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1.  Inhibition of neutrophil elastase attenuates airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation in a mouse model of secondary allergen challenge: neutrophil elastase inhibition attenuates allergic airway responses 
Respiratory Research  2013;14(1):8.
Background
Chronic asthma is often associated with neutrophilic infiltration in the airways. Neutrophils contain elastase, a potent secretagogue in the airways, nonetheless the role for neutrophil elastase as well as neutrophilic inflammation in allergen-induced airway responses is not well defined. In this study, we have investigated the impact of neutrophil elastase inhibition on the development of allergic airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in previously sensitized and challenged mice.
Methods
BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged (primary) with ovalbumin (OVA). Six weeks later, a single OVA aerosol (secondary challenge) was delivered and airway inflammation and airway responses were monitored 6 and 48 hrs later. An inhibitor of neutrophil elastase was administered prior to secondary challenge.
Results
Mice developed a two-phase airway inflammatory response after secondary allergen challenge, one neutrophilic at 6 hr and the other eosinophilic, at 48 hr. PAR-2 expression in the lung tissues was enhanced following secondary challenge, and that PAR-2 intracellular expression on peribronchial lymph node (PBLN) T cells was also increased following allergen challenge of sensitized mice. Inhibition of neutrophil elastase significantly attenuated AHR, goblet cell metaplasia, and inflammatory cell accumulation in the airways following secondary OVA challenge. Levels of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13, and eotaxin in BAL fluid 6 hr after secondary allergen challenge were significantly suppressed by the treatment. At 48 hr, treatment with the neutrophil elastase inhibitor significantly reduced the levels of IL-13 and TGF-β1 in the BAL fluid. In parallel, in vitro IL-13 production was significantly inhibited in spleen cells from sensitized mice.
Conclusion
These data indicate that neutrophil elastase plays an important role in the development of allergic airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness, and would suggest that the neutrophil elastase inhibitor reduced AHR to inhaled methacholine indicating the potential for its use as a modulator of the immune/inflammatory response in both the neutrophil- and eosinophil-dominant phases of the response to secondary allergen challenge.
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-14-8
PMCID: PMC3570429  PMID: 23347423
Neutrophil; Elastase; Airway; Hyperresponsiveness; Asthma
2.  IL-17A is essential to the development of elastase-induced pulmonary inflammation and emphysema in mice 
Respiratory Research  2013;14(1):5.
Background
Pulmonary emphysema is characterized by alveolar destruction and persistent inflammation of the airways. Although IL-17A contributes to many chronic inflammatory diseases, it’s role in the inflammatory response of elastase-induced emphysema remains unclear.
Methods
In a model of elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema we examined the response of IL-17A-deficient mice, monitoring airway inflammation, static compliance, lung histology and levels of neutrophil-related chemokine and pro-inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid.
Results
Wild-type mice developed emphysematous changes in the lung tissue on day 21 after elastase treatment, whereas emphysematous changes were decreased in IL-17A-deficient mice compared to wild-type mice. Neutrophilia in BAL fluid, seen in elastase-treated wild-type mice, was reduced in elastase-treated IL-17A-deficient mice on day 4, associated with decreased levels of KC, MIP-2 and IL-1 beta. Elastase-treated wild-type mice showed increased IL-17A levels as well as increased numbers of IL-17A+ CD4 T cells in the lung in the initial period following elastase treatment.
Conclusions
These data identify the important contribution of IL-17A in the development of elastase-induced pulmonary inflammation and emphysema. Targeting IL-17A in emphysema may be a potential therapeutic strategy for delaying disease progression.
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-14-5
PMCID: PMC3564829  PMID: 23331548
IL-17; Elastase; Emphysema; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
3.  Requirement for Chemokine Receptor 5 in the Development of Allergen-Induced Airway Hyperresponsiveness and Inflammation 
Chemokine receptor (CCR) 5 is expressed on dendritic cells, macrophages, CD8 cells, memory CD4 T cells, and stromal cells, and is frequently used as a marker of T helper type 1 cells. Interventions that abrogate CCR5 or interfere with its ligand binding have been shown to alter T helper type 2–induced inflammatory responses. The role of CCR5 on allergic airway responses is not defined. CCR5-deficient (CCR5−/−) and wild-type (CCR5+/+) mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) and allergic airway responses were monitored 48 hours after the last OVA challenge. Cytokine levels in lung cell culture supernatants were also assessed. CCR5−/− mice showed significantly lower airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and lower numbers of total cells, eosinophils, and lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid compared with CCR5+/+ mice after sensitization and challenge. The levels of IL-4 and IL-13 in BAL fluid of CCR5−/− mice were lower than in CCR5+/+ mice. Decreased numbers of lung T cells were also detected in CCR5−/− mice after sensitization and challenge. Transfer of OVA-sensitized T cells from CCR5+/+, but not transfer of CCR5−/− cells, into CCR5−/− mice restored AHR and numbers of eosinophils in BAL fluid after OVA challenge. Accordingly, the numbers of airway-infiltrating donor T cells were significantly higher in the recipients of CCR5+/+ T cells. Taken together, these data suggest that CCR5 plays a pivotal role in allergen-induced AHR and airway inflammation, and that CCR5 expression on T cells is essential to the accumulation of these cells in the airways.
doi:10.1165/rcmb.2010-0465OC
PMCID: PMC3262662  PMID: 21757680
rodent; T cells; cytokines; chemokines; lung
4.  Blocking the Leukotriene B4 Receptor 1 Inhibits Late-Phase Airway Responses in Established Disease 
Most of the studies investigating the effectiveness of blocking the leukotriene B4 (LTB4) receptor 1 (BLT1) have been performed in models of primary or acute allergen challenge. The role of the LTB4-BLT1 pathway in secondary challenge models, where airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and airway inflammation have been established, has not been defined. We investigated the effects of blocking BLT1 on early- and late-phase development of AHR and airway inflammation in previously sensitized and challenged mice. Female BALB/c mice were sensitized (Days 1 and 14) and challenged (primary, Days 28–30) with ovalbumin. On Day 72, mice were challenged (secondary) with a single OVA aerosol, and the early and late phases of AHR and inflammation were determined. Specific blockade of BLT1 was attained by oral administration of a BLT1 antagonist on Days 70 through 72. Administration of the antagonist inhibited the secondary ovalbumin challenge–induced alterations in airway responses during the late phase but not during the early phase, as demonstrated by decreases in AHR and in bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophilia and eosinophilia 6 and 48 hours after secondary challenge. The latter was associated with decreased levels of KC protein, macrophage inflammatory protein 2, and IL-17 in the airways. These data identify the importance of the LTB4-BLT1 pathway in the development of late–phase, allergen-induced airway responsiveness after secondary airway challenge in mice with established airway disease.
doi:10.1165/rcmb.2010-0455OC
PMCID: PMC3208610  PMID: 21421908
LAR; EAR; established asthma; BLT1 antagonist
5.  Differential Effects of Dendritic Cell Transfer on Airway Hyperresponsiveness and Inflammation 
Dendritic cells (DCs) are considered to be the most efficient antigen-presenting cells. Intratracheal administration of allergen-pulsed bone marrow–derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) before allergen challenge induces airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammation. Ovalbumin (OVA)-pulsed BMDCs from wild-type (WT) mice were transferred into naive WT, CD4−/−, CD8−/−, or IL-13−/− mice. Two days (short protocol) or 10 days (long protocol) after BMDC transfer, mice were challenged with 1% OVA for 3 days and assayed 2 days later. Transfer of OVA-primed BMDCs into BALB/c or C57BL/6 mice elicited AHR in both protocols. Airway eosinophilia, Th2 cytokines, or goblet cell metaplasia were increased in the long but not short protocol. Lung T cells from both protocols produced Th2 cytokines in response to OVA in vitro. Carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidylester–labeled BMDCs were observed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung parenchyma at early time points, and were detected in draining lymph nodes 48 hours after transfer. CD8−/− mice developed AHR comparable to WT mice in the short protocol, but decreased levels of AHR, airway eosinophilia, Th2 cytokines in BAL fluid, and goblet cell metaplasia compared with WT mice in the long protocol. CD4−/− or IL-13−/− mice did not develop AHR or airway inflammation in either protocol. These data suggest that allergen-pulsed BMDCs initiate development of AHR that is dependent initially on CD4+ T cells, and at later time periods on CD8+ T cells and IL-13. Thus, the timing of allergen challenge after transfer of allergen-pulsed BMDC affects the development of AHR and airway inflammation.
doi:10.1165/rcmb.2008-0256OC
PMCID: PMC2742748  PMID: 19151321
dendritic cells; CD8+ T cells; airway hyperresponsiveness
6.  Leukotriene B4 Release from Mast Cells in IgE-Mediated Airway Hyperresponsiveness and Inflammation 
Previous studies have shown that leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a proinflammatory lipid mediator, is linked to the development of airway hyperresponsiveness through the accumulation of IL-13–producing CD8+ T cells, which express a high affinity receptor for LTB4, BLT1 (Miyahara et al., Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2005;172:161–167; J Immunol 2005;174:4979–4984). By using leukotriene A4 hydrolase–deficient (LTA4H−/−) mice, which fail to synthesize LTB4, we determined the role of this lipid mediator in allergen-induced airway responses. Two approaches were used. In the first, LTA4H−/− mice and wild-type (LTA4H+/+) mice were systemically sensitized and challenged via the airways to ovalbumin. In the second, mice were passively sensitized with anti-ovalbumin IgE and exposed to ovalbumin via the airways. Mast cells were generated from bone marrow of LTA4H+/+ mice or LTA4H−/− mice. After active sensitization and challenge, LTA4H−/− mice showed significantly lower airway hyperresponsiveness compared with LTA4H+/+ mice, and eosinophil numbers and IL-13 levels in the bronchoalveoloar lavage of LTA4H−/− mice were also significantly lower. LTA4H−/− mice also showed decreased airway reactivity after passive sensitization and challenge. After LTA4H+/+ mast cell transfer, LTA4H−/− mice showed increased airway reactivity after passive sensitization and challenge, but not after systemic sensitization and challenge. These data confirm the important role for LTB4 in the development of altered airway responses and suggest that LTB4 secretion from mast cells is critical to eliciting increased airway reactivity after passive sensitization with allergen-specific IgE.
doi:10.1165/rcmb.2008-0095OC
PMCID: PMC2689918  PMID: 19029019
rodent; T cells; cytokines; lipid mediators; lung
7.  AHR-Enhancing γδ T Cells Develop in Normal Untreated Mice and Fail to Produce IL-4/13, Unlike TH2 Cells and NKT Cells1 
Allergic airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in OVA-sensitized and challenged mice, mediated by allergen-specific Th2 cells and Th2-like iNKT cells, develops under the influence of enhancing and inhibitory γδ T cells. The AHR-enhancing cells belong to the Vγ1+ γδ T cell subset, cells that are capable of increasing IL-5 and IL-13 levels in the airways in a manner like Th2 cells. They also synergize with iNKT cells in mediating AHR. However, unlike Th2 cells, the AHR-enhancers arise in untreated mice, and we show here that they exhibit their functional bias already as thymocytes, at an HSAhi maturational stage. In further contrast to Th2 cells and also unlike iNKT cells, they could not be stimulated to produce IL-4 and IL-13, consistent with their synergistic dependence on iNKT cells in mediating AHR. Mice deficient in IFN-γ, TNFRp75 or IL-4 did not produce these AHR-enhancing γδ T cells, but in the absence of IFN-γ, their spontaneous development was restored by adoptive transfer of IFN-γ competent dendritic cells from untreated donors. Intra-peritoneal injection of OVA/alum restored development of the AHR-enhancers in all of the mutant strains, indicating that the enhancers still can be induced when they fail to develop spontaneously, and that they themselves need not express TNFRp75, IFN-γ or IL-4 in order to exert their function. We conclude that both the development and the cytokine potential of the AHR-enhancing γδ T cells differs critically from that of Th2 cells and NKT cells, despite similar influences of these cell populations on AHR.
doi:10.4049/jimmunol.0803280
PMCID: PMC2688721  PMID: 19201853
T cells; Allergy; Lung; Spleen and Lymph Nodes; Transgenic/Knockout Mice
8.  Evidence that CD8+ Dendritic Cells Enable the Development of γδ T Cells that Modulate Airway Hyperresponsiveness2 
Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), a hallmark of asthma and several other diseases, can be modulated by γδ T cells. In mice sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin, AHR depends on allergen-specific αβ T cells, but Vγδ1+ γδ T cells spontaneously enhance AHR, whereas Vγ4+ γδ T cells after being induced by airway challenge suppress AHR. The activity of these γδ T cell modulators is allergen-nonspecific, and how they develop is unclear. We now show that CD8 is essential for the development of both the AHR-suppressor and enhancer γδ T cells although neither type needs to express CD8 itself. Both cell types encounter CD8-expressing non-T cells in the spleen, and their functional development in an otherwise CD8-negative environment can be restored with transferred spleen cell preparations containing CD8+ DC, but not CD8+ T cells or CD8− DC. Our findings suggest that CD8+ DC in the lymphoid tissues enable an early step in the development of γδ T cells, through direct cell-contact. DC-expressed CD8 might take part in this interaction.
PMCID: PMC2493442  PMID: 18566396
Rodent; dendritic cells; T cells; cell differentiation; spleen and lymph nodes
9.  Estrogen Determines Sex Differences in Airway Responsiveness after Allergen Exposure 
The female hormone estrogen is an important factor in the regulation of airway function and inflammation, and sex differences in the prevalence of asthma are well described. Using an animal model, we determined how sex differences may underlie the development of altered airway function in response to allergen exposure. We compared sex differences in the development of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) after allergen exposure exclusively via the airways. Ovalbumin (OVA) was administered by nebulization on 10 consecutive days in BALB/c mice. After methacholine challenge, significant AHR developed in male mice but not in female mice. Ovariectomized female mice showed significant AHR after 10-day OVA inhalation. ICI182,780, an estrogen antagonist, similarly enhanced airway responsiveness even when administered 1 hour before assay. In contrast, 17β-estradiol dose-dependently suppressed AHR in male mice. In all cases, airway responsiveness was inhibited by the administration of a neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist. These results demonstrate that sex differences in 10-day OVA-induced AHR are due to endogenous estrogen, which negatively regulates airway responsiveness in female mice. Cumulatively, the results suggest that endogenous estrogen may regulate the neurokinin 1–dependent prejunctional activation of airway smooth muscle in allergen-exposed mice.
doi:10.1165/rcmb.2007-0298OC
PMCID: PMC2335333  PMID: 18063836
estrogen; sex; airway hyperresponsiveness; EFS; neuronal activation
10.  IFN-γ Production during Initial Infection Determines the Outcome of Reinfection with Respiratory Syncytial Virus 
Rationale: Severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis has been associated with deficient IFN-γ production in humans, but the role of this cytokine in determining the outcome of reinfection is unknown.
Objectives: To define the role of IFN-γ in the development of RSV-mediated airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and lung histopathology in mice.
Methods: Wild-type (WT) and IFN-γ knockout mice were infected with RSV in the newborn or weaning stages and reinfected 5 weeks later. Airway responses were assessed on Day 6 after the primary or secondary infection.
Measurements and Main Results: Both WT and IFN-γ knockout mice developed similar levels of AHR and airway inflammation after primary infection. After reinfection, IFN-γ knockout mice, but not WT mice, developed AHR, airway eosinophilia, and mucus hyperproduction. Intranasal administration of IFN-γ during primary infection but not during reinfection prevented the development of these altered airway responses on reinfection in IFN-γ knockout mice. Adoptive transfer of WT T cells into IFN-γ knockout mice before primary infection restored IFN-γ production in the lungs and prevented the development of altered airway responses on reinfection. Treatment of mice with IFN-γ during primary neonatal infection prevented the enhancement of AHR and the development of airway eosinophilia and mucus hyperproduction on reinfection.
Conclusions: IFN-γ production during primary RSV infection is critical to the development of protection against AHR and lung histopathology on reinfection. Provision of IFN-γ during primary infection in infancy may be a potential therapeutic approach to alter the course of RSV-mediated long-term sequelae.
doi:10.1164/rccm.200612-1890OC
PMCID: PMC2204078  PMID: 17962634
respiratory syncytial virus; interferon-γ; asthma; airway hyperresponsiveness; mice
11.  Arhgef1 Is Required by T Cells for the Development of Airway Hyperreactivity and Inflammation 
Rationale: Arhgef1 is an intracellular protein, expressed by hematopoietic cells, that regulates signaling by both G protein–coupled receptors and RhoA, and, consequently, is required for appropriate migration and adhesion of diverse leukocyte populations.
Objectives: To evaluate a possible contribution for Arhgef1 in the development of airway inflammation and airway hyperreactivity.
Methods: Arhgef1-deficient (Arhgef1−/−) and wild-type (WT) mice were sensitized and airway challenged, followed by measurement of airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine. Inflammation was assessed by several parameters that included flow cytometric analysis and histology. Arhgef1-deficient recipients were reconstituted with WT T lymphocytes before sensitization and challenge, and again measured for airway responsiveness and inflammation. Cytokine production in response to specific antigen was measured in cultures of isolated leukocytes from lung and spleen and compared with the levels generated in lung and spleen explant cultures.
Measurements and Main Results: Arhgef1−/− mice display significantly reduced airway hyperreactivity, Th2 cytokine production, and lung inflammation, despite intact systemic immunity. After airway challenge of Arhgef1−/− mice, antigen-specific T cells were present in mutant lungs, but were found to interact with CD11c+ cells at a significantly reduced frequency. Adoptive transfer of WT T cells into Arhgef1−/− mice restored airway hyperreactivity and inflammation.
Conclusions: These data demonstrate that T cells depend on Arhgef1 to promote lung inflammation. Moreover, a deficiency in Arhgef1 results in reduced T cell–CD11c+ antigen-presenting cell interaction, and likely underscores the inability of Arhgef1−/− mice to mount an adaptive immune response to airway challenge.
doi:10.1164/rccm.200702-270OC
PMCID: PMC2049063  PMID: 17463415
airway hyperreactivity; cytokines; lung inflammation; T cells
12.  IL-2 and IL-18 Attenuation of Airway Hyperresponsiveness Requires STAT4, IFN-γ, and Natural Killer Cells 
IL-18 is known to induce IFN-γ production, which is enhanced when combined with IL-2. In the present study, we investigated whether the combination of exogenous IL-2 and IL-18 alters airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and airway inflammation. Sensitized mice exposed to ovalbumin (OVA) challenge developed AHR, inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and increases in levels of Th2 cytokines and goblet cell numbers. The combination of IL-2 and IL-18, but neither alone, prevented these changes while increasing levels of IL-12 and IFN-γ. The combination of IL-2 and IL-18 was ineffective in IFN-γ–deficient and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)4-deficient mice. Flow cytometry analysis showed significant increases in numbers of IFN-γ–positive natural killer (NK) cells in the lung after treatment with the combination therapy, and transfer of lung NK cells isolated from sensitized and challenged mice treated with the combination significantly suppressed AHR and BAL eosinophilia. These data demonstrate that the combination of IL-2 and IL-18 prevents AHR and airway inflammation, likely through IL-12–mediated induction of IFN-γ production in NK cells.
doi:10.1165/rcmb.2006-0231OC
PMCID: PMC1899318  PMID: 17038663
IL-2; IL-18; STAT4; IFN-γ; airway hyperresponsiveness
13.  RANTES (CCL5) Regulates Airway Responsiveness after Repeated Allergen Challenge 
RANTES (CC chemokine ligand 5) contributes to airway inflammation through accumulation of eosinophils, but the exact role of RANTES (CCL5) is not defined. C57BL/6 mice, sensitized by injection of ovalbumin (OVA) on Days 1 and 14, were challenged with OVA on Days 28, 29, and 30 (3 challenges, short-term–challenge model) or on Days 28, 29, 30, 36, 40, 44, and 48 (7 challenges, repeated–challenge model) and evaluated 48 h later. Anti-mouse RANTES was given intravenously, and recombinant mouse RANTES or PBS was given intratracheally. These reagents were given on Days 28, 29, and 30 in the short-term–challenge study and on Days 44 and 48 in the repeated-challenge study. After short-term challenge, there were no effects after administration of anti-RANTES or RANTES. In the repeated-challenge study, although control mice showed a decrease in airway hyperresponsiveness, administration of anti-RANTES sustained and enhanced airway hyperresponsiveness and increased goblet cell numbers. In contrast, administration of RANTES normalized airway function but reduced goblet cell numbers. IL-12 and IFN-γ levels in BAL decreased in the anti-RANTES group and increased in the RANTES group. IFN-γ–producing CD4 T cells in lung, and IFN-γ production from lung T cells in response to OVA in the anti-RANTES group, were significantly decreased but were increased in the RANTES group. Anti–IFN-γ, administered with RANTES, decreased the effects of RANTES on AHR after repeated challenge. These data indicate that RANTES plays a role in the regulation of airway function after repeated allergen challenge, in part through modulation of levels of IFN-γ and IL-12.
doi:10.1165/rcmb.2005-0394OC
PMCID: PMC2643254  PMID: 16528011
airway hyperresponsiveness; IFN-γ; IL-12; RANTES (CCL5)
14.  Syk Activation in Dendritic Cells Is Essential for Airway Hyperresponsiveness and Inflammation 
We evaluated the role of Syk, using an inhibitor, on allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and airway inflammation in a system shown to be B cell– and mast cell–independent. Sensitization of BALB/c mice with ovalbumin (OVA) and alum after three consecutive OVA challenges resulted in AHR to inhaled methacholine and airway inflammation. The Syk inhibitor R406 (30 mg/kg, administered orally, twice daily) prevented the development of AHR, increases in eosinophils and lymphocytes and IL-13 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and goblet cell metaplasia when administered after sensitization and before challenge with OVA. Levels of IL-4, IL-5, and IFN-γ in BAL fluid and allergen-specific antibody levels in serum were not affected by treatment. Because many of these responses may be influenced by dendritic cell function, we investigated the effect of R406 on bone marrow–derived dendritic cell (BMDC) function. Co-culture of BMDC with immune complexes of OVA and IgG anti-OVA together with OVA-sensitized spleen mononuclear cells resulted in increases in IL-13 production. IL-13 production was inhibited if the BMDCs were pretreated with the Syk inhibitor. Intratracheal transfer of immune complex-pulsed BMDCs (but not nonpulsed BMDCs) to naive mice before airway allergen challenge induced the development of AHR and increases in BAL eosinophils and lymphocytes. All of these responses were inhibited if the transferred BMDCs were pretreated with R406. These results demonstrate that Syk inhibition prevents allergen-induced AHR and airway inflammation after systemic sensitization and challenge, at least in part through alteration of DC function.
doi:10.1165/rcmb.2005-0298OC
PMCID: PMC2644204  PMID: 16339999
AHR; dendritic cells; eosinophils; mice; Syk
15.  Importance of Myeloid Dendritic Cells in Persistent Airway Disease after Repeated Allergen Exposure 
Rationale: There is conflicting information about the development and resolution of airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) after repeated airway exposure to allergen in sensitized mice.
Methods: Sensitized BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were exposed to repeated allergen challenge on 3, 7, or 11 occasions. Airway function in response to inhaled methacholine was monitored; bronchoalveolar lavage fluid inflammatory cells were counted; and goblet cell metaplasia, peribronchial fibrosis, and smooth muscle hypertrophy were quantitated on tissue sections. Bone marrow–derived dendritic cells were generated after differentiation of bone marrow cells in the presence of growth factors.
Results: Sensitization to ovalbumin (OVA) in alum, followed by three airway exposures to OVA, induced lung eosinophilia, goblet cell metaplasia, mild peribronchial fibrosis, and peribronchial smooth muscle hypertrophy; increased levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13, granulocyte-macrophage colony–stimulating factor, transforming growth factor-β1, eotaxin-1, RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted), and OVA-specific IgG1 and IgE; and resulted in AHR. After seven airway challenges, development of AHR was markedly decreased as was the production of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Levels of IL-10 in both strains and the level of IL-12 in BALB/c mice increased. After 11 challenges, airway eosinophilia and peribronchial fibrosis further declined and the cytokine and chemokine profiles continued to change. At this time point, the number of myeloid dendritic cells and expression of CD80 and CD86 in lungs were decreased compared with three challenges. After 11 challenges, intratracheal instillation of bone marrow–derived dendritic cells restored AHR and airway eosinophilia.
Conclusions: These data suggest that repeated allergen exposure leads to progressive decreases in AHR and allergic inflammation, through decreases in myeloid dendritic cell numbers.
doi:10.1164/rccm.200505-783OC
PMCID: PMC2662981  PMID: 16192450
airway hyperresponsiveness; chronic asthma; cytokine; dendritic cells; eosinophil
16.  Inhibition of Spleen Tyrosine Kinase Prevents Mast Cell Activation and Airway Hyperresponsiveness 
Rationale: Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is important for Fc and B-cell receptor–mediated signaling.
Objective: To determine the activity of a specific Syk inhibitor (R406) on mast cell activation in vitro and on the development of allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammation in vivo.
Methods: AHR and inflammation were induced after 10 d of allergen (ovalbumin [OVA]) exposure exclusively via the airways and in the absence of adjuvant. This approach was previously established to be IgE, FcɛRI, and mast cell dependent. Alternatively, mice were passively sensitized with OVA-specific IgE, followed by limited airway challenge. In vitro, the inhibitor was added to cultures of IgE-sensitized bone marrow–derived mast cells (BMMCs) before cross-linking with allergen.
Results: The inhibitor prevented OVA-induced degranulation of passively IgE-sensitized murine BMMCs and inhibited the production of interleukin (IL)-13, tumor necrosis factor α, IL-2, and IL-6 in these sensitized BMMCs. When administered in vivo, R406 inhibited AHR, which developed in BALB/c mice exposed to aerosolized 1% OVA for 10 consecutive d (20 min/d), as well as pulmonary eosinophilia and goblet cell metaplasia. A similar inhibition of AHR was demonstrated in mice passively sensitized with OVA-specific IgE and exposed to limited airway challenge.
Conclusion: This study delineates a functional role for Syk in the development of mast cell– and IgE-mediated AHR and airway inflammation, and these results indicate that inhibition of Syk may be a target in the treatment of allergic asthma.
doi:10.1164/rccm.200503-361OC
PMCID: PMC2662982  PMID: 16192454
airway hyperresponsiveness; eosinophils; goblet cell metaplasia; mast cells; spleen tyrosine kinase
17.  Requirement for Leukotriene B4 Receptor 1 in Allergen-induced Airway Hyperresponsiveness 
Rationale: Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a rapidly synthesized, early leukocyte chemoattractant that signals via its cell surface receptor, leukotriene B4 receptor 1 (BLT1), to attract and activate leukocytes during inflammation. A role for the LTB4–BLT1 pathway in allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation is not well defined. Objectives: To define the role of the LTB4 receptor (BLT1) in the development of airway inflammation and altered airway function. Methods: BLT1-deficient (BLT1−/−) mice and wild-type mice were sensitized to ovalbumin by intraperitoneal injection and then challenged with ovalbumin via the airways. Airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell composition and cytokine levels, and lung inflammation and goblet cell hyperplasia were assessed. Results: Compared with wild-type mice, BLT1−/− mice developed significantly lower airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine, lower goblet cell hyperplasia in the airways, and decreased interleukin (IL)-13 production both in vivo, in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and in vitro, after antigen stimulation of lung cells in culture. Intracellular cytokine staining of lung cells revealed that bronchoalveolar lavage IL-13 levels and numbers of IL-13+/CD4+ and IL-13+/CD8+ T cells were also reduced in BLT1−/− mice. Reconstitution of sensitized and challenged BLT1−/− mice with allergen-sensitized BLT1+/+ T cells fully restored the development of airway hyperresponsiveness. In contrast, transfer of naive T cells failed to do so. Conclusion: These data suggest that BLT1 expression on primed T cells is required for the full development of airway hyperresponsiveness, which appears to be associated with IL-13 production in these cells.
doi:10.1164/rccm.200502-205OC
PMCID: PMC2718465  PMID: 15849325
airway responsiveness; cytokines; lipid mediators; lung inflammation; T cells
18.  Airway Hyperresponsiveness in the Absence of CD4+ T Cells after Primary but Not Secondary Challenge 
CD4+ T cells have been shown to play a role in the development of airway hyperresponsivness (AHR) and airway eosinophilia in mice using ablation as well as adoptive transfer experiments. However, as other T cell subsets (CD8, NKT) may play a role in these models, we examined the responses of sensitized CD4-deficient mice after either primary or secondary airway allergen challenge. After sensitization, CD4-deficiency in mice was not associated with airway eosinophilia, allergen-specific IgE, or elevated levels of interleukin (IL)-4 or IL-13. Increases in lung CD8 T cells and IL-5 were observed and shown to be essential for AHR as demonstrated after CD8 T cell depletion or anti–IL-5 treatment. In contrast to the response of sensitized CD4-deficient mice to primary allergen challenge, they failed to develop AHR after secondary allergen challenge. Although the importance of this CD4+ T cell–independent pathway in normal mice is unclear at this time, these studies identify the diversity of the cellular pathway, which may contribute to the development of AHR after primary allergen exposure of sensitized mice.
doi:10.1165/rcmb.2004-0414OC
PMCID: PMC2715306  PMID: 15845865
airway hyperresponsiveness; CD4 T cells; inflammation; secondary challenge

Results 1-18 (18)