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1.  Mediastinal Paraganglioma between the Great Vessels in an 81-Year-Old Woman 
Texas Heart Institute Journal  2013;40(2):189-192.
Nonfunctional paragangliomas are slow-growing, typically benign tumors that arise from the extra-adrenal paraganglion of the autonomic nervous system. They are identified and characterized with the use of computed tomography and other imaging methods; for definitive diagnosis, histopathologic evaluation is crucial. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice, and results of postoperative biochemical testing can reveal recurrence. Because of this lesion's familial association, genetic testing is suggested.
We report the case of an 81-year-old woman who presented with neck pain, intermittent palpitations, hypertension, and dyspnea. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the chest revealed a multilobular, high-density lesion between the aorta and the pulmonary artery in the superior mediastinum. The patient's 24-hour urinary vanillylmandelic acid levels were not elevated, which suggested a nonfunctional tumor. Mediastinal exploration revealed a large, vascular, irregular, consistently firm mass that adhered to the aortic arch. Upon histopathologic analysis after complete resection, the mass was determined to be a paraganglioma with a low index of mitosis. The patient had postoperative respiratory insufficiency that necessitated tracheostomy, but she recovered well after rehabilitation.
In addition to reporting our patient's case, we discuss the nature, diagnosis, and treatment of paragangliomas.
PMCID: PMC3649793  PMID: 23678220
Mediastinal neoplasms/diagnosis/surgery; paraganglioma, extra-adrenal/diagnosis/epidemiology/etiology/genetics/surgery; treatment outcome
2.  REV1 is implicated in the development of carcinogen-induced lung cancer 
Molecular cancer research : MCR  2009;7(2):247-254.
The somatic mutation hypothesis of cancer predicts that reducing the frequency of mutations induced by carcinogens will reduce the incidence of cancer. To examine this, we developed an antimutator strategy based on the manipulation of the level of a protein required for mutagenic bypass of DNA damage induced by the ubiquitous carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene. The expression of this protein, REV1, was reduced in mouse cells using a vector encoding a gene-specific targeting ribozyme. In the latter cells, mutagenesis induced by the activated form of benzo[a]pyrene was reduced over 90%. To examine if REV1 transcripts could be lowered in vivo, the plasmid was complexed with polyethyleneimine, a non-viral cationic polymer, and delivered to the lung via aerosol. The endogenous REV1 transcript in the bronchial epithelium as determined by quantitative real-time PCR in laser capture microdissected cells was reduced by 60%. There was a significant decrease in the multiplicity of carcinogen induced lung tumors from 6.4 tumors/ mouse to 3.7 tumors/ mouse. Additionally, REV1 inhibition completely abolished tumor formation in 27% of the carcinogen-exposed mice. These data support the central role of the translesion synthesis pathway in the development of lung cancer. Further, the selective modulation of members of this pathway presents novel potential targets for cancer prevention.
PMCID: PMC2644734  PMID: 19176310
REV1; benzo[a]pyrene; mutagenesis; lung cancer; translesion synthesis
3.  Requirement for Leukotriene B4 Receptor 1 in Allergen-induced Airway Hyperresponsiveness 
Rationale: Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a rapidly synthesized, early leukocyte chemoattractant that signals via its cell surface receptor, leukotriene B4 receptor 1 (BLT1), to attract and activate leukocytes during inflammation. A role for the LTB4–BLT1 pathway in allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation is not well defined. Objectives: To define the role of the LTB4 receptor (BLT1) in the development of airway inflammation and altered airway function. Methods: BLT1-deficient (BLT1−/−) mice and wild-type mice were sensitized to ovalbumin by intraperitoneal injection and then challenged with ovalbumin via the airways. Airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell composition and cytokine levels, and lung inflammation and goblet cell hyperplasia were assessed. Results: Compared with wild-type mice, BLT1−/− mice developed significantly lower airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine, lower goblet cell hyperplasia in the airways, and decreased interleukin (IL)-13 production both in vivo, in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and in vitro, after antigen stimulation of lung cells in culture. Intracellular cytokine staining of lung cells revealed that bronchoalveolar lavage IL-13 levels and numbers of IL-13+/CD4+ and IL-13+/CD8+ T cells were also reduced in BLT1−/− mice. Reconstitution of sensitized and challenged BLT1−/− mice with allergen-sensitized BLT1+/+ T cells fully restored the development of airway hyperresponsiveness. In contrast, transfer of naive T cells failed to do so. Conclusion: These data suggest that BLT1 expression on primed T cells is required for the full development of airway hyperresponsiveness, which appears to be associated with IL-13 production in these cells.
PMCID: PMC2718465  PMID: 15849325
airway responsiveness; cytokines; lipid mediators; lung inflammation; T cells

Results 1-3 (3)