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1.  Evaluation and Management of Pulmonary Disease in Ataxia-Telangiectasia 
Pediatric pulmonology  2010;45(9):847-859.
Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the ATM gene, resulting in faulty repair of breakages in double-stranded DNA. The clinical phenotype is complex, and is characterized by neurologic abnormalities, immunodeficiencies, susceptibility to malignancies, recurrent sinopulmonary infections, and cutaneous abnormalities. Lung disease is common in patients with A-T and often progresses with age and neurological decline. Diseases of the respiratory system cause significant morbidity and are a frequent cause of death in the A-T population. Lung disease in this population is thought to exhibit features of one or more of the following phenotypes: recurrent sinopulmonary infections with bronchiectasis, interstitial lung disease, and lung disease associated with neurological abnormalities. Here, we review available evidence and present expert opinion on the diagnosis, evaluation, and management of lung disease in A-T, as discussed in a recent multidisciplinary workshop. Although more data are emerging on this unique population, many recommendations are made based on similarities to other more well-studied diseases. Gaps in current knowledge and areas for future research in the field of pulmonary disease in A-T are also outlined.
PMCID: PMC4151879  PMID: 20583220
2.  An Official American Thoracic Society Clinical Practice Guideline: Classification, Evaluation, and Management of Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease in Infancy 
Background: There is growing recognition and understanding of the entities that cause interstitial lung disease (ILD) in infants. These entities are distinct from those that cause ILD in older children and adults.
Methods: A multidisciplinary panel was convened to develop evidence-based guidelines on the classification, diagnosis, and management of ILD in children, focusing on neonates and infants under 2 years of age. Recommendations were formulated using a systematic approach. Outcomes considered important included the accuracy of the diagnostic evaluation, complications of delayed or incorrect diagnosis, psychosocial complications affecting the patient’s or family’s quality of life, and death.
Results: No controlled clinical trials were identified. Therefore, observational evidence and clinical experience informed judgments. These guidelines: (1) describe the clinical characteristics of neonates and infants (<2 yr of age) with diffuse lung disease (DLD); (2) list the common causes of DLD that should be eliminated during the evaluation of neonates and infants with DLD; (3) recommend methods for further clinical investigation of the remaining infants, who are regarded as having “childhood ILD syndrome”; (4) describe a new pathologic classification scheme of DLD in infants; (5) outline supportive and continuing care; and (6) suggest areas for future research.
Conclusions: After common causes of DLD are excluded, neonates and infants with childhood ILD syndrome should be evaluated by a knowledgeable subspecialist. The evaluation may include echocardiography, controlled ventilation high-resolution computed tomography, infant pulmonary function testing, bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage, genetic testing, and/or lung biopsy. Preventive care, family education, and support are essential.
PMCID: PMC3778735  PMID: 23905526
diffuse lung disease; lung growth abnormalities; surfactant proteins; neuroendocrine cells
3.  Neuroendocrine Cell Hyperplasia of Infancy: Diagnosis With High-Resolution CT 
Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy is a form of childhood interstitial lung disease originally reported as persistent tachypnea of infancy. Reports of small series of cases and anecdotal experience have suggested that this disorder may have a consistent CT pattern. The purpose of this study was to review the CT findings in children with neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy to determine the findings at high-resolution CT, the diagnostic accuracy of CT compared with biopsy, and interrater reliability.
Images from 23 CT examinations of children with biopsy-proven neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy and six CT examinations of children with other childhood interstitial lung diseases were reviewed by two pediatric radiologists with special expertise in thoracic imaging. Identifying digital data were removed, and images were reviewed without clinical data. A CT assessment form was completed for each patient.
Ground-glass opacification was the most common finding in patients with neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy. The right middle lobe and lingula were most commonly involved. Air trapping with a mosaic pattern was the second most common finding. Interrater reliability was very good with a kappa value of 0.93. The sensitivity and specificity of CT in the diagnosis of neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy were at least 78% and 100%.
Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy can have a characteristic appearance on high-resolution CT scans, the imaging findings being useful in differentiating neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy from other types of childhood interstitial lung disease. The appearance aids radiologists in suggesting a specific diagnosis but does not exclude this diagnosis; in 17–22% of cases, the readers in this study did not suggest the diagnosis of neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy when it was present.
PMCID: PMC3785715  PMID: 20028928
children; CT; ground-glass opacification; infants; interstitial lung disease; neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy; persistent tachypnea
4.  Diagnostic criteria and follow-up in neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy: a case series*  
Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy (NEHI) is a form of childhood interstitial lung disease characterized by tachypnea, retractions, crackles, and hypoxia. The aim of this study was to report and discuss the clinical, imaging, and histopathological findings in a series of NEHI cases at a tertiary pediatric hospital, with an emphasis on diagnostic criteria and clinical outcomes.
Between 2003 and 2011, 12 full-term infants were diagnosed with NEHI, based on clinical and tomographic findings. Those infants were followed for 1-91 months. Four infants were biopsied, and the histopathological specimens were stained with bombesin antibody.
In this case series, symptoms appeared at birth in 6 infants and by 3 months of age in the remaining 6. In all of the cases, NEHI was associated with acute respiratory infection. The most common initial chest HRCT findings were ground-glass opacities that were in the middle lobe/lingula in 12 patients and in other medullary areas in 10. Air trapping was the second most common finding, being observed in 7 patients. Follow-up HRCT scans (performed in 10 patients) revealed normal results in 1 patient and improvement in 9. The biopsy findings were nonspecific, and the staining was positive for bombesin in all samples. Confirmation of NEHI was primarily based on clinical and tomographic findings. Symptoms improved during the follow-up period (mean, 41 months). A clinical cure was achieved in 4 patients.
In this sample of patients, the diagnosis of NEHI was made on the basis of the clinical and tomographic findings, independent of the lung biopsy results. Most of the patients showed clinical improvement and persistent tomographic changes during the follow-up period, regardless of the initial severity of the disease or type of treatment.
PMCID: PMC4075883  PMID: 24310630
Lung diseases, interstitial/diagnosis; Lung diseases, interstitial/treatment; Tomography, X-ray computed
5.  Regional Differences in the Evolution of Lung Disease in Children with Cystic Fibrosis 
Pediatric Pulmonology  2011;47(7):635-640.
Progression of lung disease is a major event in children with cystic fibrosis (CF), but regional differences in its evolution are unclear. We hypothesized that regional differences occur beginning in early childhood. We examined this issue by evaluating 132 patients followed in the Wisconsin Neonatal Screening Project between 1985 and 2010. We scored chest x-rays obtained every 1–2 years with the Wisconsin chest x-ray system, in which we divided the lungs into quadrants, and gave special attention to ratings for bronchiectasis (BX) and nodular/branching opacities. We compared the upper and lower quadrant scores, and upper right and left quadrant scores, as patients aged using a multivariable generalized estimation equation (GEE) model. We did a confirmatory analysis for a subset of 81 patients with chest computerized tomography (CT) images obtained in 2000 and scored using the Brody scoring system. The chest x-ray analysis shows that the upper quadrants have higher BX (p<0.001) and nodular/branching opacities (p<0.001) scores than the lower quadrants. CT analysis likewise reveals that the upper quadrants have more BX (p=0.02). Patients positive for mucoid PA showed significantly higher BX scores than patients with nonmucoid PA (p= 0.001). Chest x-ray scoring also revealed that the upper right quadrant has more BX (p< 0.001) than the upper left quadrant, and CT analysis was again confirmatory (p< 0.001). We conclude that pediatric patients with CF develop more severe lung disease in the upper lobes than the lower lobes in association with mucoid PA infections and also have more severe lung disease on the right side than on the left side in the upper quadrants. A variety of potential explanations such as aspiration episodes may be clinically relevant and provide insights regarding therapies.
PMCID: PMC3310260  PMID: 22162514
cystic fibrosis; lung disease; bronchiectasis; upper lobes; mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa
6.  The Sensitivity of Lung Disease Surrogates in Detecting Chest CT Abnormalities in Children with Cystic Fibrosis 
Pediatric Pulmonology  2011;47(6):567-573.
Chest CT scans detect structural abnormalities in children with cystic fibrosis (CF), even when pulmonary function tests (PFTs) are normal. The use of chest CT is limited in clinical practice, because of concerns over expense, increased resource utilization, and radiation exposure. Quantitative chest radiography scores are useful in detecting mild lung disease, but whether they are sensitive to the presence of CT scan abnormalities has not been evaluated.
To determine in a cross-sectional study if quantitative chest radiography is a more sensitive marker of chest CT abnormalities than other lung disease surrogates.
Brody chest CT scores were calculated for 81 children enrolled in the Wisconsin CF Neonatal Screening Project. We determined the sensitivity for Wisconsin (WCXR) and Brasfield (BCXR) chest radiography scores, PFTs, positive cultures for P. aeruginosa (PA), and parental report of symptoms to detect a Brody score worse than the median score for study participants.
Measurements and Main Results
The mean FEV1 for the study population was 91% predicted. Abnormal WCXR and BCXR scores had the highest sensitivity to detect a chest CT score worse than the median; abnormal PFTs, parental report of symptoms, and the presence of PA had much lower sensitivity (p<0.001).
In this cross sectional study, quantitative chest radiography has excellent sensitivity to detect an abnormal chest CT and may have a role in monitoring lung disease progression in children with CF.
PMCID: PMC3309112  PMID: 22170734
Chest x-ray; quantitative radiography; pulmonary function
7.  Chest Computed Tomography Scores of Severity Are Associated with Future Lung Disease Progression in Children with Cystic Fibrosis 
Rationale: Most children with cystic fibrosis (CF) experience a slow decline in spirometry, although some children continue to be at risk for more significant lung disease progression. Chest computed tomography (CT) scans have been shown to be more sensitive to changes in lung disease than spirometry and may provide a means for predicting future lung disease progression.
Objectives: We hypothesized that Brody chest CT scan scores obtained in 2000 in a prospectively monitored cohort of children with CF would be associated with the most recent measures of lung disease severity.
Methods: Brody chest CT scan scores were calculated for 81 children enrolled in the Wisconsin CF Neonatal Screening Project. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine associations between Brody scores and the most recent (age 21 yr or June 30, 2010, whichever was later) measures of CF lung disease.
Measurements and Main Results: The mean observation time after the chest CT scan was 7.5 years. Brody chest CT scan scores were significantly associated with the most recent measures of spirometry (P < 0.001) and Wisconsin and Brasfield chest radiograph scores (P < 0.001). The strength of this association was much stronger than spirometry obtained near the time of the chest CT scan (P < 0.01) but not chest radiograph scores.
Conclusions: Chest CT scan scores are associated with future lung disease severity, and quantitative chest imaging (chest CT scan and chest radiograph scores) is more strongly associated with future lung disease severity than measures of spirometry. These findings may help clinicians identify patients at risk of future lung disease progression.
PMCID: PMC3208650  PMID: 21737586
chest x-ray; pulmonary function tests; FEV1; quantitative chest radiography
8.  Sirolimus for Angiomyolipoma in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex or Lymphangioleiomyomatosis 
The New England Journal of Medicine  2008;358(2):140-151.
Angiomyolipomas in patients with the tuberous sclerosis complex or sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis are associated with mutations in tuberous sclerosis genes resulting in constitutive activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). The drug sirolimus suppresses mTOR signaling.
We conducted a 24-month, nonrandomized, open-label trial to determine whether sirolimus reduces the angiomyolipoma volume in patients with the tuberous sclerosis complex or sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Sirolimus was administered for the first 12 months only. Serial magnetic resonance imaging of angiomyolipomas and brain lesions, computed tomography of lung cysts, and pulmonary-function tests were performed.
Of the 25 patients enrolled, 20 completed the 12-month evaluation, and 18 completed the 24-month evaluation. The mean (±SD) angiomyolipoma volume at 12 months was 53.2±26.6% of the baseline value (P<0.001) and at 24 months was 85.9±28.5% of the baseline value (P = 0.005). At 24 months, five patients had a persistent reduction in the angiomyolipoma volume of 30% or more. During the period of sirolimus therapy, among patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis, the mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) increased by 118±330 ml (P = 0.06), the forced vital capacity (FVC) increased by 390±570 ml (P<0.001), and the residual volume decreased by 439±493 ml (P = 0.02), as compared with baseline values. One year after sirolimus was discontinued, the FEV1 was 62±411 ml above the baseline value, the FVC was 346±712 ml above the baseline value, and the residual volume was 333±570 ml below the baseline value; cerebral lesions were unchanged. Five patients had six serious adverse events while receiving sirolimus, including diarrhea, pyelonephritis, stomatitis, and respiratory infections.
Angiomyolipomas regressed somewhat during sirolimus therapy but tended to increase in volume after the therapy was stopped. Some patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis had improvement in spirometric measurements and gas trapping that persisted after treatment. Suppression of mTOR signaling might constitute an ameliorative treatment in patients with the tuberous sclerosis complex or sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis. ( number, NCT00457808.)
PMCID: PMC3398441  PMID: 18184959
9.  Patient-derived Granulocyte/Macrophage Colony–Stimulating Factor Autoantibodies Reproduce Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis in Nonhuman Primates 
Rationale: Granulocyte/macrophage colony–stimulating factor (GM-CSF) autoantibodies (GMAb) are strongly associated with idiopathic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) and are believed to be important in its pathogenesis. However, levels of GMAb do not correlate with disease severity and GMAb are also present at low levels in healthy individuals.
Objectives: Our primary objective was to determine whether human GMAb would reproduce PAP in healthy primates. A secondary objective was to determine the concentration of GMAb resulting in loss of GM-CSF signaling in vivo (i.e., critical threshold).
Methods: Nonhuman primates (Macaca fascicularis) were injected with highly purified, PAP patient-derived GMAb in dose-ranging (2.2–50 mg) single and multiple administration studies, and after blocking antihuman immunoglobulin immune responses, in chronic administration studies maintaining serum levels greater than 40 μg/ml for up to 11 months.
Measurements and Main Results: GMAb blocked GM-CSF signaling causing (1) a milky-appearing bronchoalveolar lavage fluid containing increased surfactant lipids and proteins; (2) enlarged, foamy, surfactant-filled alveolar macrophages with reduced PU.1 and PPARγ mRNA, and reduced tumor necrosis factor-α secretion; (3) pulmonary leukocytosis; (4) increased serum surfactant protein-D; and (5) impaired neutrophil functions. GM-CSF signaling varied inversely with GMAb concentration below a critical threshold of 5 μg/ml, which was similar in lungs and blood and to the value observed in patients with PAP.
Conclusions: GMAb reproduced the molecular, cellular, and histopathologic features of PAP in healthy primates, demonstrating that GMAb directly cause PAP. These results have implications for therapy of PAP and help define the therapeutic window for potential use of GMAb to treat other disorders.
PMCID: PMC2902758  PMID: 20224064
alveolar macrophages; surfactant homeostasis; autoimmunity; neutrophils; anti–granulocyte/macrophage colony–stimulating factor therapy
11.  Diffuse Lung Disease in Young Children 
Rationale: Considerable confusion exists regarding nomenclature, classification, and management of pediatric diffuse lung diseases due to the relative rarity and differences in the spectrum of disease between adults and young children.
Objectives: A multidisciplinary working group was formed to: (1) apply consensus terminology and diagnostic criteria for disorders presenting with diffuse lung disease in infancy; and (2) describe the distribution of disease entities, clinical features, and outcome in young children who currently undergo lung biopsy in North America.
Methods: Eleven centers provided pathologic material, clinical data, and imaging from all children less than 2 years of age who underwent lung biopsy for diffuse lung disease from 1999 to 2004.
Measurements and Main Results: Multidisciplinary review categorized 88% of 187 cases. Disorders more prevalent in infancy, including primary developmental and lung growth abnormalities, neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy, and surfactant-dysfunction disorders, constituted the majority of cases (60%). Lung growth disorders were often unsuspected clinically and under-recognized histologically. Cases with known surfactant mutations had characteristic pathologic features. Age at biopsy and clinical presentation varied among categories. Pulmonary hypertension, presence of a primary developmental abnormality, or ABCA3 mutation was associated with high mortality, while no deaths occurred in cases of pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis, or neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy.
Conclusions: This retrospective cohort study identifies a diverse spectrum of lung disorders, largely unique to young children. Application of a classification scheme grouped clinically distinct patients with variable age of biopsy and mortality. Standardized terminology and classification will enhance accurate description and diagnosis of these disorders.
PMCID: PMC2176101  PMID: 17885266
infant; pulmonary; interstitial lung disease; surfactant; neuroendocrine hyperplasia
12.  Endpoints for Clinical Trials in Young Children with Cystic Fibrosis 
The availability of sensitive, reproducible, and feasible outcome measures for quantifying lung disease in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) younger than 6 years is critical to the conduct of clinical trials in this important population. Historically, identifying and quantifying the presence of lung disease in very young children with CF was hampered by a lack of reproducible measures of lung function or lung pathology. Over the past 10 years, significant progress has led to physiologic, anatomic, and bronchoscopic measures that may serve as endpoints for future intervention trials. These endpoints include infant and preschool lung function testing, computed tomography of the chest, and bronchoalveolar lavage markers of inflammation and infection. Much progress has occurred in standardizing lung function testing, which is essential for multicenter collaboration. Pulmonary exacerbation has the potential to serve as a clinical endpoint; however, there is currently no standardized definition in children with CF younger than 6 years. Further development of these outcomes measures will enable clinical trials in the youngest CF population with the objective of improving long-term prognosis.
PMCID: PMC2647606  PMID: 17652509
infant; child, preschool; respiratory function tests, computed tomography scanners, X-ray; bronchoalveolar lavage
13.  Is chest CT useful in newborn screened infants with cystic fibrosis at 1 year of age? 
Thorax  2013;69(4):320-327.
Sensitive outcome measures applicable in different centres to quantify and track early pulmonary abnormalities in infants with cystic fibrosis (CF) are needed both for clinical care and interventional trials. Chest CT has been advocated as such a measure yet there is no validated scoring system in infants.
The objectives of this study were to standardise CT data collection across multiple sites; ascertain the incidence of bronchial dilatation and air trapping in newborn screened (NBS) infants with CF at 1 year; and assess the reproducibility of Brody-II, the most widely used scoring system in children with CF, during infancy.
A multicentre observational study of early pulmonary lung disease in NBS infants with CF at age 1 year using volume-controlled chest CT performed under general anaesthetic.
Main results
65 infants with NBS-diagnosed CF had chest CT in three centres. Small insignificant variations in lung recruitment manoeuvres but significant centre differences in radiation exposures were found. Despite experienced scorers and prior training, with the exception of air trapping, inter- and intraobserver agreement on Brody-II score was poor to fair (eg, interobserver total score mean (95% CI) κ coefficient: 0.34 (0.20 to 0.49)). Only 7 (11%) infants had a total CT score ≥12 (ie, ≥5% maximum possible) by either scorer.
In NBS infants with CF, CT changes were very mild at 1 year, and assessment of air trapping was the only reproducible outcome. CT is thus of questionable value in infants of this age, unless an improved scoring system for use in mild CF disease can be developed.
PMCID: PMC3963531  PMID: 24132911

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