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1.  Galactose-α-1,3-Galactose–Specific IgE Is Associated with Anaphylaxis but Not Asthma 
Rationale: IgE antibodies to the mammalian oligosaccharide galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal) are common in the southeastern United States. These antibodies, which are induced by ectoparasitic ticks, can give rise to positive skin tests or serum assays with cat extract.
Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between IgE antibodies to α-gal and asthma, and compare this with the relationship between asthma and IgE antibodies to Fel d 1 and other protein allergens.
Methods: Patients being investigated for recurrent anaphylaxis, angioedema, or acute urticaria underwent spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, questionnaires, and serum IgE antibody assays. The results were compared with control subjects and cohorts from the emergency department in Virginia (n = 130), northern Sweden (n = 963), and rural Kenya (n = 131).
Measurements and Main Results: Patients in Virginia with high-titer IgE antibodies to α-gal had normal lung function, low levels of exhaled nitric oxide, and low prevalence of asthma symptoms. Among patients in the emergency department and children in Kenya, there was no association between IgE antibodies to α-gal and asthma (odds ratios, 1.04 and 0.75, respectively). In Sweden, IgE antibodies to cat were closely correlated with IgE antibodies to Fel d 1 (r = 0.83) and to asthma (P < 0.001).
Conclusions: These results provide a model of an ectoparasite-induced specific IgE response that can increase total serum IgE without creating a risk for asthma, and further evidence that the main allergens that are causally related to asthma are those that are inhaled.
PMCID: PMC3326422  PMID: 22281828
α-gal; red meat allergy; ticks; total serum IgE; ectoparasite
2.  Sinus computed tomography scan and markers of inflammation in vocal cord dysfunction and asthma 
The inappropriate closure of the vocal cords is characteristic of vocal cord dysfunction (VCD). These patients present with wheezing and frequently receive a misdiagnosis of asthma.
To demonstrate the ability of computed tomography (CT) scored for the presence and extent of sinus disease and markers of inflammation to distinguish patients with VCD from patients with asthma.
Comparisons of 13 patients with VCD were made to 77 patients presenting to the emergency room with acute asthma, 31 non-acute asthmatic patients, and 65 nonasthmatic controls. Evaluation consisted of exhaled nitric oxide gas (eNO), circulating eosinophils, and total serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E, as well as the sinus CT scan.
Extensive sinus CT changes were present in 23 of 74 acute asthmatic patients, 5 of 29 non-acute asthmatic patients, and 2 of 59 nonasthmatic controls. In addition, absolute eosinophil counts, eNO, and total IgE were significantly elevated among the asthmatic patients. Sinus symptoms reported by questionnaire did not predict sinus CT findings. Among the patients with VCD, none had extensive sinus disease. They also had normal eNO, low IgE, and normal eosinophil count. Five of the patients presenting to the emergency room who were identified as acute asthmatic were identified with VCD by laryngoscopy and were all characterized by the absence of significant inflammation on their sinus CT scan, low IgE, and normal eosinophil count.
Among patients presenting with intermittent or reversible airway obstruction, patients with VCD can be distinguished from asthma by minimum or absence of inflammation in their sinuses as shown by CT scan. Clinical symptom scores are not predictive of presence or extent of sinus disease in most cases.
PMCID: PMC1283080  PMID: 12669895

Results 1-2 (2)