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1.  Flow Cytometric Analysis of Myeloid Cells in Human Blood, Bronchoalveolar Lavage, and Lung Tissues 
Clear identification of specific cell populations by flow cytometry is important to understand functional roles. A well-defined flow cytometry panel for myeloid cells in human bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung tissue is currently lacking. The objective of this study was to develop a flow cytometry–based panel for human BAL and lung tissue. We obtained and performed flow cytometry/sorting on human BAL cells and lung tissue. Confocal images were obtained from lung tissue using antibodies for cluster of differentiation (CD)206, CD169, and E cadherin. We defined a multicolor flow panel for human BAL and lung tissue that identifies major leukocyte populations. These include macrophage (CD206+) subsets and other CD206− leukocytes. The CD206− cells include: (1) three monocyte (CD14+) subsets, (2) CD11c+ dendritic cells (CD14−, CD11c+, HLA-DR+), (3) plasmacytoid dendritic cells (CD14−, CD11c−, HLA-DR+, CD123+), and (4) other granulocytes (neutrophils, mast cells, eosinophils, and basophils). Using this panel on human lung tissue, we defined two populations of pulmonary macrophages: CD169+ and CD169− macrophages. In lung tissue, CD169− macrophages were a prominent cell type. Using confocal microscopy, CD169+ macrophages were located in the alveolar space/airway, defining them as alveolar macrophages. In contrast, CD169− macrophages were associated with airway/alveolar epithelium, consistent with interstitial-associated macrophages. We defined a flow cytometry panel in human BAL and lung tissue that allows identification of multiple immune cell types and delineates alveolar from interstitial-associated macrophages. This study has important implications for defining myeloid cells in human lung samples.
doi:10.1165/rcmb.2015-0146OC
PMCID: PMC4742930  PMID: 26267148
alveolar macrophages; interstitial-associated macrophages; interstitial macrophages; interstitial lung disease
3.  Genetic variation in Surfactant Protein-A2 (SP-A2) leads to differential binding to Mycoplasma pneumoniae membranes and regulation of host responses 
Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) is an extracellular pathogen that colonizes mucosal surfaces of the respiratory tract and is associated with asthma exacerbations. Previous reports demonstrate that surfactant protein-A (SP-A) binds live Mp and mycoplasma membranes (MMF) with high affinity. Humans express a repertoire of single amino acid genetic variants of SP-A that may be associated with lung disease, and our findings demonstrate that allelic differences in SP-A2 (Gln223Lys) affect the binding to MMF. We show that SP-A−/− mice are more susceptible to MMF exposure and have significant increases in mucin production and neutrophil recruitment. Novel humanized-SP-A2 transgenic mice harboring the hSP-A2 223K allele exhibit reduced neutrophil influx and mucin production in the lungs, when challenged with MMF, compared to SP-A−/− mice. Conversely, mice expressing hSP-A2 223Q have increased neutrophil influx and mucin production that is similar to SP-A−/− mice. Using tracheal epithelial cell cultures, we show that enhanced mucin production to MMF occurs in the absence of SP-A, and is not dependent upon neutrophil recruitment. Increased phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was evident in the lungs of MMF-challenged mice when SP-A was absent. Pharmacologic inhibition of EGFR prior to MMF challenge dramatically reduced mucin production in SP-A−/− mice. These findings suggest a protective role for SP-A in limiting MMF-stimulated mucin production that occurs through interference with EGFR mediated signaling. The SP-A interaction with the EGFR signaling pathway appears to occur in an allele specific manner that may have important implications for SP-A polymorphisms in human diseases.
doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1500104
PMCID: PMC4458406  PMID: 25957169
7.  The IL-1 type 1 receptor is required for the development of LPS-induced airways disease 
Background
The contribution of IL-1β signaling through the IL-1 type 1 receptor (IL-1R1) to the development of persistent LPS-induced airway disease has not been investigated.
Objective
To determine the importance of signaling through the IL-1 type 1 receptor in the development of LPS-induced airway disease.
Methods
We exposed IL-1R1–deficient (C57BL/6IL-1RI−/−) mice to an aerosol of LPS or filtered air for 1 day, 1 week, or 4 weeks.
Results
After 4 weeks of LPS inhalation, C57BL/6IL-1RI−/− mice failed to develop significant submucosal thickening, whereas C57BL/6 mice had significantly thickened submucosa in small, medium, and large airways compared with those of unexposed control mice. Cell proliferation in the airways of both the 1-week and 4-week LPS-exposed C57BL/6IL-1RI−/− mice was significantly reduced compared with LPS-exposed C57BL/6 mice. mRNA for type III α-3 procollagen was significantly elevated over baseline in C57BL/6 yet remained unchanged compared with baseline in C57BL/6IL-1RI−/− mice after 1 week or 4 weeks of LPS inhalation. mRNA for tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease 1 in C57BL/6 mice in the 1-week and 4-week groups was significantly elevated over both control mice and C57BL/6IL-1RI−/− mice.
Conclusion
These data support the hypothesis that signaling through the IL-1 receptor modulates extracellular matrix homeostasis in response to inhaled LPS.
Clinical implications
Attenuating IL-1R1–mediated signaling might be an effective therapy against the development of airway remodeling in chronic inflammatory diseases.
doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2007.03.051
PMCID: PMC4570244  PMID: 17512577
LPS; endotoxin; airway disease; IL-1; IL-1 receptor; airway remodeling
8.  Identification and Quantitation of Coding Variants and Isoforms of Pulmonary Surfactant Protein A 
Journal of Proteome Research  2014;13(8):3722-3732.
Pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A), a heterooligomer of SP-A1 and SP-A2, is an important regulator of innate immunity of the lung. Nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants of SP-A have been linked to respiratory diseases, but the expressed repertoire of SP-A protein in human airway has not been investigated. Here, we used parallel trypsin and Glu-C digestion, followed by LC–MS/MS, to obtain sequence coverage of common SP-A variants and isoform-determining peptides. We further developed a SDS-PAGE-based, multiple reaction monitoring (GeLC-MRM) assay for enrichment and targeted quantitation of total SP-A, the SP-A2 isoform, and the Gln223 and Lys223 variants of SP-A, from as little as one milliliter of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. This assay identified individuals with the three genotypes at the 223 position of SP-A2: homozygous major (Gln223/Gln223), homozygous minor (Lys223/Lys223), or heterozygous (Gln223/Lys223). More generally, our studies demonstrate the challenges inherent in distinguishing highly homologous, copurifying protein isoforms by MS and show the applicability of MRM mass spectrometry for identification and quantitation of nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants and other proteoforms in airway lining fluid.
doi:10.1021/pr500307f
PMCID: PMC4123939  PMID: 25025725
allelic variant; targeted proteomics; surfactant-associated protein; rs1965708; ionKey
9.  Pseudohypoxemia in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia 
Respiratory care  2013;58(3):e31-e33.
doi:10.4187/respcare.01897
PMCID: PMC3901531  PMID: 22781215
hypoxia; leukocyte larceny; red blood cell; white blood cell; platelet; pseudohypoxemia
10.  Genes of innate immunity and the biological response to inhaled ozone 
Ambient ozone has a significant impact on human health. We have made considerable progress in understanding the fundamental mechanisms that regulate the biological response to ozone. It is increasingly clear that genes of innate immunity play a central role in both infectious and non-infectious lung disease. The biological response to ambient ozone provides a clinically relevant environmental exposure that allows us to better understand the role of innate immunity in non-infectious airways disease. In this brief review, we focus on: (1) specific cell types in the lung modified by ozone; (2) ozone and oxidative stress; (3) the relationship between genes of innate immunity and ozone; (4) the role of extracellular matrix in reactive airways disease; and (5) the effect of ozone on the adaptive immune system. We summarize recent advances in understanding the mechanisms that ozone contributes to environmental airways disease.
doi:10.1002/jbt.21453
PMCID: PMC3733118  PMID: 23169704
ozone; oxidative stress; innate immunity; environment; surfactant; toll-like receptor; asthma; extracellular matrix; mindin; hyaluronan
12.  Ambient ozone and pulmonary innate immunity 
Immunologic research  2011;49(0):173-191.
Ambient ozone is a criteria air pollutant that impacts both human morbidity and mortality. The effect of ozone inhalation includes both toxicity to lung tissue and alteration of the host immunologic response. The innate immune system facilitates immediate recognition of both foreign pathogens and tissue damage. Emerging evidence supports that ozone can modify the host innate immune response and that this response to inhaled ozone is dependent on genes of innate immunity. Improved understanding of the complex interaction between environmental ozone and host innate immunity will provide fundamental insight into the pathogenesis of inflammatory airways disease. We review the current evidence supporting that environmental ozone inhalation: (1) modifies cell types required for intact innate immunity, (2) is partially dependent on genes of innate immunity, (3) primes pulmonary innate immune responses to LPS, and (4) contributes to innate-adaptive immune system cross-talk.
doi:10.1007/s12026-010-8180-z
PMCID: PMC3747041  PMID: 21132467
environmental; toll-like receptor; TLR4; CD44; hyaluronan; asthma; genetic; gene x environment
13.  Bakery flour dust exposure causes non-allergic inflammation and enhances allergic airway inflammation in mice 
Background
Baker’s asthma is one of the most commonly reported occupational lung diseases in countries where fresh bread is baked daily in large quantities, and is characterized by rhinitis, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and reversible airflow obstruction. Epidemiological studies have identified pre-existing atopy as an important risk factor for developing baker’s asthma, yet the etiology and pathogenesis of baker’s asthma remain poorly understood.
Objective
We sought to develop a mouse model of baker’s asthma that could be used to characterize the development and progression of baker’s asthma.
Methods
We were unable to sensitize mice to bakery flour dust or flour dust extract. We assessed total inflammatory cells, cellular differential, total serum IgE and the pro-inflammatory cytokine response to oropharyngeally instilled bakery flour dust or flour dust extract by itself or in the context of OVA sensitization and challenge.
Results
Both bakery flour dust and flour dust extract consistently elicited a neutrophilic inflammation in a tlr4-independent manner; suggesting that endotoxin is not playing a role in the inflammatory response to flour dust. Moreover, bakery flour dust and dust extract significantly enhance the inflammatory response in OVA sensitized and challenged mice.
Conclusions
Bakery flour dust and flour dust extract are strongly pro-inflammatory and can cause non-allergic airway inflammation and can enhance allergen-mediated airway inflammation.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2008.03038.x
PMCID: PMC4278578  PMID: 18564331
LPS; endotoxin; toll-like receptor 4; occupational airways disease; baker’s asthma; flour dust; allergic asthma
14.  Rescue Therapy in Adult and Pediatric Patients with H1N1 Influenza Infection: A Tertiary Center ICU Experience from April-October, 2009 
Critical care medicine  2010;38(11):2103-2107.
Objective
Severe respiratory failure is a well recognized complication of pandemic H1N1 influenza infection. Limited data regarding the efficacy of rescue therapies including high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) and extracorporeal membranous oxygenation (ECMO) have been previously reported in the setting of H1N1 influenza infection in the United States.
Design
Retrospective, single center cohort study.
Setting
Pediatric, cardiac, surgical, and medical intensive care units in a single tertiary care center in the United States.
Patients
127 consecutive patients with confirmed Influenza A infection requiring hospitalization between April 1, 2009 and October 31, 2009.
Interventions
Electronic medical records were reviewed for demographic and clinical data.
Measurements and main results
The number of ICU admissions appears inversely related to age with 69% of admissions less than 20 years of age. Median duration of ICU care was 10.0 days [4.0, 24.0], and median duration of mechanical ventilation was 8.0 days [0.0, 23.5]. Rescue therapy (HFOV or ECMO) was utilized in 36% (12/33) of ICU patients. The severity of respiratory impairment was determined by PaO2/FiO2 ratio (P/F) and oxygenation index (OI). HFOV at 24-hours resulted in improvements in median P/F (71 [58, 93] vs. 145 [126, 185]; P<0.001), OI (27 [20, 30] vs. 18 [12, 25]; P=0.016), and FiO2 (100 [70, 100] vs. 45 [40, 55]; P<0.001). ECMO resulted in anticipated improvement in parameters of oxygenation at both 2- hours and 24-hours after initiation of therapy. Despite the severity of oxygenation impairment, overall survival for both rescue therapies was 75% (9/12), 80% (4/5) for HFOV alone, and 71% (5/7) for HFOV + ECMO.
Conclusion
In critically ill adult and pediatric patients with H1N1 infection and severe lung injury, the utilization of HFOV and ECMO can result in significant improvements in P/F ratio, OI, and FiO2. However, the impact on mortality is less certain.
doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181f268f1
PMCID: PMC3739437  PMID: 20711068
influenza; acute respiratory distress syndrome; H1N1; mechanical ventilation; high frequency oscillatory ventilation; extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO); hypoxemia; respiratory failure; lung injury
15.  Hyaluronan fragments contribute to the ozone-primed immune response to LPS 
Hyaluronan is a high molecular weight component of pulmonary extracelluar matrix and lung injury can generate low molecular weight hyaluronan fragment (HA) that functions as endogenous ligand to cell surface receptors CD44 and toll like receptor 4 (TLR4). This leads to activation of intracellular NFκB signaling and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Based on previous information that ozone exposure causes increased HA in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and ozone pre-exposure primes immune response to inhaled LPS, we hypothesized that HA production during ozone exposure augments the inflammatory response to LPS. We demonstrate that acute ozone exposure at 1ppm for 3 hours primes the immune response to low dose aerosolized LPS in C57BL/6J mice, resulting in increased neutrophil recruitment into the airspaces, increased levels of protein and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the BALF, and increased airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Intratracheal instillation of endotoxin-free HA (25 μg) enhances the biological response to inhaled LPS in a manner similar to ozone pre-exposure. In vitro studies using bone marrow-derived macrophages indicate that HA enhances LPS responses measured by TNFα production while immunofluorescence staining of murine alveolar macrophages demonstrates that HA induces TLR4 peripheralization and lipid raft co-localization. Collectively, our observations support that ozone primes macrophage responsiveness to low dose LPS, in part, due to hyaluronan-induced TLR4 peripheralization in lung macrophages.
doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1000283
PMCID: PMC3691842  PMID: 21037098
environmental; ozone; lipopolysaccharide; hyaluronan; TLR4; toll-like receptor; innate immunity; macrophage; lung injury
16.  Surfactant protein D attenuates sub-epithelial fibrosis in allergic airways disease through TGF-β 
Respiratory Research  2014;15(1):143.
Background
Surfactant protein D (SP-D) can regulate both innate and adaptive immunity. Recently, SP-D has been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of airway allergic inflammation and bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. However, in allergic airways disease, the role of SP-D in airway remodeling remains unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of functional SP-D in regulating sub-epithelial fibrosis in a mouse chronic house dust mite model of allergic airways disease.
Methods
C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and SP-D−/− mice (C57BL/6 background) were chronically challenged with house dust mite antigen (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dp). Studies with SP-D rescue and neutralization of TGF-β were conducted. Lung histopathology and the concentrations of collagen, growth factors, and cytokines present in the airspace and lung tissue were determined. Cultured eosinophils were stimulated by Dp in presence or absence of SP-D.
Results
Dp-challenged SP-D−/− mice demonstrate increased sub-epithelial fibrosis, collagen production, eosinophil infiltration, TGF-β1, and IL-13 production, when compared to Dp-challenged WT mice. By immunohistology, we detected an increase in TGF-β1 and IL-13 positive eosinophils in SP-D−/− mice. Purified eosinophils stimulated with Dp produced TGF-β1 and IL-13, which was prevented by co-incubation with SP-D. Additionally, treatment of Dp challenged SP-D−/− mice with exogenous SP-D was able to rescue the phenotypes observed in SP-D−/− mice and neutralization of TGF-β1 reduced sub-epithelial fibrosis in Dp-challenged SP-D−/− mice.
Conclusion
These data support a protective role for SP-D in the pathogenesis of sub-epithelial fibrosis in a mouse model of allergic inflammation through regulation of eosinophil-derived TGF-β.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12931-014-0143-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12931-014-0143-9
PMCID: PMC4262976  PMID: 25472740
Surfactant protein D; Asthma; Fibrosis; Airway remodeling; Eosinophil; Transforming growth factor beta
17.  Extracellular Matrix Protein Mindin is Required for the Complete Allergic Response to Fungal-Associated Proteinase 
Journal of allergy & therapy  2011;2011(Suppl 1):001.
Asthma remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality with an incidence that continues to rise. Despite the importance of this disease, the mechanisms by which the host develops allergic airways disease remain poorly understood. The development of allergic airways disease appears to be contingent on activation of both the innate and adaptive immune system, but little is known about the cross-talk between these two systems. The extracellular matrix protein mindin (Spondin 2) has been previously demonstrated to have functional roles in both the innate and adaptive immunological responses. Previous work supports that pulmonary challenge with fungal-associated allergenic proteinase (FAP) induces an innate allergic response. We hypothesized that mindin would modify the biological response to FAP. Saline or FAP was administered by oropharyngeal aspiration to C57BL/6 wild type or mindin-null mice every 4 days for a total of five exposures. FAP exposed C57BL/6 mice developed enhanced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to methacholine challenge and increased neutrophils and eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage as compared to saline exposed controls. These responses were significantly reduced in mindin-null mice exposed to FAP. FAP challenge was associated with a broad induction of cytokines (IL-1β, TNFα, Th1, Th2, and IL-17), chemokines, and growth factors, which were reduced in mindin-null mice exposed to FAP. RNA expression in lung monocytes for representative M1 and M2 activation markers were increased by FAP, but were independent of mindin. Our observations support that challenge with FAP results in activation of both innate and adaptive immune signaling pathways in a manner partially dependent on mindin. These findings suggest a potential role for the extracellular matrix protein mindin in cross-talk between the innate and adaptive immune systems.
doi:10.4172/2155-6121.S1-001
PMCID: PMC3613851  PMID: 23560245
Environment; Asthma; Reactive airways disease; Extracellular matrix; Allergy; Aspergillus
18.  NAD(P)H:QUINONE OXIOREDUCTASE 1 PROTECTS LUNGS FROM OXIDANT-INDUCED EMPHYSEMA IN MICE 
Free radical biology & medicine  2011;52(3):705-715.
Emphysema is currently a leading cause of mortality with no known effective therapy to attenuate progressive loss of lung function. Previous work support that activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is protective to the lung through induction of hundreds of antioxidant genes. In models of lung injury, the expression of NAD(P)H:quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is upregulated in a manner dependent on Nrf2 and human emphysema is associated with reduced levels of NQO1. However, the functional role of NQO1 in emphysema remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrate the protective role of NQO1 in the development of emphysema using mouse models. NQO1 deficient animals demonstrate premature age-related emphysema and were more susceptible to both elastase and inhaled lipopolysaccharide (LPS) models of emphysema. The absence of NQO1 was associated with enhanced markers of oxidant stress. Treatment of NQO1 deficient animals with the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine reversed the NQO1-dependent emphysematous changes. In vitro studies utilizing either inhibition or induction of NQO1 demonstrate a potent antioxidant role of NQO1 in macrophages, suggesting a role of macrophage-derived oxidants in the pathogenesis of emphysema. These novel findings support a functional role of NQO1 in protecting the lung from development of emphysema.
doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2011.11.027
PMCID: PMC3267893  PMID: 22198263
19.  Ozone Inhalation Promotes CX3CR1-dependent Maturation of Resident Lung Macrophages which Limit Oxidative Stress and Inflammation1, 2 
Inhalation of ambient ozone alters populations of lung macrophages. However, the impact of altered lung macrophage populations on the pathobiology of ozone is poorly understood. We hypothesized that sub-populations of macrophages modulate the response to ozone. We exposed C57BL/6 mice to ozone (2 ppm × 3h) or filtered air. 24 h after the exposure, the lungs were harvested and digested and the cells underwent flow cytometry. Analysis revealed a novel macrophage subset present in ozone exposed mice, which were distinct from resident alveolar macrophages (AM) and identified by enhanced Gr-1+ expression (Gr-1 Macs). Further analysis identified that Gr-1+ Macs exhibited high expression of MARCO, CX3CR1, and NQO1. Gr-1+ Macs were present in the absence of CCR2, suggesting that they were not derived from a CCR2-dependent circulating intermediate. Using PKH26-PCL to label resident phagocytic cells, we demonstrated that Gr-1 Macs were derived from resident lung cells. This new subset was diminished in the absence of CX3CR1. Interestingly, CX3CR1-null mice exhibited enhanced responses to ozone, including increased airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), exacerbated neutrophil influx, accumulation of 8-isoprostanes and protein carbonyls, and increased expression of cytokines (CXCL2, IL-1β, IL-6, CCL2, and TNF-α). Our results identify a novel subset of lung macrophages, which are derived from a resident intermediate, dependent upon CX3CR1, and appear to protect the host from the biological response to ozone.
doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1101312
PMCID: PMC3197861  PMID: 21930959
20.  c-Kit Is Essential for Alveolar Maintenance and Protection from Emphysema-like Disease in Mice 
Rationale: Previously, we demonstrated a candidate region for susceptibility to airspace enlargement on mouse chromosome 5. However, the specific candidate genes within this region accounting for emphysema-like changes remain unrecognized. c-Kit is a receptor tyrosine kinase within this candidate gene region that has previously been recognized to contribute to the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells. Increases in the percentage of cells expressing c-Kit have previously been associated with protection against injury-induced emphysema.
Objectives: Determine whether genetic variants of c-Kit are associated with spontaneous airspace enlargement.
Methods: Perform single-nucleotide polymorphism association studies in the mouse strains at the extremes of airspace enlargement phenotype for variants in c-Kit tyrosine kinase. Characterize mice bearing functional variants of c-Kit compared with wild-type controls for the development of spontaneous airspace enlargement. Epithelial cell proliferation was measured in culture.
Measurements and Main Results: Upstream regulatory single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the divergent mouse strains were associated with the lung compliance difference observed between the extreme strains. c-Kit mutant mice (KitW-sh/W-sh), when compared with genetic controls, developed altered lung histology, increased total lung capacity, increased residual volume, and increased lung compliance that persist into adulthood. c-Kit inhibition with imatinib attenuated in vitro proliferation of cells expressing epithelial cell adhesion molecule.
Conclusions: Our findings indicate that c-Kit sustains and/or maintains normal alveolar architecture in the lungs of mice. In vitro data suggest that c-Kit can regulate epithelial cell clonal expansion. The precise mechanisms that c-Kit contributes to the development of airspace enlargement and increased lung compliance remain unclear and warrants further investigation.
doi:10.1164/rccm.201007-1157OC
PMCID: PMC3136992  PMID: 21471107
genetic; tyrosine kinase; SASH; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; aging
22.  Conditional Knockout of the RNA-Binding Protein HuR in CD4+ T Cells Reveals a Gene Dosage Effect on Cytokine Production 
Molecular Medicine  2014;20(1):93-108.
The posttranscriptional mechanisms by which RNA binding proteins (RBPs) regulate T-cell differentiation and cytokine production in vivo remain unclear. The RBP HuR binds to labile mRNAs, usually leading to increases in mRNA stability and/or translation. Previous work demonstrated that HuR binds to the mRNAs encoding the Th2 transcription factor trans-acting T-cell–specific transcription factor (GATA-3) and Th2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, thereby regulating their expression. By using a novel conditional HuR knockout (KO) mouse in which HuR is deleted in activated T cells, we show that Th2-polarized cells from heterozygous HuR conditional (OX40-Cre HuRfl/+) KO mice had decreased steady-state levels of Gata3, Il4 and Il13 mRNAs with little changes at the protein level. Surprisingly, Th2-polarized cells from homozygous HuR conditional (OX40-Cre HuRfl/fl) KO mice showed increased Il2, Il4 and Il13 mRNA and protein via different mechanisms. Specifically, Il4 was transcriptionally upregulated in HuR KO T cells, whereas Il2 and Il13 mRNA stabilities increased. Additionally, when using the standard ovalbumin model of allergic airway inflammation, HuR conditional KO mice mounted a robust inflammatory response similar to mice with wild-type HuR levels. These results reveal a complex differential posttranscriptional regulation of cytokines by HuR in which gene dosage plays an important role. These findings may have significant implications in allergies and asthma, as well as autoimmune diseases and infection.
doi:10.2119/molmed.2013.00127
PMCID: PMC3960399  PMID: 24477678
23.  TLR4 Is Necessary for Hyaluronan-mediated Airway Hyperresponsiveness after Ozone Inhalation 
Rationale: Ozone is a common environmental air pollutant that contributes to hospitalizations for respiratory illness. The mechanisms, which regulate ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness, remain poorly understood. We have previously reported that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)–deficient animals are protected against ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and that hyaluronan (HA) mediates ozone-induced AHR. However, the relation between TLR4 and hyaluronan in the airway response to ozone remains unexplored.
Objectives: We hypothesized that HA acts as an endogenous TLR4 ligand for the development of AHR after ozone-induced environmental airway injury.
Methods: TLR4-deficient and wild-type C57BL/6 mice were exposed to either inhaled ozone or intratracheal HA and the inflammatory and AHR response was measured.
Measurements and Main Results: TLR4-deficient mice have similar levels of cellular inflammation, lung injury, and soluble HA levels as those of C57BL/6 mice after inhaled ozone exposure. However, TLR4-deficient mice are partially protected from AHR after ozone exposure as well as after direct intratracheal instillation of endotoxin-free low molecular weight HA. Similar patterns of TLR4-dependent cytokines were observed in the bronchial alveolar lavage fluid after exposure to either ozone or HA. Exposure to ozone increased immunohistological staining of TLR4 on lung macrophages. Furthermore, in vitro HA exposure of bone marrow–derived macrophages induced NF-κB and production of a similar pattern of proinflammatory cytokines in a manner dependent on TLR4.
Conclusions: Our observations support the observation that extracellular matrix HA contributes to ozone-induced airways disease. Furthermore, our results support that TLR4 contributes to the biological response to HA by mediating both the production of proinflammatory cytokines and the development of ozone-induced AHR.
doi:10.1164/rccm.200903-0381OC
PMCID: PMC2868499  PMID: 20007931
environmental airways injury; asthma; toll-like receptor; macrophage; TNF-α
24.  Alveolar Macrophages from Overweight/Obese Subjects with Asthma Demonstrate a Proinflammatory Phenotype 
Rationale: Obesity is associated with increased prevalence and severity of asthma. Adipose tissue macrophages can contribute to the systemic proinflammatory state associated with obesity. However, it remains unknown whether alveolar macrophages have a unique phenotype in overweight/obese patients with asthma.
Objectives: We hypothesized that leptin levels would be increased in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from overweight/obese subjects and, furthermore, that leptin would alter the response of alveolar macrophages to bacterial LPS.
Methods: Forty-two subjects with asthma and 46 healthy control subjects underwent research bronchoscopy. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from 66 was analyzed for the level of cellular inflammation, cytokines, and soluble leptin. Cultured primary macrophages from 22 subjects were exposed to LPS, leptin, or leptin plus LPS. Cytokines were measured in the supernatants.
Measurements and Main Results: Leptin levels were increased in overweight/obese subjects, regardless of asthma status (P = 0.013), but were significantly higher in overweight/obese subjects with asthma. Observed levels of tumor necrosis factor-α were highest in overweight/obese subjects with asthma. Ex vivo studies of primary alveolar macrophages indicated that the response to LPS was most robust in alveolar macrophages from overweight/obese subjects with asthma and that preexposure to high-dose leptin enhanced the proinflammatory response. Leptin alone was sufficient to induce production of proinflammatory cytokines from macrophages derived from overweight/obese subjects with asthma.
Conclusions: Ex vivo studies indicate that alveolar macrophages derived from overweight/obese subjects with asthma are uniquely sensitive to leptin. This macrophage phenotype, in the context of higher levels of soluble leptin, may contribute to the pathogenesis of airway disease associated with obesity.
doi:10.1164/rccm.201109-1671OC
PMCID: PMC3443798  PMID: 22773729
tumor necrosis factor-α; leptin; innate immunity; lipopolysaccharide; environmental lung disease
25.  In utero supplementation with methyl donors enhances allergic airway disease in mice 
The Journal of Clinical Investigation  2008;118(10):3462-3469.
Asthma is a complex heritable disease that is increasing in prevalence and severity, particularly in developed countries such as the United States, where 11% of the population is affected. The contribution of environmental and genetic factors to this growing epidemic is currently not well understood. We developed the hypothesis, based on previous literature, that changes in DNA methylation resulting in aberrant gene transcription may enhance the risk of developing allergic airway disease. Our findings indicate that in mice, a maternal diet supplemented with methyl donors enhanced the severity of allergic airway disease that was inherited transgenerationally. Using a genomic approach, we discovered 82 gene-associated loci that were differentially methylated after in utero supplementation with a methyl-rich diet. These methylation changes were associated with decreased transcriptional activity and increased disease severity. Runt-related transcription factor 3 (Runx3), a gene known to negatively regulate allergic airway disease, was found to be excessively methylated, and Runx3 mRNA and protein levels were suppressed in progeny exposed in utero to a high-methylation diet. Moreover, treatment with a demethylating agent increased Runx3 gene transcription, further supporting our claim that a methyl-rich diet can affect methylation status and consequent transcriptional regulation. Our findings indicate that dietary factors can modify the heritable risk of allergic airway disease through epigenetic mechanisms during a vulnerable period of fetal development in mice.
doi:10.1172/JCI34378
PMCID: PMC2542847  PMID: 18802477

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