditions. Relative to PTSD and control subjects, PD patients demonstrated significantly less activation to the Threat condition and increased activity to the Safe condition in the subgenual cingulate, ventral striatum and extended amygdala, as well as in midbrain periaquaeductal grey, suggesting abnormal reactivity in this key region for fear expression. PTSD subjects failed to show the temporal pattern of activity decrease found in control subjects.
doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.09.010
PMCID: PMC4096628  PMID: 21075593
anxiety disorders; panic disorder; posttraumatic stress disorder; subgenual cingulate cortex; ventral striatum; extended amygdala; brainstem; neuroimaging
6.  Impact of Fitness Versus Obesity on Routinely Measured Cardiometabolic Risk in Young, Healthy Adults 
The American journal of cardiology  2013;111(7):991-995.
Obesity demonstrates a direct relation with cardiovascular risk and all-cause mortality, while cardiorespiratory fitness demonstrates an inverse relation. In clinical practice, several cardiometabolic (“CM”) risk factors are commonly measured to gauge cardiovascular risk yet the interaction between fitness and obesity with regard CM risk has not been fully explored. We studied 2,634 Brazilian adults referred for an employer-sponsored heath exam. Obesity was defined as BMI >30 kg/m2 or waist circumference > 102cm (men) or >88cm (women) when BMI 25–30kg/m2. Fitness was quantified by stage achieved on an Ellestad treadmill stress test, with those completing stage 4 considered fit. Hepatic steatosis was determined by ultrasound. We compared CM risk factors after stratifying patients into 4 groups: fit/normal weight, fit/obese, unfit/normal weight & unfit/obese. Approximately 22% of patients were obese; 12% were unfit. Fitness and obesity were moderately correlated (ρ=0.38–50). 6.5% of the sample was unfit/normal weight, and 16% fit/obese. In overweight and obese patients, fitness was negatively associated with CM risk (p<0.01 for all values). In fit patients, increasing BMI was positively associated with CM risk (p<0.01 for all values). In instances of discordance between fitness and obesity, obesity was the stronger determinant of CM risk. Fitness and obesity are independently associated with CM risk. The effects of fitness and obesity are additive but obesity is more strongly associated with CM risk when fitness and obesity are discordant. These findings underscore the need for weight loss in obese individuals and suggest an unmeasured benefit of fitness.
doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2012.12.022
PMCID: PMC3697077  PMID: 23340029
fitness; obesity; metabolic syndrome; liver fat; inflammation
8.  Increased Incidence of Tuberculosis in Zimbabwe, in Association with Food Insecurity, and Economic Collapse: An Ecological Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e83387.
Background
Zimbabwe underwent a socioeconomic crisis and resultant increase in food insecurity in 2008–9. The impact of the crisis on Tuberculosis (TB) incidence is unknown.
Methods
Prospective databases from two mission hospitals, which were geographically widely separated, and remained open during the crisis, were reviewed.
Results
At the Howard Hospital (HH) in northern Zimbabwe, TB incidence increased 35% in 2008 from baseline rates in 2003–2007 (p<0.01) and remained at that level in 2009. Murambinda Hospital (MH) in Eastern Zimbabwe also demonstrated a 29% rise in TB incidence from 2007 to 2008 (p<0.01) and remained at that level in 2009. Data collected post-crisis at HH showed a decrease of 33% in TB incidence between 2009 to 2010 (p<0.001) and 2010/2011 TB incidence remained below that of the crisis years of 2008/2009 (p<0.01). Antenatal clinic HIV seroprevalence at HH decreased between 2001(23%) to 2011(11%) (p<0.001). Seasonality of TB incidence was analyzed at both MH and HH. There was a higher TB incidence in the dry season when food is least available (September-November) compared to post harvest (April-June) (p<0.001).
Conclusion
This study suggests that an epidemic of TB mirrored socioeconomic collapse and recovery in Zimbabwe. The seasonal data suggests that food security may have been associated with TB incidence both annually and during the crisis in this high HIV prevalence country.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083387
PMCID: PMC3914787  PMID: 24505245
9.  CF102 for the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Phase I/II, Open-Label, Dose-Escalation Study 
The Oncologist  2013;18(1):25-26.
Background.
The A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) is overexpressed in the tumor and in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The orally active drug candidate CF102, an A3AR agonist, induces apoptosis of HCC cells via deregulation of the Wnt signaling pathway. In this open label phase I/II trial, the safety and clinical effects of CF102 were assessed in patients with advanced unresectable HCC.
Methods.
The primary objectives of this trial were to examine the safety and pharmacokinetic (PK) behavior of CF102 given orally (1, 5, and 25 mg BID) in 28-day cycles. Evaluation of anti-tumor effects and the utilization of A3AR as a biological predictive marker of response to CF102 were the secondary objectives.
Results.
Eighteen patients received CF102—six at each dose level. No serious drug-related adverse events or dose-limiting toxicities were observed. CF102 demonstrated good oral bioavailability and linear PK behavior. Median overall survival in the study population, 67% of whom had received prior sorafenib, was 7.8 months, and for Child Pugh B patients (28%) it was 8.1 months. Stable disease by RECIST was observed in four patients for at least 4 months. CF102 maintained liver function over a 6-month period. A correlation between receptor overexpression levels at baseline and patients' overall survival was found. One of the patients who presented with skin nodules that were biopsy-proven to be HCC metastases prior to the trial showed complete metastasis regression during three months of treatment with CF102.
Conclusions.
CF102 is safe and well-tolerated, showing favorable PK characteristics in Child Pugh A and B HCC patients, justifying further clinical development.
doi:10.1634/theoncologist.2012-0211
PMCID: PMC3556251  PMID: 23299770
10.  Relation of Uric Acid to Serum Levels of High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein, Triglycerides, and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and to Hepatic Steatosis 
The American journal of cardiology  2012;110(12):1787-1792.
Increased uric acid (UA) is strongly linked to cardiovascular disease. However, the independent role of UA is still debated because it is associated with several cardiovascular risk factors including obesity and metabolic syndrome. This study assessed the association of UA with increased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), increased ratio of triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL), sonographically detected hepatic steatosis, and their clustering in the presence and absence of obesity and metabolic syndrome. We evaluated 3,518 employed subjects without clinical cardiovascular disease from November 2008 through July 2010. Prevalence of hs-CRP ≥3 mg/L was 19%, that of TG/HDL ≥3 was 44%, and that of hepatic steatosis was 43%. In multivariable logistic regression after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors and confounders, highest versus lowest UA quartile was associated with hs-CRP ≥3 mg/L (odds ratio [OR] 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01 to 2.28, p = 0.04), TG/HDL ≥3 (OR 3.29, 95% CI 2.36 to 4.60, p <0.001), and hepatic steatosis (OR 3.10, 95% CI 2.22 to 4.32, p <0.001) independently of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Association of UA with hs-CRP ≥3 mg/L became nonsignificant in analyses stratified by obesity. Ascending UA quartiles compared to the lowest UA quartile demonstrated a graded increase in the odds of having 2 or 3 of these risk conditions and a successive decrease in the odds of having none. In conclusion, high UA levels were associated with increased TG/HDL and hepatic steatosis independently of metabolic syndrome and obesity and with increased hs-CRP independently of metabolic syndrome.
doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2012.08.012
PMCID: PMC3766845  PMID: 22975466
11.  Catch-up Alveolarization in Ex-Preterm Children. Evidence from 3He Magnetic Resonance 
Rationale: Histologic data from fatal cases suggest that extreme prematurity results in persisting alveolar damage. However, there is new evidence that human alveolarization might continue throughout childhood and could contribute to alveolar repair.
Objectives: To examine whether alveolar damage in extreme-preterm survivors persists into late childhood, we compared alveolar dimensions between schoolchildren born term and preterm, using hyperpolarized helium-3 magnetic resonance.
Methods: We recruited schoolchildren aged 10–14 years stratified by gestational age at birth (weeks) to four groups: (1) term-born (37–42 wk; n = 61); (2) mild preterm (32–36 wk; n = 21); (3) extreme preterm (<32 wk, not oxygen dependent at 4 wk; n = 19); and (4) extreme preterm with chronic lung disease (<32 wk and oxygen dependent beyond 4 wk; n = 18). We measured lung function using spirometry and plethysmography. Apparent diffusion coefficient, a surrogate for average alveolar dimensions, was measured by helium-3 magnetic resonance.
Measurements and Main Results: The two extreme preterm groups had a lower FEV1 (P = 0.017) compared with term-born and mild preterm children. Apparent diffusion coefficient was 0.092 cm2/second (95% confidence interval, 0.089–0.095) in the term group. Corresponding values were 0.096 (0.091–0.101), 0.090 (0085–0.095), and 0.089 (0.083–0.094) in the mild preterm and two extreme preterm groups, respectively, implying comparable alveolar dimensions across all groups. Results did not change after controlling for anthropometric variables and potential confounders.
Conclusions: Alveolar size at school age was similar in survivors of extreme prematurity and term-born children. Because extreme preterm birth is associated with deranged alveolar structure in infancy, the most likely explanation for our finding is catch-up alveolarization.
doi:10.1164/rccm.201210-1850OC
PMCID: PMC3734619  PMID: 23491406
alveolar structure; lung acinus; bronchopulmonary dysplasia; neonatal chronic lung disease
12.  Amyloid-β oligomers induce tau-independent disruption of BDNF axonal transport via calcineurin activation in cultured hippocampal neurons 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2013;24(16):2494-2505.
The role of tau in axonal transport disruption during early-stage Alzheimer disease is controversial. The amyloid-β oligomers markedly impair BDNF transport in primary wild-type and tau-knockout neurons. This occurs by nonexcitotoxic activation of calcineurin, and inhibition of calcineurin rescues transport defects independent of tau.
Disruption of fast axonal transport (FAT) is an early pathological event in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Soluble amyloid-β oligomers (AβOs), increasingly recognized as proximal neurotoxins in AD, impair organelle transport in cultured neurons and transgenic mouse models. AβOs also stimulate hyperphosphorylation of the axonal microtubule-associated protein, tau. However, the role of tau in FAT disruption is controversial. Here we show that AβOs reduce vesicular transport of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in hippocampal neurons from both wild-type and tau-knockout mice, indicating that tau is not required for transport disruption. FAT inhibition is not accompanied by microtubule destabilization or neuronal death. Significantly, inhibition of calcineurin (CaN), a calcium-dependent phosphatase implicated in AD pathogenesis, rescues BDNF transport. Moreover, inhibition of protein phosphatase 1 and glycogen synthase kinase 3β, downstream targets of CaN, prevents BDNF transport defects induced by AβOs. We further show that AβOs induce CaN activation through nonexcitotoxic calcium signaling. Results implicate CaN in FAT regulation and demonstrate that tau is not required for AβO-induced BDNF transport disruption.
doi:10.1091/mbc.E12-12-0858
PMCID: PMC3744947  PMID: 23783030
14.  Cognitive Outcome of Offspring from Dexamethasone-Treated Pregnancies at Risk for Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency 
European Journal of Endocrinology  2012;167(1):103-110.
Objectives
To test whether dexamethasone (DEX) treatment of pregnancies at risk for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) impairs cognitive functioning in the offspring.
Design
Observational follow-up of prenatally DEX-exposed offspring and controls.
Methods
Study 1 included 140 children age 5-12 years: 67 DEX-exposed (long-term: 8 CAH girls) and 73 unexposed (with 15 CAH girls). Study 2 included 20 participants age 11-24 years: 7 DEX-exposed (long-term: 1 CAH woman) and 13 unexposed (with 4 CAH women). Neuropsychological testing was done in hospital settings or patients' homes. Data analysis aimed at maximizing detection of effects of DEX exposure.
Results
The vast majority of group comparisons were not marginally or conventionally significant. The few significant findings on short-term prenatal DEX exposure suggested more positive than adverse outcomes. By contrast, the few significant findings in females with CAH and long-term DEX exposure indicated slower mental processing than in controls on several neuropsychological variables, although partial correlations of DEX-exposure duration with cognitive outcome did not corroborate this association.
Conclusions
Our studies do not replicate a previously reported adverse effect of short-term prenatal DEX exposure on working memory, while our findings on cognitive function in CAH girls with long-term DEX exposure contribute to concerns about potentially adverse cognitive aftereffects of such exposure. Yet, our studies are not definitive, and replications in larger samples are required.
doi:10.1530/EJE-11-0789
PMCID: PMC3383400  PMID: 22549088
15.  Treatment of Dry Eye Syndrome with Orally Administered CF101: Data from a Phase 2 Clinical Trial 
Ophthalmology  2010;117(7):1287-1293.
Objective
To explore the safety and efficacy of CF101, an A3 adenosine receptor agonist, in patients with moderate-to-severe dry eye syndrome
Design
Phase 2, multicenter, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study.
Participants
68 patients completed the study, 35 patients in the placebo group and 33 patients in the CF101 group.
Intervention
Patients were orally treated with either 1 mg CF101 pills or matching vehicle-filled placebo pills, given twice daily for 12 weeks, followed by a 2-week post-treatment observation.
Main Outcome Measures
Efficacy
an improvement of >25% over baseline at week 12 in one of the following parameters: (a) tear break-up time (BUT); (b) superficial punctate keratitis assessed by fluorescein staining (FS); (c) Schirmer tear test 1 (ST1).
Safety
clinical laboratory safety tests, ophthalmic examinations, intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements, electrocardiographic evaluations, vital sign measurements and monitoring of adverse events.
Results
A statistically significant increase in the proportion of patients who achieved more than 25% improvement in the corneal staining and in the clearance of corneal staining was noted between the CF101-treated group and the placebo group. Treatment with CF101 resulted in a statistically significant improvement in the mean change from baseline at week 12 of the corneal staining, BUT, and tear meniscus (TM) height in the CF101-treated group CF101 was well tolerated and exhibited an excellent safety profile with no serious adverse events. A statistically significant decrease from baseline was observed in the IOP of the CF101-treated group in comparison with the placebo group.
Conclusions
CF101, given orally, induced a statistically significant improvement in the corneal staining and an improvement in the BUT and TM in patients with moderate-to-severe dry eye syndrome. The drug was very well tolerated. These data and the anti-inflammatory characteristic of CF101 support further study of the drug as a potential treatment for the signs and symptoms of dry eye syndrome.
doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2009.11.029
PMCID: PMC3668568  PMID: 20304499
16.  Potential Implications of Coronary Artery Calcium Testing for Guiding Aspirin Use Among Asymptomatic Individuals With Diabetes 
Diabetes Care  2012;35(3):624-626.
OBJECTIVE
It is unclear whether coronary artery calcium (CAC) is effective for risk stratifying patients with diabetes in whom treatment decisions are uncertain.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Of 44,052 asymptomatic individuals referred for CAC testing, we studied 2,384 individuals with diabetes. Subjects were followed for a mean of 5.6 ± 2.6 years for the end point of all-cause mortality.
RESULTS
There were 162 deaths (6.8%) in the population. CAC was a strong predictor of mortality across age-groups (age <50, 50–59, ≥60), sex, and risk factor burden (0 vs. ≥1 additional risk factor). In individuals without a clear indication for aspirin per current guidelines, CAC stratified risk, identifying patients above and below the 10% risk threshold of presumed aspirin benefit.
CONCLUSIONS
CAC can help risk stratify individuals with diabetes and may aid in selection of patients who may benefit from therapies such as low-dose aspirin for primary prevention.
doi:10.2337/dc11-1773
PMCID: PMC3322717  PMID: 22228745
17.  Eastern Equine Encephalitis in Children, Massachusetts and New Hampshire,USA, 1970–2010 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2013;19(2):194-201.
A short prodrome in children is associated with more severe disease and increased risk for death.
doi:10.3201/eid1902.120039
PMCID: PMC3559032  PMID: 23343480
Encephalitis; arbovirus; Eastern equine encephalitis; Eastern equine encephalitis virus; pediatric; Massachusetts; New Hampshire; children; viruses
18.  Toward an Understanding of Changes in Diversity Associated with Fecal Microbiome Transplantation Based on 16S rRNA Gene Deep Sequencing 
mBio  2012;3(5):e00338-12.
ABSTRACT
Fecal microbiome transplantation by low-volume enema is an effective, safe, and inexpensive alternative to antibiotic therapy for patients with chronic relapsing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). We explored the microbial diversity of pre- and posttransplant stool specimens from CDI patients (n = 6) using deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. While interindividual variability in microbiota change occurs with fecal transplantation and vancomycin exposure, in this pilot study we note that clinical cure of CDI is associated with an increase in diversity and richness. Genus- and species-level analysis may reveal a cocktail of microorganisms or products thereof that will ultimately be used as a probiotic to treat CDI.
IMPORTANCE
Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) due to Clostridium difficile is a widespread phenomenon in hospitals today. Despite the use of antibiotics, up to 30% of patients are unable to clear the infection and suffer recurrent bouts of diarrheal disease. As a result, clinicians have resorted to fecal microbiome transplantation (FT). Donor stool for this type of therapy is typically obtained from a spouse or close relative and thoroughly tested for various pathogenic microorganisms prior to infusion. Anecdotal reports suggest a very high success rate of FT in patients who fail antibiotic treatment (>90%). We used deep-sequencing technology to explore the human microbial diversity in patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) disease after FT. Genus- and species-level analysis revealed a cocktail of microorganisms in the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla that may ultimately be used as a probiotic to treat CDI.
doi:10.1128/mBio.00338-12
PMCID: PMC3482503  PMID: 23093385
19.  Alveolarization Continues during Childhood and Adolescence 
Rationale: The current hypothesis that human pulmonary alveolarization is complete by 3 years is contradicted by new evidence of alveolarization throughout adolescence in mammals.
Objectives: We reexamined the current hypothesis using helium-3 (3He) magnetic resonance (MR) to assess alveolar size noninvasively between 7 and 21 years, during which lung volume nearly quadruples. If new alveolarization does not occur, alveolar size should increase to the same extent.
Methods: Lung volumes were measured by spirometry and plethysmography in 109 healthy subjects aged 7–21 years. Using 3HeMR we determined two independent measures of peripheral airspace dimensions: apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of 3He at FRC (n = 109), and average diffusion distance of helium (Xrms¯) by q-space analysis (n = 46). We compared the change in these parameters with lung growth against a model of lung expansion with no new alveolarization.
Measurements and Main Results: ADC increased by 0.19% for every 1% increment in FRC (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13–0.25), whereas the expected change in the absence of neoalveolarization is 0.41% (95% CI, 0.31–0.52). Similarly, increase of (Xrms¯) with FRC was significantly less than the predicted increase in the absence of neoalveolarization. The number of alveoli is estimated to increase 1.94-fold (95% CI, 1.64–2.30) across the age range studied.
Conclusions: Our observations are best explained by postulating that the lungs grow partly by neoalveolarization throughout childhood and adolescence. This has important implications: developing lungs have the potential to recover from early life insults and respond to emerging alveolar therapies. Conversely, drugs, diseases, or environmental exposures could adversely affect alveolarization throughout childhood.
doi:10.1164/rccm.201107-1348OC
PMCID: PMC3410735  PMID: 22071328
growth and development; lung development; alveolarization
20.  The Epidemiology of Hospitalized Postpartum Depression in New York State, 1995–2004 
Annals of epidemiology  2011;21(6):399-406.
Purpose
The purpose of this study is to describe the patterns of hospitalization for depression in the year following delivery in relation to social, demographic, and behavioral characteristics.
Methods
Data on fetal deliveries were linked to hospitalizations for depression over the subsequent year in order to describe the frequency and patterns of hospitalized postpartum depression among 2,355,886 deliveries in New York State from 1995 – 2004. We identified “definite postpartum depression” based on ICD codes indicative of “mental disorders specific to pregnancy,” and “possible postpartum depression” by ICD codes for hospitalization with any depressive disorders.
Results
In New York State, we identified 1,363 women (5.8 per 10,000) who were hospitalized with definite postpartum depression, and 6,041 women (25.6 per 10,000) with possible postpartum depression, with lower risks in the New York City area. Postpartum depression was more common in later years and among mothers who were older, Black, smokers, lacking private insurance, and with multiple gestations, and was rarer among Asians. For possible postpartum depression, socioeconomic gradients were enhanced.
Conclusions
Risk of hospitalized postpartum depression is strongly associated with socioeconomic deprivation and varies markedly by ethnicity, with direct implications for screening and health services, also providing suggestions for etiologic studies.
doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2011.03.003
PMCID: PMC3090997  PMID: 21549277
postpartum depression; pregnancy; ethnicity
21.  An anti-diabetes agent protects the mouse brain from defective insulin signaling caused by Alzheimer’s disease–associated Aβ oligomers 
The Journal of Clinical Investigation  2012;122(4):1339-1353.
Defective brain insulin signaling has been suggested to contribute to the cognitive deficits in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although a connection between AD and diabetes has been suggested, a major unknown is the mechanism(s) by which insulin resistance in the brain arises in individuals with AD. Here, we show that serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 (IRS-1pSer) is common to both diseases. Brain tissue from humans with AD had elevated levels of IRS-1pSer and activated JNK, analogous to what occurs in peripheral tissue in patients with diabetes. We found that amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) oligomers, synaptotoxins that accumulate in the brains of AD patients, activated the JNK/TNF-α pathway, induced IRS-1 phosphorylation at multiple serine residues, and inhibited physiological IRS-1pTyr in mature cultured hippocampal neurons. Impaired IRS-1 signaling was also present in the hippocampi of Tg mice with a brain condition that models AD. Importantly, intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ oligomers triggered hippocampal IRS-1pSer and JNK activation in cynomolgus monkeys. The oligomer-induced neuronal pathologies observed in vitro, including impaired axonal transport, were prevented by exposure to exendin-4 (exenatide), an anti-diabetes agent. In Tg mice, exendin-4 decreased levels of hippocampal IRS-1pSer and activated JNK and improved behavioral measures of cognition. By establishing molecular links between the dysregulated insulin signaling in AD and diabetes, our results open avenues for the investigation of new therapeutics in AD.
doi:10.1172/JCI57256
PMCID: PMC3314445  PMID: 22476196
22.  A glycine zipper motif mediates the formation of toxic β-amyloid oligomers in vitro and in vivo 
Background
The β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) contains a Gly-XXX-Gly-XXX-Gly motif in its C-terminal region that has been proposed to form a "glycine zipper" that drives the formation of toxic Aβ oligomers. We have tested this hypothesis by examining the toxicity of Aβ variants containing substitutions in this motif using a neuronal cell line, primary neurons, and a transgenic C. elegans model.
Results
We found that a Gly37Leu substitution dramatically reduced Aβ toxicity in all models tested, as measured by cell dysfunction, cell death, synaptic alteration, or tau phosphorylation. We also demonstrated in multiple models that Aβ Gly37Leu is actually anti-toxic, thereby supporting the hypothesis that interference with glycine zipper formation blocks assembly of toxic Aβ oligomers. To test this model rigorously, we engineered second site substitutions in Aβ predicted by the glycine zipper model to compensate for the Gly37Leu substitution and expressed these in C. elegans. We show that these second site substitutions restore in vivo Aβtoxicity, further supporting the glycine zipper model.
Conclusions
Our structure/function studies support the view that the glycine zipper motif present in the C-terminal portion of Aβ plays an important role in the formation of toxic Aβ oligomers. Compounds designed to interfere specifically with formation of the glycine zipper could have therapeutic potential.
doi:10.1186/1750-1326-6-61
PMCID: PMC3178497  PMID: 21861874
Alzheimer's disease; C. elegans; pore-forming toxin; glycine motif
23.  Live Imaging of Dense-core Vesicles in Primary Cultured Hippocampal Neurons 
Observing and characterizing dynamic cellular processes can yield important information about cellular activity that cannot be gained from static images. Vital fluorescent probes, particularly green fluorescent protein (GFP) have revolutionized cell biology stemming from the ability to label specific intracellular compartments and cellular structures. For example, the live imaging of GFP (and its spectral variants) chimeras have allowed for a dynamic analysis of the cytoskeleton, organelle transport, and membrane dynamics in a multitude of organisms and cell types [1-3]. Although live imaging has become prevalent, this approach still poses many technical challenges, particularly in primary cultured neurons. One challenge is the expression of GFP-tagged proteins in post-mitotic neurons; the other is the ability to capture fluorescent images while minimizing phototoxicity, photobleaching, and maintaining general cell health. Here we provide a protocol that describes a lipid-based transfection method that yields a relatively low transfection rate (~0.5%), however is ideal for the imaging of fully polarized neurons. A low transfection rate is essential so that single axons and dendrites can be characterized as to their orientation to the cell body to confirm directionality of transport, i.e., anterograde v. retrograde. Our approach to imaging GFP expressing neurons relies on a standard wide-field fluorescent microscope outfitted with a CCD camera, image capture software, and a heated imaging chamber. We have imaged a wide variety of organelles or structures, for example, dense-core vesicles, mitochondria, growth cones, and actin without any special optics or excitation requirements other than a fluorescent light source. Additionally, spectrally-distinct, fluorescently labeled proteins, e.g., GFP and dsRed-tagged proteins, can be visualized near simultaneously to characterize co-transport or other coordinated cellular events. The imaging approach described here is flexible for a variety of imaging applications and can be adopted by a laboratory for relatively little cost provided a microscope is available.
doi:10.3791/1144
PMCID: PMC2762918  PMID: 19488029
24.  Clinical importance of delayed MRI contrast enhancement of primary central nervous system lymphoma in AIDS 
BMJ Case Reports  2009;2009:bcr10.2008.1043.
Accurately distinguishing between cerebral toxoplasmosis and primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), still the most common secondary CNS mass lesion complications of AIDS, has long represented a diagnostic challenge in those with HIV. A young adult male with AIDS presented with evolving ophthalmoplegias, Parinaud’s syndrome and gait dysfunction. MRI with gadolinium contrast revealed a brainstem lesion failing to enhance on initially obtained post-contrast images yet prominently enhancing on images acquired endmost within the same scanning session. Biopsy ultimately confirmed lesion aetiology as PCNSL. While the definitive diagnosis of PCNSL generally requires brain biopsy, different MRI contrast-enhancement time courses of PCNSL versus toxoplasmosis (PCNSL tends to peak-enhance sooner than toxoplasmosis) can provide differential diagnostic insight. These images underscore the delayed nature of PCNSL contrast enhancement and demonstrate the diagnostic importance of attending to post-gadolinium image acquisition timing to help inform utilisation of MRI for PCNSL identification.
doi:10.1136/bcr.10.2008.1043
PMCID: PMC3027744  PMID: 21686485
25.  A parent‐completed respiratory questionnaire for 1‐year‐old children: repeatability 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2007;92(10):861-865.
Background and aims
There are few standardised questionnaires for the assessment of respiratory symptoms in preschool children. We have developed and tested the short‐term repeatability of a postal questionnaire on respiratory symptoms for 1‐year‐old children.
Methods
A newly developed postal questionnaire for the assessment of wheeze and other respiratory symptoms was sent to parents of a population‐based random sample of 4300 children aged 12–24 months. After an interval of 3 months, a random sample of 800 respondents received the questionnaire a second time. The responses were compared using Cohen's kappa (κ) to assess agreement corrected for chance.
Results
The first questionnaire was returned by 3194 (74%) families, the second one by 460/800 (58%). Repeatability was excellent (κ 0.80–0.96) for questions on household characteristics, environmental exposures and family history, good (κ 0.61–0.80) for questions on prevalence, severity and treatment of wheeze, and moderate (κ 0.39–0.66) for chronic cough and upper respiratory symptoms.
Conclusions
This short postal questionnaire designed for use in population‐based studies has excellent repeatability for family and household characteristics and good repeatability for questions on wheeze. Short‐term changes in symptom status might be responsible for variable answers on recent chronic cough and upper respiratory symptoms. Overall, the questionnaire is a valuable instrument for community‐based research on respiratory symptoms in 1 to 2‐year‐old children.
doi:10.1136/adc.2007.117978
PMCID: PMC2083231  PMID: 17502330
preschool; asthma; kappa; repeatability; questionnaire

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