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1.  Galactose-α-1,3-galactose and Delayed Anaphylaxis, Angioedema, and Urticaria in Children 
Pediatrics  2013;131(5):e1545-e1552.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:
Despite a thorough history and comprehensive testing, many children who present with recurrent symptoms consistent with allergic reactions elude diagnosis. Recent research has identified a novel cause for “idiopathic” allergic reactions; immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody specific for the carbohydrate galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) has been associated with delayed urticaria and anaphylaxis that occurs 3 to 6 hours after eating beef, pork, or lamb. We sought to determine whether IgE antibody to α-Gal was present in sera of pediatric patients who reported idiopathic anaphylaxis or urticaria.
METHODS:
Patients aged 4 to 17 were enrolled in an institutional review board–approved protocol at the University of Virginia and private practice allergy offices in Lynchburg, VA. Sera was obtained and analyzed by ImmunoCAP for total IgE and specific IgE to α-Gal, beef, pork, cat epithelium and dander, Fel d 1, dog dander, and milk.
RESULTS:
Forty-five pediatric patients were identified who had both clinical histories supporting delayed anaphylaxis or urticaria to mammalian meat and IgE antibody specific for α-Gal. In addition, most of these cases had a history of tick bites within the past year, which itched and persisted.
CONCLUSIONS:
A novel form of anaphylaxis and urticaria that occurs 3 to 6 hours after eating mammalian meat is not uncommon among children in our area. Identification of these cases may not be straightforward and diagnosis is best confirmed by specific testing, which should certainly be considered for children living in the area where the Lone Star tick is common.
doi:10.1542/peds.2012-2585
PMCID: PMC3639458  PMID: 23569097
α-Gal; galactose-α-1,3-galactose; delayed anaphylaxis; pediatric urticaria
2.  Initial Description of Pork-Cat Syndrome in the United States 
doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2012.12.665
PMCID: PMC3594363  PMID: 23352634
cat serum albumin; food allergy; pork
3.  Delayed Anaphylaxis to Red Meat in Patients with IgE Specific for Galactose alpha-1,3-Galactose (alpha-gal) 
Anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction that can be rapidly progressing and fatal. In instances where the triggering allergen is not known, establishing the etiology of anaphylaxis is pivotal to long-term risk management. Our recent work has identified a novel IgE antibody (Ab) response to a mammalian oligosaccharide epitope, galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal), that has been associated with two distinct forms of anaphylaxis: (1) immediate onset anaphylaxis during first exposure to intravenous cetuximab, and (2) delayed onset anaphylaxis 3–6 h after ingestion of mammalian food products (e.g., beef and pork). The results of our studies strongly suggest that tick bites are a cause, if not the only significant cause, of IgE Ab responses to alpha-gal in the southern, eastern and central United States. Patients with IgE Ab to alpha-gal continue to emerge and, increasingly, these cases involve children. This IgE Ab response cross-reacts with cat and dog but does not appear to pose a risk for asthma; however, it may impair diagnostic testing in some situations.
doi:10.1007/s11882-012-0315-y
PMCID: PMC3545071  PMID: 23054628
Anaphylaxis; Delayedanaphylaxis; Alpha-gal; Galactose; Food allergy; IgE; Mammalian meat; Tick bites; Asthma; Red meat
4.  A Peculiar Cause of Anaphylaxis: No More steak? 
ABSTRACT
In recent years, a newly recognized allergic disease has been uncovered, and seemingly idiopathic causes of anaphylaxis now have an explanation. Individuals bitten by the lone star tick may develop IgE antibodies to the carbohydrate galactose-α-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal). Upon exposure of sensitized subjects to mammalian meat containing alpha-gal on glycoproteins or glycolipids, delayed anaphylaxis may ensue, often three to six hours after ingestion.1 Many of these individuals have negative allergy skin prick tests to meat, further obscuring the diagnosis. With the recent development of IgE alpha-gal tests, the clinical diagnosis can be confirmed in the laboratory.
doi:10.1007/s11606-012-2144-z
PMCID: PMC3614139  PMID: 22815061
allergy; anaphylaxis; immunology; tick; meat
5.  IgE Production to α-Gal Is Accompanied by Elevated Levels of Specific IgG1 Antibodies and Low Amounts of IgE to Blood Group B 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(2):e55566.
IgE antibodies to gal-α-1,3-gal-β-1,4-GlcNAc (α-gal) can mediate a novel form of delayed anaphylaxis to red meat. Although IgG antibodies to α-gal (anti-α-gal or anti-Gal) are widely expressed in humans, IgE anti-α-gal is not. We explored the relationship between the IgG and IgE responses to both α-gal and the related blood group B antigen. Contradicting previous reports, antibodies to α-gal were found to be significantly less abundant in individuals with blood group B or AB. Importantly, we established a connection between IgE and IgG responses to α-gal: elevated titers of IgG anti-α-gal were found in IgE-positive subjects. In particular, proportionally more IgG1 anti-α-gal was found in IgE-positive subjects against a background of IgG2 production specific for α-gal. Thus, two types of immune response to α-gal epitopes can be distinguished: a ‘typical’ IgG2 response, presumably in response to gut bacteria, and an ‘atypical’, Th2-like response leading to IgG1 and IgE in addition to IgG2. These results suggest that IgE to a carbohydrate antigen can be formed (probably as part of a glycoprotein or glycolipid) even against a background of bacterial immune stimulation with essentially the same antigen.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055566
PMCID: PMC3563531  PMID: 23390540
6.  Galactose-α-1,3-Galactose–Specific IgE Is Associated with Anaphylaxis but Not Asthma 
Rationale: IgE antibodies to the mammalian oligosaccharide galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal) are common in the southeastern United States. These antibodies, which are induced by ectoparasitic ticks, can give rise to positive skin tests or serum assays with cat extract.
Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between IgE antibodies to α-gal and asthma, and compare this with the relationship between asthma and IgE antibodies to Fel d 1 and other protein allergens.
Methods: Patients being investigated for recurrent anaphylaxis, angioedema, or acute urticaria underwent spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, questionnaires, and serum IgE antibody assays. The results were compared with control subjects and cohorts from the emergency department in Virginia (n = 130), northern Sweden (n = 963), and rural Kenya (n = 131).
Measurements and Main Results: Patients in Virginia with high-titer IgE antibodies to α-gal had normal lung function, low levels of exhaled nitric oxide, and low prevalence of asthma symptoms. Among patients in the emergency department and children in Kenya, there was no association between IgE antibodies to α-gal and asthma (odds ratios, 1.04 and 0.75, respectively). In Sweden, IgE antibodies to cat were closely correlated with IgE antibodies to Fel d 1 (r = 0.83) and to asthma (P < 0.001).
Conclusions: These results provide a model of an ectoparasite-induced specific IgE response that can increase total serum IgE without creating a risk for asthma, and further evidence that the main allergens that are causally related to asthma are those that are inhaled.
doi:10.1164/rccm.201111-2017OC
PMCID: PMC3326422  PMID: 22281828
α-gal; red meat allergy; ticks; total serum IgE; ectoparasite
7.  Delayed anaphylaxis, angioedema, or urticaria after consumption of red meat in patients with IgE antibodies specific for galactose-α-1,3-galactose 
Background
Carbohydrate moieties are frequently encountered in food and can elicit IgE responses, the clinical significance of which has been unclear. Recent work, however, has shown that IgE antibodies to galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal), a carbohydrate commonly expressed on nonprimate mammalian proteins, are capable of eliciting serious, even fatal, reactions.
Objective
We sought to determine whether IgE antibodies to α-gal are present in sera from patients who report anaphylaxis or urticaria after eating beef, pork, or lamb.
Methods
Detailed histories were taken from patients presenting to the University of Virginia Allergy Clinic. Skin prick tests (SPTs), intradermal skin tests, and serum IgE antibody analysis were performed for common indoor, outdoor, and food allergens.
Results
Twenty-four patients with IgE antibodies to α-gal were identified. These patients described a similar history of anaphylaxis or urticaria 3 to 6 hours after the ingestion of meat and reported fewer or no episodes when following an avoidance diet. SPTs to mammalian meat produced wheals of usually less than 4 mm, whereas intradermal or fresh-food SPTs provided larger and more consistent wheal responses. CAP-RAST testing revealed specific IgE antibodies to beef, pork, lamb, cow’s milk, cat, and dog but not turkey, chicken, or fish. Absorption experiments indicated that this pattern of sensitivity was explained by an IgE antibody specific for α-gal.
Conclusion
We report a novel and severe food allergy related to IgE antibodies to the carbohydrate epitope α-gal. These patients experience delayed symptoms of anaphylaxis, angioedema, or urticaria associated with eating beef, pork, or lamb.
doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2008.10.052
PMCID: PMC3324851  PMID: 19070355
Anaphylaxis; urticaria; food allergy; galactose-α-1; 3-galactose; cross-reactive carbohydrate determinant

Results 1-8 (8)