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author:("Yu, wanfang")
1.  Refractoriness of interferon-beta signaling through NOD1 pathway in mouse respiratory epithelial cells using the anticancer xanthone compound 
AIM: To explore the possibility that nucleotide oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) pathway involved in refractoriness of interferon-β signaling in mouse respiratory epithelial cells induced by the anticancer xanthone compound, 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA).
METHODS: C10 mouse bronchial epithelial cells were grown in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, 2 mmol/L glutamine, 100 units/mL penicillin, 100 g/mL streptomycin. Pathogen-free female BALB/c mice were used to explore the mechanisms of refractoriness of interferon-signaling. Mouse thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages, bone marrow derived macrophages and bone marrow derived dendritic cells were collected and cultured. The amount of interferon (IFN)-inducible protein-10 (IP10/CXCL10), macrophage chemotactic protein (MCP1/CCL2) and interleukin (IL)-6 secreted by cells activated by DMXAA was quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits according to the instructions of the manufacturers. Total RNA was isolated from cells or nasal epithelium with RNeasy Plus Mini Kit, and cDNA was synthesized. Gene expression was checked using Applied Biosystems StepOne Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction System. Transfection of small interfering RNA (siRNA) control, NOD1 duplexed RNA oligonucleotides, and high-mobility group box 1/2/3 (HMGB1/2/3) siRNA was performed using siRNA transfection reagent.
RESULTS: DMXAA activates IFN-β pathway with high level of IFN-β dependent antiviral genes including 2’, 5’-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 and myxovirus resistance 1 in mouse thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages, bone marrow derived macrophages and bone marrow derived dendritic cells. Activation of IFN-β by DMXAA involved in NOD1, but not HMGB1/2/3 signal pathway demonstrated by siRNA. NOD1 pathway plays an important role in refractoriness of IFN-β signaling induced by DMXAA in mouse C10 respiratory epithelial cells and BALB/c mice nasal epithelia. These data indicate that DMXAA is not well adapted to the intrinsic properties of IFN-β signaling. Approaches to restore sensitivity of IFN-β signaling by find other xanthone compounds may function similarly, could enhance the efficacy of protection from influenza pneumonia and potentially in other respiratory viral infections.
CONCLUSION: NOD1 pathway may play an important role in refractoriness of IFN-β signaling in mouse respiratory epithelial cells induced by DMXAA.
doi:10.4331/wjbc.v4.i2.18
PMCID: PMC3652647  PMID: 23710296
Innate immunity; Interferon; Refractoriness; Xanthone; Bronchial epithelium
2.  Pharmacologic Activation of the Innate Immune System to Prevent Respiratory Viral Infections 
Drugs that can rapidly inhibit respiratory infection from influenza or other respiratory pathogens are needed. One approach is to engage primary innate immune defenses against viral infection, such as activating the IFN pathway. In this study, we report that a small, cell-permeable compound called 5,6-di-methylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA) can induce protection against vesicular stomatitis virus in vitro and H1N1 influenza A virus in vitro and in vivo through innate immune activation. Using the mouse C10 bronchial epithelial cell line and primary cultures of nasal epithelial cells, we demonstrate DMXAA activates the IFN regulatory factor-3 pathway leading to production of IFN-β and subsequent high-level induction of IFN-β–dependent proteins, such as myxovirus resistance 1 (Mx1) and 2′,5′-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1). Mice treated with DMXAA intranasally elevate mRNA/protein expression of Mx1 and OAS1 in the nasal mucosa, trachea, and lung. When challenged intranasally with a lethal dose of H1N1 influenza A virus, DMXAA reduced viral titers in the lungs and protected 80% of mice from death, even when given at 24 hours before infection. These data show that agents, like DMXAA, that can directly activate innate immune pathways, such as the IFN regulatory factor-3/IFN-β system, in respiratory epithelial cells can be used to protect from influenza pneumonia and potentially in other respiratory viral infections. Development of this approach in humans could be valuable for protecting health care professionals and “first responders” in the early stages of viral pandemics or bioterror attacks.
doi:10.1165/rcmb.2010-0288OC
PMCID: PMC3265219  PMID: 21148741
innate immunity; interferon; influenza; pneumonia; bronchial epithelium

Results 1-2 (2)