It is believed that off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) leads to hypercoagulability, but efforts to document such a state have been unrevealing. We hypothesized that OPCAB increases the risk of developing a regional hypercoagulable state.
Blood was obtained from the aorta and coronary sinus (CS) after CABG performed off- (N=69) or on-pump (N=35) to determine the transcardiac gradients of F1.2 (thrombin production), XIIa (coagulation activation), myoglobin (ischemia) and IL-6, IL-8 using ELISA and platelet-derived microparticles using FACS. Platelet function was measured using aggregometry. Regional myocardial pH and SVG flow were recorded intraoperatively. SVG biopsies were analyzed for endothelial integrity (EI) using immunohistochemistry and graft patency was determined by predischarge CT angiography.
Compared with on-pump, OPCAB provoked significantly higher transcardiac F1.2 (117±200 v. 31±38%), FXII-a (14±29 v. 2±4%), microparticles (14±−9.5% v. 6.4±−4.1%), IL-6 (119±183 v. 28±39%), and a trend toward increased IL-8 (67±94 v. 24±46%, P = 0.077). Myoglobin release after OPCAB, also greater than on-pump CABG (54±89 v. 8±14%, P < 0.01), correlated with regional pH change (R=−0.96, P < 0.0001), and F1.2 release (R=0.55, P = 0.0002). In contrast, systemic changes in these markers were all less after OPCAB. SVG flow was significantly reduced in OPCAB (39.4 versus 66.5 mL/min, P = 0.0002), but EI and graft patency rates were the same.
Through the use of transcardiac assays, we illustrated that regional coagulation was enhanced after off- compared with on-pump CABG. If the findings of this pilot study are confirmed, OPCAB may require additional antithrombotic therapies to respond to this local hypercoagulable state.