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1.  SHP-1 As a Critical Regulator of Mycoplasma pneumoniae-Induced Inflammation in Human Asthmatic Airway Epithelial Cells 
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)  2012;188(7):10.4049/jimmunol.1100573.
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease in which airway epithelial cells are the first line of defense against exposure of the airway to infectious agents. Src homology protein (SHP)-1, a protein tyrosine phosphatase, is a negative regulator of signaling pathways that are critical to the development of asthma and host defense. We hypothesize that SHP-1 function is defective in asthma, contributing to the increased inflammatory response induced by Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a pathogen known to exacerbate asthma. M. pneumoniae significantly activated SHP-1 in airway epithelial cells collected from nonasthmatic subjects by bronchoscopy with airway brushing but not in cells from asthmatic subjects. In asthmatic airway epithelial cells, M. pneumoniae induced significant PI3K/Akt phosphorylation, NF-κB activation, and IL-8 production compared with nonasthmatic cells, which were reversed by SHP-1 overexpression. Conversely, SHP-1 knockdown significantly increased IL-8 production and PI3K/Akt and NF-κB activation in the setting of M. pneumoniae infection in nonasthmatic cells, but it did not exacerbate these three parameters already activated in asthmatic cells. Thus, SHP-1 plays a critical role in abrogating M. pneumoniae-induced IL-8 production in non-asthmatic airway epithelial cells through inhibition of PI3K/Akt and NF-κB activity, but it is defective in asthma, resulting in an enhanced inflammatory response to infection.
doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1100573
PMCID: PMC3880785  PMID: 22371396
2.  Obesity, metabolic dysregulation and oxidative stress in asthma☆ 
Biochimica et biophysica acta  2011;1810(11):1120-1126.
Background
Epidemiological data demonstrate an increased risk of developing incident asthma with increasing adiposity. While the vast majority of studies support the interaction between obesity and asthma, the causality is unclear.
Scope of review
This article will review the current literature supporting the presence of an obese asthma phenotype and the possible mechanisms mediating the effects of obesity on asthma.
Major conclusions
Obesity is associated with poor asthma control, altered responsiveness to medications and increased morbidity. Obesity is characterized by systemic inflammation that may result in increased airway inflammation. However, this assertion is not supported by current studies that demonstrate a lack of significant airway inflammation in obese asthmatics. In spite this observation one must consider limitations of these studies including the fact that most subjects were treated with inhaled corticosteroids that would likely alter inflammation in the lung. Thus, it remains unclear if obesity is associated with alterations in inflammation in the airways of subjects with asthma.
Hormones such as leptin and adiponectin are affected by obesity and may play a role in mediating innate immune responses and allergic responses, respectively. The role of oxidative stress remains controversial and the current evidence suggests that while oxidative stress is important in asthma, it does not fully explain the characteristics associated with this unique phenotype.
General significance
Obesity related asthma is associated with increased morbidity and differential response to asthma therapies. Understanding the mechanisms mediating this phenotype would have significant implications for millions of people suffering with asthma. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biochemistry of Asthma.
doi:10.1016/j.bbagen.2011.09.004
PMCID: PMC3786599  PMID: 21944975
Asthma; Obesity; Metabolic syndrome; Oxidative stress; Leptin; Inflammation
3.  Alveolar Macrophages from Overweight/Obese Subjects with Asthma Demonstrate a Proinflammatory Phenotype 
Rationale: Obesity is associated with increased prevalence and severity of asthma. Adipose tissue macrophages can contribute to the systemic proinflammatory state associated with obesity. However, it remains unknown whether alveolar macrophages have a unique phenotype in overweight/obese patients with asthma.
Objectives: We hypothesized that leptin levels would be increased in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from overweight/obese subjects and, furthermore, that leptin would alter the response of alveolar macrophages to bacterial LPS.
Methods: Forty-two subjects with asthma and 46 healthy control subjects underwent research bronchoscopy. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from 66 was analyzed for the level of cellular inflammation, cytokines, and soluble leptin. Cultured primary macrophages from 22 subjects were exposed to LPS, leptin, or leptin plus LPS. Cytokines were measured in the supernatants.
Measurements and Main Results: Leptin levels were increased in overweight/obese subjects, regardless of asthma status (P = 0.013), but were significantly higher in overweight/obese subjects with asthma. Observed levels of tumor necrosis factor-α were highest in overweight/obese subjects with asthma. Ex vivo studies of primary alveolar macrophages indicated that the response to LPS was most robust in alveolar macrophages from overweight/obese subjects with asthma and that preexposure to high-dose leptin enhanced the proinflammatory response. Leptin alone was sufficient to induce production of proinflammatory cytokines from macrophages derived from overweight/obese subjects with asthma.
Conclusions: Ex vivo studies indicate that alveolar macrophages derived from overweight/obese subjects with asthma are uniquely sensitive to leptin. This macrophage phenotype, in the context of higher levels of soluble leptin, may contribute to the pathogenesis of airway disease associated with obesity.
doi:10.1164/rccm.201109-1671OC
PMCID: PMC3443798  PMID: 22773729
tumor necrosis factor-α; leptin; innate immunity; lipopolysaccharide; environmental lung disease
4.  Mast cell TNF receptors regulate responses to Mycoplasma pneumoniae in surfactant protein A (SP-A)−/− mice 
Background
Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) frequently colonizes the airways of patients with chronic asthma and likely contributes to asthma exacerbations. We previously reported that mice lacking surfactant protein A (SP-A) have increased airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) during M pneumoniae infection versus wild-type mice mediated by TNF-α. Mast cells (MCs) have been implicated in AHR in asthma models and produce and respond to TNF-α.
Objective
Determine the contribution of MC/TNF interactions to AHR in airways lacking functional SP-A during Mp infection. Methods: Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected from healthy and asthmatic subjects to examine TNF-α levels and M pneumoniae positivity. To determine how SP-A interactions with MCs regulate airway homeostasis, we generated mice lacking both SP-A and MCs (SP-A−/−KitW-sh/W-sh) and infected them with M pneumoniae.
Results
Our findings indicate that high TNF-α levels correlate with M pneumoniae positivity in human asthmatic patients and that human SP-A inhibits M pneumoniae–stimulated transcription and release of TNF-α by MCs, implicating a protective role for SP-A. MC numbers increase in M pneumoniae–infected lungs, and airway reactivity is dramatically attenuated when MCs are absent. Using SP-A−/−KitW-sh/W-sh mice engrafted with TNF-α−/− or TNF receptor (TNF-R)−/− MCs, we found that TNF-α activation of MCs through the TNF-R, but not MC-derived TNF-α, leads to augmented AHR during M pneumoniae infection when SP-A is absent. Additionally, M pneumoniae– infected SP-A−/−KitW-sh/W-sh mice engrafted with TNF-α−/− or TNF-R−/− MCs have decreased mucus production compared with that seen in mice engrafted with wild-type MCs, whereas burden was unaffected.
Conclusion
Our data highlight a previously unappreciated but vital role for MCs as secondary responders to TNF-α during the host response to pathogen infection.
doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2012.03.002
PMCID: PMC3578696  PMID: 22502799
Mast cells; TNF; Mycoplasma species; airway hyperres-ponsiveness; mucus
5.  Airway Fibroblasts in Asthma Manifest an Invasive Phenotype 
Rationale: Invasive cell phenotypes have been demonstrated in malignant transformation, but not in other diseases, such as asthma. Cellular invasiveness is thought to be mediated by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). IL-13 is a key TH2 cytokine that directs many features of airway remodeling through TGF-β1 and MMPs.
Objectives: We hypothesized that, in human asthma, IL-13 stimulates increased airway fibroblast invasiveness via TGF-β1 and MMPs in asthma compared with normal controls.
Methods: Fibroblasts were cultured from endobronchial biopsies in 20 subjects with mild asthma (FEV1: 90 ± 3.6% pred) and 17 normal control subjects (FEV1: 102 ± 2.9% pred) who underwent bronchoscopy. Airway fibroblast invasiveness was investigated using Matrigel chambers. IL-13 or IL-13 with TGF-β1 neutralizing antibody or pan-MMP inhibitor (GM6001) was added to the lower chamber as a chemoattractant. Flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry were performed in a subset of subjects to evaluate IL-13 receptor levels.
Measurements and Main Results: IL-13 significantly stimulated invasion in asthmatic airway fibroblasts, compared with normal control subjects. Inhibitors of both TGF-β1 and MMPs blocked IL-13–induced invasion in asthma, but had no effect in normal control subjects. At baseline, in airway tissue, IL-13 receptors were expressed in significantly higher levels in asthma, compared with normal control subjects. In airway fibroblasts, baseline IL-13Rα2 was reduced in asthma compared with normal control subjects.
Conclusions: IL-13 potentiates airway fibroblast invasion through a mechanism involving TGF-β1 and MMPs. IL-13 receptor subunits are differentially expressed in asthma. These effects may result in IL-13–directed airway remodeling in asthma.
doi:10.1164/rccm.201009-1452OC
PMCID: PMC3136991  PMID: 21471104
airway remodeling; interleukin-13; transforming growth factor-β; matrix metalloproteinase
6.  S-Nitrosoglutathione Reductase 
Rationale: Nitric oxide bioactivity, mediated through the formation of S-nitrosothiols (SNOs), has a significant effect on bronchomotor tone. S-Nitrosoglutathione is an endogenous bronchodilator that is decreased in children with asthmatic respiratory failure and in adults with asthma undergoing segmental airway challenge. Recently we showed that S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) regulates endogenous SNOs. Mice with genetic deletion of GSNOR are protected from airway hyperresponsivity in an allergic asthma model.
Objectives: We hypothesized that GSNOR is increased in human asthma and correlates with lung SNO content and airway reactivity.
Methods: We recruited 36 subjects with mild asthma with FEV1 88.5 ± 2.3% predicted and 34 healthy control subjects with FEV1 100.7 ± 2.5% predicted. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed in all subjects. Cell counts, differentials, GSNOR activity, and SNO levels were determined in BAL.
Measurements and Main Results: SNO content was decreased in asthmatic BAL compared with control BAL and correlated inversely with GSNOR expression in BAL cell lysates. Furthermore, GSNOR activity measured from BAL samples was significantly increased in subjects with asthma compared with control subjects and correlated inversely with the provocative concentration of methacholine causing a 20% decrease in FEV1.
Conclusions: These findings suggest that GSNOR is an important regulator of airway SNO content and airways hyperresponsiveness in human asthma.
doi:10.1164/rccm.200901-0158OC
PMCID: PMC2724715  PMID: 19395503
asthma; S-nitrosoglutathione reductase; S-nitrosothiols; airway hyperresponsiveness

Results 1-6 (6)