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author:("Li, guiding")
1.  Dietary Resveratrol prevents development of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplastic lesions: Involvement of SIRT1/S6K axis 
SIRT1 (mammalian ortholog of the yeast silent information regulator 2) is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent histone deacetylase belonging to the multigene family of sirtuins. Anecdotal and epidemiological observations provide evidence for beneficial effects of the calorie restriction mimetic resveratrol (RES), a SIRT1 activator in preventing cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Although SIRT1 possesses both tumorigenic and anti-tumorigenic potential, the molecular mechanisms underlying SIRT1-mediated tumor progression or inhibition are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of SIRT1 in multiple human prostate cancer cell lines and prostate-specific PTEN knockout mouse model using RES. Androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines (C42B, PC3, and DU145) express higher levels of SIRT1 than androgen-responsive (LNCaP) and non-tumorigenic prostate cells (RWPE-1). RES enhanced this expression without any significant effect on SIRT1 enzymatic activity. Inhibition of SIRT1 expression using shRNA enhanced cell proliferation and inhibited autophagy by repressing phosphorylation of S6K and 4E-BP1. These biological correlates were reversed in the presence of RES. Analysis of prostates from dietary intervention with RES showed a significant reduction in prostate weight and reduction in the incidence of high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplastic (HGPIN) lesions by ~54% with no significant change in body weight. Consistent with the in vitro findings RES intervention in the PTEN knockout mouse model was associated with reduction in the prostatic levels of mTOR Complex 1 (mTORC1) activity and increased expression of SIRT1. These data suggest that SIRT1/S6K-mediated inhibition of autophagy drives prostate tumorigenesis. Therefore, modulation of SIRT1/S6K signaling represents an effective strategy for prostate cancer prevention.
doi:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-12-0349
PMCID: PMC3536933  PMID: 23248098
Prostate cancer; SIRT1; resveratrol; PIN; autophagy
2.  NF-κB-Dependent Induction of Cathelicidin-Related Antimicrobial Peptide in Murine Mast Cells by Lipopolysaccharide 
Background
An important aspect of the innate immune response to pathogens is the production of anti-microbial peptides such as cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP), the murine homologue of human cathelicidin LL-37. In this study, mechanisms regulating LPS-induction of CRAMP gene expression in mast cells were investigated. NF-κB and MAPK pathways were the focus of investigation.
Methods
Mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells were grown in culture and stimulated with LPS. MAPKs and NF-κB were monitored by immunoblot analysis. ERK, JNK and p38 MAPK were inhibited using siRNAs or a pharmacological inhibitor. Accumulation of the p65 component of NF-κB was inhibited by siRNA and NF-κB activation was inhibited by overexpression of IκBα. MEKK2 or MEKK3 were overexpressed by transfection. The effects of all of these treatments on CRAMP gene expression were monitored by RT-PCR.
Results
Inhibition of ERK, JNK or p38 MAPK had little discernible effect on LPS-inducible CRAMP gene expression. Overexpression of MEKK2 or MEKK3 likewise had little impact. However, inhibition of the accumulation of p65 NF-κB prevented LPS-induced CRAMP mRNA. An important role for NF-κB in CRAMP gene expression was confirmed by overexpression of IκBα, which reduced both basal and induced levels of CRAMP mRNA.
Conclusions
NF-κB, but not MAPKs, plays an important role in LPS-mediated induction of CRAMP gene in mast cells. Defects which inhibit NF-κB activity may increase susceptibility to bacterial and viral pathogens which are sensitive to cathelicidins.
doi:10.1159/000218115
PMCID: PMC2814151  PMID: 19439978
Cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide; Inflammation; Mast cells; Transcription factors
3.  Inhibition of Spleen Tyrosine Kinase Prevents Mast Cell Activation and Airway Hyperresponsiveness 
Rationale: Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is important for Fc and B-cell receptor–mediated signaling.
Objective: To determine the activity of a specific Syk inhibitor (R406) on mast cell activation in vitro and on the development of allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammation in vivo.
Methods: AHR and inflammation were induced after 10 d of allergen (ovalbumin [OVA]) exposure exclusively via the airways and in the absence of adjuvant. This approach was previously established to be IgE, FcɛRI, and mast cell dependent. Alternatively, mice were passively sensitized with OVA-specific IgE, followed by limited airway challenge. In vitro, the inhibitor was added to cultures of IgE-sensitized bone marrow–derived mast cells (BMMCs) before cross-linking with allergen.
Results: The inhibitor prevented OVA-induced degranulation of passively IgE-sensitized murine BMMCs and inhibited the production of interleukin (IL)-13, tumor necrosis factor α, IL-2, and IL-6 in these sensitized BMMCs. When administered in vivo, R406 inhibited AHR, which developed in BALB/c mice exposed to aerosolized 1% OVA for 10 consecutive d (20 min/d), as well as pulmonary eosinophilia and goblet cell metaplasia. A similar inhibition of AHR was demonstrated in mice passively sensitized with OVA-specific IgE and exposed to limited airway challenge.
Conclusion: This study delineates a functional role for Syk in the development of mast cell– and IgE-mediated AHR and airway inflammation, and these results indicate that inhibition of Syk may be a target in the treatment of allergic asthma.
doi:10.1164/rccm.200503-361OC
PMCID: PMC2662982  PMID: 16192454
airway hyperresponsiveness; eosinophils; goblet cell metaplasia; mast cells; spleen tyrosine kinase

Results 1-3 (3)