Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) could be produced during the plant-virus compatible interaction. However, the cell responses regulated by the enhanced H2O2 in virus infected plant are largely unknown. To make clear the influence of Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) infection on H2O2 accumulation, we measured the content of H2O2 and found the H2O2 level was increased in rice seedlings inoculated with RBSDV. To reveal the responses initiated by the enhanced H2O2 during plant-virus interaction, the present study investigated the global proteome changes of rice under long-term RBSDV infection. Approximately 1800 protein spots were detected on two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) gels. Among them, 72 spots were found differently expressed, of which 69 spots were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Furthermore, the differentially expressed proteins induced by RBSDV infection were compared to that induced by H2O2. 19 proteins corresponding to 37 spots, which were differentially expressed under RBSDV infection, were observed differentially expressed under H2O2 stress as well. These overlapping responsive proteins are mainly related to photosynthesis, redox homeostasis, metabolism, energy pathway, and cell wall modification. The increased H2O2 in RBSDV infected plant may produce an oxidative stress, impair photosynthesis, disturb the metabolism, and eventually result in abnormal growth. The data provide a new understanding of the pivotal role of H2O2 in rice-RBSDV compatible interaction.
Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), a member of the genus Fijivirus in the family Reoviridae, is propagatively transmitted by the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén). RBSDV causes rice black-streaked dwarf and maize rough dwarf diseases, which lead to severe yield losses in crops in China. Although several RBSDV proteins have been studied in detail, the functions of the nonstructural protein P7-1 are still largely unknown. To investigate the role of the P7-1 protein in virus pathogenicity, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants were generated in which the P7-1 gene was expressed under the control of the 35S promoter. The RBSDV P7-1-transgenic Arabidopsis plants (named P7-1-OE) were male sterility. Flowers and pollen from P7-1-transgenic plants were of normal size and shape, and anthers developed to the normal size but failed to dehisce. The non-dehiscent anthers observed in P7-1-OE were attributed to decreased lignin content in the anthers. Furthermore, the reactive oxygen species levels were quite low in the transgenic plants compared with the wild type. These results indicate that ectopic expression of the RBSDV P7-1 protein in A. thaliana causes male sterility, possibly through the disruption of the lignin biosynthesis and H2O2-dependent polymerization pathways.
The inflamed lung exhibits oxidative and nitrative modifications of multiple target proteins, potentially reflecting disease severity and progression. We identified sphingosine-1–phosphate receptor–3 (S1PR3), a critical signaling molecule mediating cell proliferation and vascular permeability, as a nitrated plasma protein in mice with acute lung injury (ALI). We explored S1PR3 as a potential biomarker in murine and human ALI. In vivo nitrated and total S1PR3 concentrations were determined by immunoprecipitation and microarray studies in mice, and by ELISA in human plasma. In vitro nitrated S1PR3 concentrations were evaluated in human lung vascular endothelial cells (ECs) or within microparticles shed from ECs after exposure to barrier-disrupting agonists (LPS, low-molecular-weight hyaluronan, and thrombin). The effects of S1PR3-containing microparticles on EC barrier function were assessed by transendothelial electrical resistance (TER). Nitrated S1PR3 was identified in the plasma of murine ALI and in humans with severe sepsis-induced ALI. Elevated total S1PR3 plasma concentrations (> 251 pg/ml) were linked to sepsis and ALI mortality. In vitro EC exposure to barrier-disrupting agents induced S1PR3 nitration and the shedding of S1PR3-containing microparticles, which significantly reduced TER, consistent with increased permeability. These changes were attenuated by reduced S1PR3 expression (small interfering RNAs). These results suggest that microparticles containing nitrated S1PR3 shed into the circulation during inflammatory lung states, and represent a novel ALI biomarker linked to disease severity and outcome.
acute lung injury; sphingosine-1–phosphate receptor–3; microparticles; nitration; biomarker
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that can function as oncogenes or tumor suppressors in human cancer. Abnormally expressed miR-224 was found to play a fundamental role in several types of cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic and biological values of miR-224 in colorectal cancer (CRC).
Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to evaluate expression levels of miR-224. The postoperative survival rate was analyzed with Kaplan–Meier method. The roles of miR-224 in cell proliferation, migration and invasion were analyzed with pre-miR-224 transfected cells. In addition, the regulation of SMAD4 by miR-224 was evaluated by qRT-PCR, Western blotting and luciferase reporter assays.
In the present study, we demonstrated that miR-224 was significantly up-regulated in CRC tissue samples and associated with disease relapse and a relative poorer disease-free survival rate. Moreover, ectopic expression of miR-224 potently promoted tumor cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro. Furthermore, the over-expression of miR-224 in CRC cell lines decreased SMAD4 expression at the translational level and decreased SMAD4-driven luciferase-reporter activity.
Our data suggest that miR-224 could play an oncogenic role in the cellular processes of CRC and represent a novel biomarker for tumor relapse of CRC patients.
Colorectal cancer; miR-224; SMAD4; Invasion; Relapse
Conventional identification methods for gene regulatory networks (GRNs) have overwhelmingly adopted static topology models, which remains unchanged over time to represent the underlying molecular interactions of a biological system. However, GRNs are dynamic in response to physiological and environmental changes. Although there is a rich literature in modeling static or temporally invariant networks, how to systematically recover these temporally changing networks remains a major and significant pressing challenge. The purpose of this study is to suggest a two-step strategy that recovers time-varying GRNs.
It is suggested in this paper to utilize a switching auto-regressive model to describe the dynamics of time-varying GRNs, and a two-step strategy is proposed to recover the structure of time-varying GRNs. In the first step, the change points are detected by a Kalman-filter based method. The observed time series are divided into several segments using these detection results; and each time series segment belonging to two successive demarcating change points is associated with an individual static regulatory network. In the second step, conditional network structure identification methods are used to reconstruct the topology for each time interval. This two-step strategy efficiently decouples the change point detection problem and the topology inference problem. Simulation results show that the proposed strategy can detect the change points precisely and recover each individual topology structure effectively. Moreover, computation results with the developmental data of Drosophila Melanogaster show that the proposed change point detection procedure is also able to work effectively in real world applications and the change point estimation accuracy exceeds other existing approaches, which means the suggested strategy may also be helpful in solving actual GRN reconstruction problem.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a monocarboxypeptidase which metabolizes angiotensin II (Ang II) to generate Ang-(1–7), has been shown to prevent cardiac hypertrophy and injury but the mechanism remains elusive. Irbesartan has the dual actions of angiotensin receptor blockade and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) activation. We hypothesized that irbesartan would exert its protective effects on ACE2 deficiency-mediated myocardial fibrosis and cardiac injury via the PPARγ signaling.
10-week-old ACE2 knockout (ACE2KO; Ace2-/y) mice received daily with irbesartan (50 mg/kg) or saline for 2 weeks. The wild-type mice (Ace2+/y) were used to the normal controls. We examined changes in myocardial ultrastructure, fibrosis-related genes and pathological signaling by real-time PCR gene array, Western blotting, Masson trichrome staining and transmission electron microscope analyses, respectively.
Compared with the Ace2+/y mice, cardiac expression of PPARα and PPARγ were reduced in Ace2-/y mice and the myocardial collagen volume fraction (CVF) and expression of fibrosis-related genes were increased, including transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), collagen I and collagen III. Moreover, ACE2 deficiency triggered cardiac hypertrophy, increased myocardial fibrosis and adverse ultrastructure injury in ACE2KO hearts with higher levels of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), without affecting cardiac systolic function. Intriguingly, treatment with irbesartan significantly reversed ACE2 deficiency-mediated pathological hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis in Ace2-/y mice linked with enhancement of plasma Ang-(1–7) level and downregulation of AT1 receptor in heart. Consistent with attenuation of myocardial fibrosis and ultrastructure injury, the myocardial CVF and levels of ANF, TGFβ1, CTGF, collagen I, collagen III and phosphorylated ERK1/2 were lower, and expression of PPARγ was higher in ACE2KO mice in response to irbesartan treatment, without affecting cardiac expression of PPARα, PPARδ, β-myosin heavy chain, TGFβ2 and fibronectin.
We conclude that irbesartan prevents ACE2 deficiency-mediated pathological hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis in ACE2 mutant mice via activation of the PPARγ signaling and suppression of the TGFβ−CTGF−ERK signaling, resulting in attenuation of myocardial injury. Drugs targeting ACE2 and PPARγ represent potential candidates to prevent and treat myocardial injury and related cardiac disorders.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2; Irbesartan; Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ; Connective tissue growth factor; Myocardial injury
Ion channels play a critical role in a wide variety of biological processes, including the development of human cancer. However, the overall impact of ion channels on tumorigenicity in breast cancer remains controversial.
We conduct microarray meta-analysis on 280 ion channel genes. We identify candidate ion channels that are implicated in breast cancer based on gene expression profiling. We test the relationship between the expression of ion channel genes and p53 mutation status, ER status, and histological tumor grade in the discovery cohort. A molecular signature consisting of ion channel genes (IC30) is identified by Spearman’s rank correlation test conducted between tumor grade and gene expression. A risk scoring system is developed based on IC30. We test the prognostic power of IC30 in the discovery and seven validation cohorts by both Cox proportional hazard regression and log-rank test.
22, 24, and 30 ion channel genes are found to be differentially expressed with a change in p53 mutation status, ER status, and tumor histological grade in the discovery cohort. We assign the 30 tumor grade associated ion channel genes as the IC30 gene signature. We find that IC30 risk score predicts clinical outcome (P < 0.05) in the discovery cohort and 6 out of 7 validation cohorts. Multivariate and univariate tests conducted in two validation cohorts indicate that IC30 is a robust prognostic biomarker, which is independent of standard clinical and pathological prognostic factors including patient age, lymph node status, tumor size, tumor grade, estrogen and progesterone receptor status, and p53 mutation status.
We identified a molecular gene signature IC30, which represents a promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in breast cancer. Our results indicate that information regarding the expression of ion channels in tumor pathology could provide new targets for therapy in human cancers.
Ion channel; Breast cancer; Gene expression; p53; Estrogen receptor; Molecular signature; Microarray
Rationale: An increased tricuspid regurgitation jet velocity (TRV > 2.5 m/s) and pulmonary hypertension defined by right heart catheterization both independently confer increased mortality in sickle cell disease (SCD).
Objectives: We explored the usefulness of peripheral blood mononuclear cell–derived gene signatures as biomarkers for an elevated TRV in SCD.
Methods: Twenty-seven patients with SCD underwent echocardiography and peripheral blood mononuclear cell isolation for expression profiling and 112 patients with SCD were genotyped for single-nucleotide polymorphisms.
Measurements and Main Results: Genome-wide gene and miRNA expression profiles were correlated against TRV, yielding 631 transcripts and 12 miRNAs. Support vector machine analysis identified a 10-gene signature including GALNT13 (encoding polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 13) that discriminates patients with and without increased TRV with 100% accuracy. This finding was then validated in a cohort of patients with SCD without (n = 10) and with pulmonary hypertension (n = 10, 90% accuracy). Increased TRV-related miRNAs revealed strong in silico binding predictions of miR-301a to GALNT13 corroborated by microarray analyses demonstrating an inverse correlation between their expression. A genetic association study comparing patients with an elevated (n = 49) versus normal (n = 63) TRV revealed five significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms within GALNT13 (P < 0.005), four trans-acting (P < 2.1 × 10−7) and one cis-acting (P = 0.6 × 10−4) expression quantitative trait locus upstream of the adenosine-A2B receptor gene (ADORA2B).
Conclusions: These studies validate the clinical usefulness of genomic signatures as potential biomarkers and highlight ADORA2B and GALNT13 as potential candidate genes in SCD-associated elevated TRV.
microarray; candidate gene approach; eQTL; pulmonary hypertension
Cervical cancer is one of the most common gynecologic malignancies and poses a serious health problem worldwide. Identification and characterization of cervical cancer stem cells may facilitate the development of novel strategies for the treatment of advanced and metastatic cervical cancer. Breast cancer-resistance protein (Bcrp1)-positive cells were selected from a population of parent HeLa cells using flow cytometry. The invasion capacity of Bcrp1-positive and -negative cells was analyzed with a Boyden chamber invasion test. The tumorigenicity of these cells was determined by in vivo transplantation in non-obesity diabetes/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mice. The Bcrp1-positive subpopulation accounted for about 7% of the parent HeLa cell population. The proliferative capacity of the Bcrp1-positive cells was greater than that of the Bcrp1-negative cells (P < 0.05). In the invasion assay, the Bcrp1-positive cells demonstrated a greater invasive capacity through the artificial basement membrane than their Bcrp1-negative counterparts. Following transplantation of 104 cells, only the Bcrp1-positive cells formed tumors in NOD/SCID mice. When 105 or 106 cells were transplanted, the tumor incidence and the tumor mass were greater in the Bcrp1-positive groups than those in the Bcrp1-negative groups (P < 0.05). The Bcrp1-positive subpopulation cervical cancer stem cells.
Cervical cancer; Cancer stem cells; Bcrp1
TNF ligand superfamily member 13B (B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS), B cell activating factor (BAFF)) promotes primary B cell proliferation and immunoglobulin production. While the soluble form of BLyS/BAFF is thought to be the primary biologically active form, little is known about the regulation of its cleavage and processing. We provide evidence that Fcγ receptor cross-linking triggers a rapid release of soluble, biologically active BLyS/BAFF from myeloid cells. Surprisingly, this function is primarily mediated by FcγRI, but not FcγRIIa as defined by specific mAb, and can be initiated by both IgG and C reactive protein (CRP) as ligands. The generation of a B cell proliferation and survival factor by both innate and adaptive immune opsonins through engagement of an Fcγ receptor, which can also enhance antigen uptake and presentation, provides a unique opportunity to facilitate antibody production. These results provide a mechanism by which Fcγ receptors can elevate circulating BLyS levels and promote autoantibody production in immune complex mediated autoimmune diseases.
Fc Receptors; Monocytes/Macrophages; Human; Autoimmunity
Recent analyses have revealed many functional microRNA (miRNA) targets in mammalian protein coding regions. But, the mechanisms that ensure miRNA function when their target sites are located in protein coding regions of mammalian mRNA transcripts are largely unknown. In this paper, we investigate some potential biological factors, such as target site accessibility and local translation efficiency. We computationally analyze these two factors using experimentally identified miRNA targets in human protein coding region. We find site accessibility is significantly increased in miRNA target region to facilitate miRNA binding. At the mean time, local translation efficiency is also selectively decreased near miRNA target region. GC-poor codons are preferred in the flank region of miRNA target sites to ease the access of miRNA targets. Within-genome analysis shows substantial variations of site accessibility and local translation efficiency among different miRNA targets in the genome. Further analyses suggest target gene’s GC content and conservation level could explain some of the differences in site accessibility. On the other hand, target gene’s functional importance and conservation level can affect local translation efficiency near miRNA target region. We hence propose both site accessibility and local translation efficiency are important in miRNA action when miRNA target sites are located in mammalian protein coding regions.
Interactions between dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells play a critical role in the development of glomerulonephritis, which is a common cause of chronic kidney disease. DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN), an immune-regulating molecule of the C-type lectin family, is mainly expressed on DCs and mediates DC adhesion and migration, inflammation, activation of primary T cells. DC-SIGN triggers immune responses and is involved in the immune escape of pathogens and tumours. In addition, ligation of DC-SIGN on DCs actively primes DCs to induce Tregs. Under certain conditions, DC-SIGN signalling may result in inhibition of DC maturation, by promoting regulatory T cell (Treg) function and affecting Th1/Th2 bias.
A rat model of nephrotoxic nephritis was used to investigate the therapeutic effects of an anti-lectin-epidermal growth factor (EGF) antibody on glomerulonephritis. DCs were induced by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. The expression of DC surface antigens were detected using flow cytometry; the levels of cytokines were detected by ELISA and qPCR, respectively; the capability of DCs to stimulate T cell proliferation was examined by mixed lymphocyte reaction; PsL-EGFmAb targeting to DC-SIGN on DCs was identified by immunoprecipitation.
Anti-Lectin-EGF antibody significantly reduced global crescent formation, tubulointerstitial injury and improved renal function impairment through inhibiting DC maturation and modulating Foxp3 expression and the Th1/Th2 cytokine balance in kidney. Binding of anti-Lectin-EGF antibody to DC-SIGN on human DCs inhibited DC maturation, increased IL-10 production from DCs and enhanced CD4+CD25+ Treg functions.
Our results suggest that treatment with anti-Lectin-EGF antibody modulates DCs to suppressive DCs and enhances Treg functions, contributing to the attenuation of renal injury in a rat model of nephrotoxic nephritis.
DC-SIGN; Dendritic cells; Regulatory T cells; Glomerulonephritis
Low tidal volume ventilation, although promoting atelectasis, is a protective strategy against ventilator-induced lung injury. Deep inflation (DI) recruitment maneuvers restore lung volumes, but potentially compromise lung parenchymal and vascular function via repetitive overdistention. Our objective was to examine cardiopulmonary physiological and transcriptional consequences of recruitment maneuvers. C57/BL6 mice challenged with either PBS or LPS via aspiration were placed on mechanical ventilation (5 h) using low tidal volume inflation (TI; 8 μl/g) alone or in combination with intermittent DIs (0.75 ml twice/min). Lung mechanics during TI ventilation significantly deteriorated, as assessed by forced oscillation technique and pressure–volume curves. DI mitigated the TI-induced alterations in lung mechanics, but induced a significant rise in right ventricle systolic pressures and pulmonary vascular resistances, especially in LPS-challenged animals. In addition, DI exacerbated the LPS-induced genome-wide lung inflammatory transcriptome, with prominent dysregulation of a gene cluster involving vascular processes, as well as increases in cytokine concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and plasma. Gene ontology analyses of right ventricular tissue expression profiles also identified inflammatory signatures, as well as apoptosis and membrane organization ontologies, as potential elements in the response to acute pressure overload. Our results, although confirming the improvement in lung mechanics offered by DI, highlight a detrimental impact in sustaining inflammatory response and exacerbating lung vascular dysfunction, events contributing to increases in right ventricle afterload. These novel insights should be integrated into the clinical assessment of the risk/benefit of recruitment maneuver strategies.
mechanical ventilation; microarray; pulmonary hypertension; right ventricle; acute lung injury
The purpose is to evaluate sensitivity of basal-like breast cancer to treatment with anti-DR5 alone and in combination with chemotherapy. Cytotoxicity of TRA-8 anti-DR5 alone and in combination with doxorubicin or paclitaxel was examined. The role of a DR5-associated molecule (DDX3) in the regulation of apoptosis by recruitment of cIAP1 to the DR5/DDX3 complex was studied. SUM159 and 2LMP orthotopic xenografts were treated with TRA-8 alone and in combination with Abraxane or doxorubicin, and tumor growth inhibition determined. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was used to monitor early tumor response. The majority (12/15) of basal-like cell lines were very sensitive to TRA-8-induced cytotoxicity (IC50 values of 1.0–49 ng/ml). In contrast, 8/11 luminal or HER2-positive cell lines were resistant (IC50 > 1,000 ng/ml). Enhanced killing of basal-like cell lines was produced by combination treatment with TRA-8 and doxorubicin. Majority of basal cell lines expressed lower levels of DR5-associated DDX3 and cIAP1 than luminal and HER2-positive cell lines. TRA-8 inhibited growth of basal xenografts and produced 20% complete 2LMP tumor regressions. TRA-8 and chemotherapy produced greater 2LMP growth inhibition than either alone. An increase in apparent diffusion coefficient in 2LMP tumors was measured in a week of therapy with TRA-8 and Abraxane. Basal-like cell lines were more sensitive to TRA-8-mediated cytotoxicity than HER2-over-expressing and luminal cell lines, and chemotherapy enhanced cytotoxicity. High sensitivity of basal cells to TRA-8 correlated with low expression of DR5/DDX3/cIAP1 complex. Treatment with TRA-8 and chemotherapy may be an effective therapy for basal-like breast cancer.
Basal-like breast cancer; Anti-DR5 antibody; Chemotherapy
The relationships between profiles of global gene expression and DNA damage checkpoint functions were studied in cells from patients with ataxia telangiectasia (AT). Three telomerase-expressing AT fibroblast lines displayed the expected hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation (IR) and defects in DNA damage checkpoints. Profiles of global gene expression in AT cells were determined at 2, 6 and 24 h after treatment with 1.5 Gy IR or sham-treatment, and were compared to those previously recognized in normal human fibroblasts. Under basal conditions 160 genes or ESTs were differentially expressed in AT and normal fibroblasts, and these were associated by gene ontology with insulin-like growth factor binding and regulation of cell growth. Upon DNA damage, 1091 gene mRNAs were changed in at least two of the three AT cell lines. When compared with the 1811 genes changed in normal human fibroblasts after the same treatment, 715 were found in both AT and normal fibroblasts, including most genes categorized by gene ontology into cell cycle, cell growth and DNA damage response pathways. However, the IR-induced changes in these 715 genes in AT cells usually were delayed or attenuated in comparison to normal cells. The reduced change in DNA-damage-response genes and the attenuated repression of cell-cycle-regulated genes may account for the defects in cell cycle checkpoint function in AT cells.
ATM; cell cycle checkpoint; ionizing radiation; microarray
To evaluate by sequential 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging the therapeutic response to a novel monoclonal antibody targeting human EMMPRIN (extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer) in combination with gemcitabine in a pancreatic-tumor xenograft murine model.
Four groups of SCID mice bearing orthotopic pancreatic tumor xenografts were injected with PBS, gemcitabine (120mg/kg BW), anti-EMMPRIN antibody (0.2mg), or combination, respectively twice weekly for 2 weeks, while 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging was performed weekly for 3 weeks. Changes in mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean) of 18F-FDG and volume of tumors were determined.
The tumor SUVmean change in the group receiving combination therapy was significantly lower than those of the other groups. Tumor-volume changes of groups treated with anti-EMMPRIN monotherapy or combined therapy were significantly lower than that of the control group.
These data provide support for clinical studies of anti-EMMPRIN therapy with gemcitabine for pancreatic cancer treatment.
FDG-PET; CT; EMMPRIN; Gemcitabine; Pancreatic cancer
The objective of this study was to evaluate extracelluar matrix metalloproteinase (EMMPRIN) as a novel target in orthotopic pancreatic-cancer murine models. MIA PaCa-2 human pancreatic tumor cells were implanted in groups 1 and 3-7, while MIA PaCa-2 EMMPRIN knockdown cells were implanted in group 2. Dosing with anti-EMMPRIN antibody started immediately after implantation for groups 1-3 (residual tumor model) and at 21 days after cell implantation for groups 4-7 (established tumor model). Groups 3, 5, and 7 were treated with anti-EMMRPIN antibody (0.2-1.0 mg) twice weekly for 2-3 weeks, while the other groups served as the control. In residual tumor model, tumor growth of anti-EMMPRIN treated group was successfully arrested for 21 days (15±4 mm3), significantly lower than that of EMMPRIN knockdown group (80±15 mm3; p=0.001) or control group (240±41 mm3; p<0.001). In established tumor model, anti-EMMPRIN therapy lowered tumor-volume increase about 40% compared with control regardless of dose amount. Ki67-expressed cell densities of group 5 was 939±150 mm−2, significantly lower than that of group 4 (1709±145 mm−2; p=0.006). Microvessel density of group 5 (30±6 mm−2) was also significantly lower than that of group 4 (53±5 mm−2; p=0.014), while the microvessel size of group 5 (191±22 μm2) was significantly larger than that of group 4 (113±26 μm2; p=0.049). These data show the high potential of anti-EMMPRIN therapy for pancreatic cancer, and support its clinical translation.
EMMPRIN; Targeted therapy; Pancreatic cancer
Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia causes significant morbidity and mortality. Alpha-hemolysin (Hla), a pore-forming cytotoxin of S. aureus, has been identified through animal models of pneumonia as a critical virulence factor that induces lung injury. In spite of considerable molecular knowledge of how this cytotoxin injures the host, the precise host response to Hla in the context of infection remains poorly understood. We employed whole-genome expression profiling of infected lungs to define the host response to wild-type S. aureus compared with the response to an Hla-deficient isogenic mutant in experimental pneumonia. These data provide a complete expression profile at 4 and at 24 h postinfection, revealing a unique response to the toxin-expressing strain. Gene ontogeny analysis revealed significant differences in the extracellular matrix and cardiomyopathy pathways, both of which govern cellular interactions in the tissue microenvironment. Evaluation of individual transcript responses to Hla-secreting staphylococci was notable for upregulation of host cytokine and chemokine genes, including the p19 subunit of interleukin-23. Consistent with this observation, the cellular immune response to infection was characterized by a prominent Th17 response to the wild-type pathogen. These findings define specific host mRNA responses to Hla-producing S. aureus, coupling the pulmonary Th17 response to the secretion of this cytotoxin. Expression profiling to define the host response to a single virulence factor proved to be a valuable tool in identifying pathways for further investigation in S. aureus pneumonia. This approach may be broadly applicable to the study of bacterial toxins, defining host pathways that can be targeted to mitigate toxin-induced disease.
DYT11 myoclonus-dystonia (M-D) is a movement disorder characterized by myoclonic jerks with dystonic symptoms and caused by mutations in paternally expressed SGCE, which codes for ɛ-sarcoglycan. Paternally inherited Sgce heterozygous knock-out (KO) mice exhibit motor deficits and spontaneous myoclonus. Abnormal nuclear envelopes have been reported in cellular and mouse models of early-onset DYT1 generalized torsion dystonia; however, the relationship between the abnormal nuclear envelopes and motor symptoms are not clear. Furthermore, it is not known whether abnormal nuclear envelope exists in non-DYT1 dystonia. In the present study, abnormal nuclear envelopes in the striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) were found in Sgce KO mice. To analyze whether the loss of ɛ-sarcoglycan in the striatum alone causes abnormal nuclear envelopes, motor deficits or myoclonus, we produced paternally inherited striatum-specific Sgce conditional KO (Sgce sKO) mice and analyzed their phenotypes. Sgce sKO mice exhibited motor deficits in both beam-walking and accelerated rotarod tests, while they did not exhibit abnormal nuclear envelopes, alteration in locomotion, or myoclonus. The results suggest that the loss of ɛ-sarcoglycan in the striatum contributes to motor deficits, while it alone does not produce abnormal nuclear envelopes or myoclonus. Development of therapies targeting the striatum to compensate for the loss of ɛ-sarcoglycan function may rescue the motor deficits in DYT11 M-D patients.
Myoclonus-dystonia (M-D) is a movement disorder characterized by myoclonic jerks with dystonia. DYT11 M-D is caused by mutations in SGCE which codes for ε-sarcoglycan. SGCE is maternally imprinted and paternally expressed. Abnormal nuclear envelope has been reported in mouse models of DYT1 generalized torsion dystonia. However, it is not known whether similar alterations occur in DYT11 M-D. We developed a mouse model of DYT11 M-D using paternally-inherited Sgce heterozygous knockout (Sgce KO) mice and reported that they had myoclonus and motor coordination and learning deficits in the beam-walking test. However, the specific brain regions that contribute to these phenotypes have not been identified. Since ε-sarcoglycan is highly expressed in the cerebellar Purkinje cells, here we examined the nuclear envelope in these cells using a transmission electron microscope and found that they are abnormal in Sgce KO mice. Our results put DYT11 M-D in a growing family of nuclear envelopathies. To analyze the effect of loss of ε-sarcoglycan function in the cerebellar Purkinje cells, we produced paternally-inherited cerebellar Purkinje cell-specific Sgce conditional knockout (Sgce pKO) mice. Sgce pKO mice showed motor learning deficits, while they did not show abnormal nuclear envelope in the cerebellar Purkinje cells, robust motor deficits, or myoclonus. The results suggest that ε-sarcoglycan in the cerebellar Purkinje cells contributes to the motor learning, while loss of ε-sarcoglycan in other brain regions may contribute to nuclear envelope abnormality, myoclonus and motor coordination deficits.
ε-sarcoglycan; motor learning; myoclonus-dystonia; nuclear envelope; Purkinje cell; Sgce
The role of thyroid hormone metabolism in clinical outcomes of the critically ill remains unclear. Using preclinical models of acute lung injury (ALI), we assessed the gene and protein expression of type 2 deiodinase (DIO2), a key driver for synthesis of biologically active triiodothyronine, and addressed potential association of DIO2 genetic variants with ALI in a multiethnic cohort. DIO2 gene and protein expression levels in murine lung were validated by microarrays and immunoblotting. Lung injury was assessed by levels of bronchoalveolar lavage protein and leukocytes. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped and ALI susceptibility association assessed. Significant increases in both DIO2 gene and D2 protein expression were observed in lung tissues from murine ALI models (LPS- and ventilator-induced lung injury), with expression directly increasing with the extent of lung injury. Mice with reduced levels of DIO2 expression (by silencing RNA) demonstrated reduced thyroxine levels in plasma and increased lung injury (increased bronchoalveolar lavage protein and leukocytes), suggesting a protective role for DIO2 in ALI. The G (Ala) allele of the Thr92Ala coding single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs225014) was protective in severe sepsis and severe sepsis–associated ALI after adjustments for age, sex, and genetic ancestry in a logistic regression model in European Americans. Our studies indicate that DIO2 is a novel ALI candidate gene, the nonsynonymous Thr92Ala coding variant of which confers ALI protection. Increased DIO2 expression may dampen the ALI inflammatory response, thereby strengthening the premise that thyroid hormone metabolism is intimately linked to the integrated response to inflammatory injury in critically ill patients.
acute respiratory distress syndrome; hypothyroidism; mechanical ventilation; sepsis
Zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) has been shown to promote invasion and metastasis in several types of human cancer and to have a prognostic role in certain cancers. However, the clinical significance of ZEB1 in colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been sufficiently investigated. This study aimed to address this issue. In this study, we compared the expression of ZEB1 between CRC tissues and normal adjacent mucosa using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The association of ZEB1 expression with clinicopathological characteristics was analyzed by appropriate statistical analyses. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to investigate the association of ZEB1 expression with survival of patients. The results showed that the relative expression levels of ZEB1 were significantly higher in CRC tissues compared to the normal adjacent mucosa and higher expression of ZEB1 correlated with liver metastasis. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that patients with high ZEB1 had a poor overall survival. Moreover, the multivariate analysis showed that high expression of ZEB1 was an independent predictor of overall survival. Our data indicate the potential of ZEB1 as a novel prognostic biomarker for CRC.
zinc finger e-box binding homeobox 1; colorectal cancer; prognostic factor
Lung transplantation remains the only viable therapy for patients with end-stage lung disease. However, the full utilization of this strategy is severely compromised by a lack of donor lung availability. The vast majority of donor lungs available for transplantation are from individuals after brain death (BD). Unfortunately, the early autonomic storm that accompanies BD often results in neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE), producing varying degrees of lung injury or leading to primary graft dysfunction after transplantation. We demonstrated that sphingosine 1–phosphate (S1P)/analogues, which are major barrier-enhancing agents, reduce vascular permeability via the S1P1 receptor, S1PR1. Because primary lung graft dysfunction is induced by lung vascular endothelial cell barrier dysfunction, we hypothesized that the S1PR1 agonist, SEW-2871, may attenuate NPE when administered to the donor shortly after BD. Significant lung injury was observed after BD, with increases of approximately 60% in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) total protein, cell counts, and lung tissue wet/dry (W/D) weight ratios. In contrast, rats receiving SEW-2871 (0.1 mg/kg) 15 minutes after BD and assessed after 4 hours exhibited significant lung protection (∼ 50% reduction, P = 0.01), as reflected by reduced BAL protein/albumin, cytokines, cellularity, and lung tissue wet/dry weight ratio. Microarray analysis at 4 hours revealed a global impact of both BD and SEW on lung gene expression, with a differential gene expression of enriched immune-response/inflammation pathways across all groups. Overall, SEW served to attenuate the BD-mediated up-regulation of gene expression. Two potential biomarkers, TNF and chemokine CC motif receptor-like 2, exhibited gene array dysregulation. We conclude that SEW-2871 significantly attenuates BD-induced lung injury, and may serve as a potential candidate to improve human donor availability.
neurogenic pulmonary edema; lung injury; sphingosine 1–phosphate; sphingolipids; lung transplant donors
Synonymous mutations are usually referred to as “silent”, but increasing evidence shows that they are not neutral in a wide range of organisms. We looked into the relationship between synonymous codon usage bias and residue importance of voltage-gated ion channel proteins in mice, rats, and humans. We tested whether translationally optimal codons are associated with transmembrane or channel-forming regions, i.e., the sites that are particularly likely to be involved in the closing and opening of an ion channel. Our hypothesis is that translationally optimal codons are preferred at the sites within transmembrane domains or channel-forming regions in voltage-gated ion channel genes to avoid mistranslation-induced protein misfolding or loss-of-function. Using the Mantel-Haenszel procedure, which applies to categorical data, we found that translationally optimal codons are more likely to be used at transmembrane residues and the residues involved in channel-forming. We also found that the conservation level at synonymous sites in the transmembrane region is significantly higher than that in the non-transmembrane region. This study provides evidence that synonymous sites in voltage-gated ion channel genes are not neutral. Silent mutations at channel-related sites may lead to dysfunction of the ion channel.
Vascular endothelial cells contribute to the pathogenesis of numerous human diseases by actively regulating the stromal inflammatory response; however, little is known regarding the role of endothelial inflammation in the growth of human tumors and its influence on the prognosis of human cancers.
Using an experimental model of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-mediated inflammation, we characterized inflammatory gene expression in immunopurified tumor-associated endothelial cells. These genes formed the basis of a multivariate molecular predictor of overall survival that was trained and validated in four types of human cancer.
We report that expression of experimentally derived tumor endothelial genes distinguished pathologic tissue specimens from normal controls in several human diseases associated with chronic inflammation. We trained these genes in human cancer datasets and defined a six-gene inflammatory signature that predicted significantly reduced overall survival in breast cancer, colon cancer, lung cancer, and glioma. This endothelial-derived signature predicted outcome independently of, but cooperatively with, standard clinical and pathological prognostic factors. Consistent with these findings, conditioned culture media from human endothelial cells stimulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines accelerated the growth of human colon and breast tumors in immunodeficient mice as compared with conditioned media from untreated endothelial cells.
This study provides the first prognostic cancer gene signature derived from an experimental model of tumor-associated endothelial inflammation. These findings support the notion that activation of inflammatory pathways in non-malignant tumor-infiltrating endothelial cells contributes to tumor growth and progression in multiple human cancers. Importantly, these results identify endothelial-derived factors that could serve as potential targets for therapy in diverse human cancers.