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1.  Regulation of T Helper Cell Subsets by Cyclooxygenases and Their Metabolites 
Cyclooxygenases and their metabolites are important regulators of inflammatory responses and play critical roles in regulating the differentiation of T helper cell subsets in inflammatory diseases. In this review, we highlight new information on regulation of T helper cell subsets by cyclooxygenases and their metabolites. Prostanoids influence cytokine production on both antigen presenting cells and T cells to regulate the differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells to Th1, Th2 and Th17 cell phenotypes. Cyclooxygenases and PGE2 generally exacerbate Th2 and Th17 phenotypes, while suppressing Th1 differentiation. Thus, cycloxygenases may play a critical role in diseases that involve immune cell dysfunction. Targeting of cyclooxygenases and their eicosanoid products may represent a new approach for treatment of inflammatory diseases, tumors and autoimmune disorders.
doi:10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2012.11.002
PMCID: PMC3620713  PMID: 23201570
Cyclooxygenases; T helper cells; Prostanoids; PGE2
2.  Vitamin C activation of the biosynthesis of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids 
The cardiovascular effects of vitamin C (VitC) could be mediated by epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). We aimed to study the mechanism of VitC-dependent microsomal formation of cis- and trans-EETs and the regulation of EET levels in rat isolated perfused kidneys and in vivo. VitC biphasically stimulated rat kidney microsomal cis- and trans-EET formation in a ratio of 1:2, involving the participation of lipid hydroperoxides (LOOHs), Fe2+, and cytochrome P450 (CYP). Levels of LOOHs correlated with microsomal EET production. LOOH stimulation of CYP isoforms resulted in preferred trans-over cis-EET formation from arachidonic acid and was associated with the cleavage of LOOHs, which indicated a CYP peroxygenase activity. EETs contributed to VitC-induced vasodilator responses in rat isolated perfused kidneys. VitC (1 mg/ml) given in the drinking water for 9 days doubled rat urinary EET excretion, increased plasma levels of EETs, mostly trans-EETs, by 40%, and reduced plasma levels of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid. Depletion of VitC in brain cortex and kidney tissues by more than 20- and 50-fold, respectively, in gulonolactone oxidase-knockout mice was associated with mild increases in tissue EETs. These data suggest that LOOHs are a determinant factor for EET formation in vivo in which VitC exerts a key regulatory effect. VitC-activated CYP peroxygenase activity may represent a CYP interaction with lipoxygenases and cyclooxygenases to mediate the cardiovascular effects of VitC via formation of EETs.
doi:10.4236/abb.2012.33029
PMCID: PMC3958942  PMID: 24660109
Vitamin C; Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acids; Cytochrome P450; Lipid Hydroperoxides; Peroxygenase
3.  Cyclooxygenase-2 Regulates Th17 Cell Differentiation during Allergic Lung Inflammation 
Rationale: Th17 cells comprise a distinct lineage of proinflammatory T helper cells that are major contributors to allergic responses. It is unknown whether cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived eicosanoids regulate Th17 cells during allergic lung inflammation.
Objectives: To determine the role of COX metabolites in regulating Th17 cell differentiation and function during allergic lung inflammation.
Methods: COX-1−/−, COX-2−/−, and wild-type mice were studied in an in vivo model of ovalbumin-induced allergic inflammation and an in vitro model of Th17 differentiation using flow cytometry, cytokine assays, confocal microscopy, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunoblotting. In addition, the role of specific eicosanoids and their receptors was examined using synthetic prostaglandins (PGs), selective inhibitors, and siRNA knockdown.
Measurements and Main Results: Th17 cell differentiation in lung, lymph nodes, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was significantly lower in COX-2−/− mice after ovalbumin sensitization and exposure in vivo. In vitro studies revealed significantly impaired Th17 cell differentiation of COX-2−/− naive CD4+ T cells with decreased Stat3 phosphorylation and RORγt expression. Synthetic PGF2α and PGI2 enhanced Th17 cell differentiation of COX-2−/− CD4+ T cells in vitro. The selective COX-2 inhibitor, NS-398, and PGF2α receptor and PGI2 receptor siRNA knockdown significantly decreased Th17 cell differentiation in vitro. Administration of synthetic PGs restored accumulation of Th17 cells in lungs of allergic COX-2−/− mice in vivo.
Conclusions: COX-2 is a critical regulator of Th17 cell differentiation during allergic lung inflammation via autocrine signaling of PGI2 and PGF2α through their respective cell surface receptors.
doi:10.1164/rccm.201010-1637OC
PMCID: PMC3172888  PMID: 21474648
Th17 cell; COX-2; asthma; prostaglandins; IL-17
4.  Role of B-type natriuretic peptide in epoxyeicosatrienoic acid-mediated improved post-ischaemic recovery of heart contractile function 
Cardiovascular Research  2009;83(2):362-370.
Aims
This study examined the functional role of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET)-mediated cardioprotection in mice with targeted disruption of the sEH or Ephx2 gene (sEH null).
Methods and results
Isolated mouse hearts were perfused in the Langendorff mode and subjected to global no-flow ischaemia followed by reperfusion. Hearts were analysed for recovery of left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), mRNA levels, and protein expression. Naïve hearts from sEH null mice had similar expression of preproBNP (Nppb) mRNA compared with wild-type (WT) hearts. However, significant increases in Nppb mRNA and BNP protein expression occurred during post-ischaemic reperfusion and correlated with improved post-ischaemic recovery of LVDP. Perfusion with the putative EET receptor antagonist 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5(Z)-enoic acid prior to ischaemia reduced the preproBNP mRNA in sEH null hearts. Inhibitor studies demonstrated that perfusion with the natriuretic peptide receptor type-A (NPR-A) antagonist, A71915, limited the improved recovery in recombinant full-length mouse BNP (rBNP)- and 11,12-EET-perfused hearts as well as in sEH null mice. Increased expression of phosphorylated protein kinase C ε and Akt were found in WT hearts perfused with either 11,12-EET or rBNP, while mitochondrial glycogen synthase kinase-3β was significantly lower in the same samples. Furthermore, treatment with the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor wortmannin abolished improved LVDP recovery in 11,12-EET-treated hearts but not did significantly inhibit recovery of rBNP-treated hearts.
Conclusion
Taken together, these data indicate that EET-mediated cardioprotection involves BNP and PI3K signalling events.
doi:10.1093/cvr/cvp134
PMCID: PMC2701722  PMID: 19401302
B-type natriuretic peptide; Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid; Ischaemia-reperfusion; GSK-3β
5.  Pharmacologic Inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 in Influenza A Viral Infection in Mice 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(7):e11610.
Background
We previously demonstrated that cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 deficiency results in greater morbidity and inflammation, whereas COX-2 deficiency leads to reduced morbidity, inflammation and mortality in influenza infected mice.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We investigated the effects of COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors in influenza A viral infection. Mice were given a COX-1 inhibitor (SC-560), a COX-2 inhibitor (celecoxib) or no inhibitor beginning 2 weeks prior to influenza A viral infection (200 PFU) and throughout the course of the experiment. Body weight and temperature were measured daily as indicators of morbidity. Animals were sacrificed on days 1 and 4 post-infection and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected or daily mortality was recorded up to 2 weeks post-infection. Treatment with SC-560 significantly increased mortality and was associated with profound hypothermia and greater weight loss compared to celecoxib or control groups. On day 4 of infection, BAL fluid cells were modestly elevated in celecoxib treated mice compared to SC-560 or control groups. Viral titres were similar between treatment groups. Levels of TNF-α and G-CSF were significantly attenuated in the SC-560 and celecoxib groups versus control and IL-6 levels were significantly lower in BAL fluid of celecoxib treated mice versus control and versus the SC-560 group. The chemokine KC was significantly lower in SC-560 group versus control.
Conclusions/Significance
Treatment with a COX-1 inhibitor during influenza A viral infection is detrimental to the host whereas inhibition of COX-2 does not significantly modulate disease severity. COX-1 plays a critical role in controlling the thermoregulatory response to influenza A viral infection in mice.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011610
PMCID: PMC2904706  PMID: 20657653
6.  Electrophysiological Properties of Cardiomyocytes Isolated from CYP2J2 Transgenic Mice 
Molecular pharmacology  2007;72(4):1063-1073.
CYP2J2 is abundant in cardiac tissue and active in the biosynthesis of eicosanoids such as epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). To determine the effects of CYP2J2 and its eicosanoid products in the heart, we characterized the electrophysiology of single cardiomyocytes isolated from adult transgenic (Tr) mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of CYP2J2. CYP2J2 Tr cardiomyocytes had a shortened action potential. At 90% repolarization, the action potential duration (APD) was 30.6 ± 3.0 ms (n = 22) in wild-type (Wt) cells and 20.2 ± 2.3 ms (n = 19) in CYP2J2 Tr cells (p < 0.005). This shortening was probably due to enhanced maximal peak transient outward K+ currents (Ito,peak), which were 38.6 ± 2.8 and 54.4 ± 4.9 pA/pF in Wt and CYP2J2 Tr cells, respectively (p < 0.05). In contrast, the late portion of the transient outward K+ current (Ito,280ms), the slowly inactivating outward K+ current (IK,slow), and the voltage-gated Na+ current (INa) were not significantly altered in CYP2J2 Tr cells. N-Methylsulphonyl-6-(2-proparglyloxy-phenyl)hexanamide (MS-PPOH), a specific inhibitor of EET biosynthesis, significantly reduced Ito,peak and increased APD in CYP2J2 Tr cardiomyocytes but not in Wt cells. Intracellular dialysis with a monoclonal antibody against CYP2J2 also significantly reduced Ito,peak and increased APD in CYP2J2 Tr cardiomyocytes. Addition of 11,12-EET or 8-bromo-cAMP significantly reversed the MS-PPOH- or monoclonal antibody-induced changes in Ito,peak and APD in CYP2J2 Tr cells. Together, our data demonstrate that shortening of the action potential in CYP2J2 Tr cardiomyocytes is associated with enhanced Ito,peak via an EET-dependent, cAMP-mediated mechanism.
doi:10.1124/mol.107.035881
PMCID: PMC2243182  PMID: 17652182
7.  Cyclooxygenase-1 Overexpression Decreases Basal Airway Responsiveness but Not Allergic Inflammation1 
Pharmacological inhibition or genetic disruption of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 or COX-2 exacerbates the inflammatory and functional responses of the lung to environmentally relevant stimuli. To further examine the contribution of COX-derived eicosanoids to basal lung function and to allergic lung inflammation, transgenic (Tr) mice were generated in which overexpression of human COX-1 was targeted to airway epithelium. Although no differences in basal respiratory or lung mechanical parameters were observed, COX-1 Tr mice had increased bronchoalveolar lavage fluid PGE2 content compared with wild-type littermates (23.0 ± 3.6 vs 8.4 ± 1.4 pg/ml; p < 0.05) and exhibited decreased airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine. In an OVA-induced allergic airway inflammation model, comparable up-regulation of COX-2 protein was observed in the lungs of allergic wild-type and COX-1 Tr mice. Furthermore, no genotype differences were observed in allergic mice in total cell number, eosinophil content (70 vs 76% of total cells, respectively), and inflammatory cytokine content of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, or in airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine (p > 0.05). To eliminate the presumed confounding effects of COX-2 up-regulation, COX-1 Tr mice were bred into a COX-2 null background. In these mice, the presence of the COX-1 transgene did not alter allergen-induced inflammation but significantly attenuated allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness, coincident with reduced airway leuko-triene levels. Collectively, these data indicate that COX-1 overexpression attenuates airway responsiveness under basal conditions but does not influence allergic airway inflammation.
PMCID: PMC2222891  PMID: 16982919
8.  Spontaneous Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Estrogen Receptor-α–deficient Mice 
Rationale: Airway hyperresponsiveness is a critical feature of asthma. Substantial epidemiologic evidence supports a role for female sex hormones in modulating lung function and airway hyperresponsiveness in humans.
Objectives: To examine the role of estrogen receptors in modulating lung function and airway responsiveness using estrogen receptor–deficient mice.
Methods: Lung function was assessed by a combination of whole-body barometric plethysmography, invasive measurement of airway resistance, and isometric force measurements in isolated bronchial rings. M2 muscarinic receptor expression was assessed by Western blotting, and function was assessed by electrical field stimulation of tracheas in the presence/absence of gallamine. Allergic airway disease was examined after ovalbumin sensitization and exposure.
Measurements and Main Results: Estrogen receptor-α knockout mice exhibit a variety of lung function abnormalities and have enhanced airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine and serotonin under basal conditions. This is associated with reduced M2 muscarinic receptor expression and function in the lungs. Absence of estrogen receptor-α also leads to increased airway responsiveness without increased inflammation after allergen sensitization and challenge.
Conclusions: These data suggest that estrogen receptor-α is a critical regulator of airway hyperresponsiveness in mice.
doi:10.1164/rccm.200509-1493OC
PMCID: PMC1899278  PMID: 17095746
lung function; asthma; hyperreactivity; M2 muscarinic receptor; estrogen receptor
9.  Spontaneous Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Estrogen Receptor-α–deficient Mice 
Rationale
Airway hyperresponsiveness is a critical feature of asthma. Substantial epidemiologic evidence supports a role for female sex hormones in modulating lung function and airway hyperresponsiveness in humans.
Objectives
To examine the role of estrogen receptors in modulating lung function and airway responsiveness using estrogen receptor–deficient mice.
Methods
Lung function was assessed by a combination of whole-body barometric plethysmography, invasive measurement of airway resistance, and isometric force measurements in isolated bronchial rings. M2 muscarinic receptor expression was assessed by Western blotting, and function was assessed by electrical field stimulation of tracheas in the presence/absence of gallamine. Allergic airway disease was examined after ovalbumin sensitization and exposure.
Measurements and Main Results
Estrogen receptor-α knockout mice exhibit a variety of lung function abnormalities and have enhanced airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine and serotonin under basal conditions. This is associated with reduced M2 muscarinic receptor expression and function in the lungs. Absence of estrogen receptor-α also leads to increased airway responsiveness without increased inflammation after allergen sensitization and challenge.
Conclusions
These data suggest that estrogen receptor-α is a critical regulator of airway hyperresponsiveness in mice.
doi:10.1164/rccm.200509-1493OC
PMCID: PMC1899278  PMID: 17095746
lung function; asthma; hyperreactivity; M2 muscarinic receptor; estrogen receptor

Results 1-9 (9)