There is significant evidence that Th2 (T helper 2)-mediated inflammation supports the pathogenesis of both human and experimental animal models of pulmonary hypertension (PH). A key immune regulator is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is produced by Th2 inflammation and can itself contribute to Th2 pulmonary responses. In this study, we interrogated the role of VEGF signaling in a murine model of schistosomiasis-induced PH with a phenotype of significant intrapulmonary Th2 inflammation, vascular remodeling, and elevated right ventricular pressures. We found that VEGF receptor blockade partially suppressed the levels of the Th2 inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 in both the lung and the liver after Schistosoma mansoni exposure and suppressed pulmonary vascular remodeling. These findings suggest that VEGF positively contributes to schistosomiasis-induced vascular inflammation and remodeling, and they also provide evidence for a VEGF-dependent signaling pathway necessary for pulmonary vascular remodeling and inflammation in this model.
pulmonary hypertension; inflammation; VEGF; schistosomiasis
This perspective highlights advances in the understanding of the role of cellular metabolism in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension. Insights gained in the past 20 years have revealed several similarities between the cellular processes underlying the pulmonary vascular remodeling in pulmonary hypertension and those seen in cancer processes. In line with these insights, there is increasing recognition that abnormal cellular metabolism, notably of aerobic glycolysis (the “Warburg effect”), the potential involvement of hypoxia-inducible factor in this process, and alterations in mitochondrial function, are key elements in the pathogenesis of this disease. The glycolytic shift may underlie the resistance to apoptosis and increased vascular cell proliferation, which are hallmarks of pulmonary hypertension. These investigations have led to novel approaches in the diagnosis and therapy of pulmonary hypertension.
glycolytic shift; hypoxia-inducible factor; fatty acid oxidation; right ventricular hypertrophy; pulmonary hypertension
The current epidemic of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has produced a worldwide health care burden, approaching that imposed by transmittable infectious diseases. COPD is a multidimensional disease, with varied intermediate and clinical phenotypes. This Review discusses the pathogenesis of COPD, with particular focus on emphysema, based on the concept that pulmonary injury involves stages of initiation (by exposure to cigarette smoke, pollutants, and infectious agents), progression, and consolidation. Tissue damage entails complex interactions among oxidative stress, inflammation, extracellular matrix proteolysis, and apoptotic and autophagic cell death. Lung damage by cigarette smoke ultimately leads to self-propagating processes, resulting in macromolecular and structural alterations — features similar to those seen in aging.
The maintenance of the alveolar structure is required throughout life. To accomplish this goal, alveolar cells, including endothelial, epithelial, and fibroblastic cells, provide key molecules with broad survival and antiapoptotic effects. These complex interactions are disrupted by cigarette smoke, leading to emphysema. Smoke imposes an environmental stress to the lung with the activation of “sensor-like” molecular signaling. Activation of RTP801, leading to mTOR inhibition, is paradigmatic of these responses. The accumulation of cellular damage, with the generation of endogenous mediators of inflammation, may proceed toward an aging phenotype. These alterations may impose significant challenges to cell-based regenerative or pharmacological therapies.
alveolus; emphysema; cigarette smoke; COPD; mTOR
Iron regulatory proteins 1 and 2 (Irps) post-transcriptionally control the expression of transcripts that contain iron responsive element (IRE) sequences, including ferritin, ferroportin, transferrin receptor and hypoxia inducible factor 2α (HIF2α). We report here that mice with targeted deletion of Irp1 developed pulmonary hypertension and polycythemia that was exacerbated by a low iron diet. Hematocrits increased to 65% in iron-starved mice, and many polycythemic mice died of abdominal hemorrhages. Irp1 deletion enhanced HIF2α protein expression in kidneys of Irp1−/− mice, which led to increased erythropoietin (EPO) expression, polycythemia and concomitant tissue iron deficiency. Increased HIF2α expression in pulmonary endothelial cells induced high expression of endothelin-1, likely contributing to the pulmonary hypertension of Irp1−/− mice. Our results reveal why anemia is an early physiological consequence of iron deficiency, highlight the physiological significance of Irp1 in regulating erythropoiesis and iron distribution, and provide important insights into the molecular pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension.
Key host responses to the stress induced by environmental exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) are responsible for initiating pathogenic effects that may culminate in emphysema development. CS increases lung ceramides, sphingolipids involved in oxidative stress, structural alveolar cell apoptosis, and inhibition of apoptotic cell clearance by alveolar macrophages, leading to the development of emphysema-like pathology. RTP801, a hypoxia and oxidative stress sensor, is also increased by CS, and has been recently implicated in both apoptosis and inflammation. We investigated whether inductions of ceramide and RTP801 are mechanistically linked, and evaluated their relative importance in lung cell apoptosis and airspace enlargement in vivo. As reported, direct lung instillation of either RTP801 expression plasmid or ceramides in mice triggered alveolar cell apoptosis and oxidative stress. RTP801 overexpression up-regulated lung ceramide levels 2.6-fold. In turn, instillation of lung ceramides doubled the lung content of RTP801. Cell sorting after lung tissue dissociation into single-cell suspension showed that ceramide triggers both endothelial and epithelial cell apoptosis in vivo. Interestingly, mice lacking rtp801 were protected against ceramide-induced apoptosis of epithelial type II cells, but not type I or endothelial cells. Furthermore, rtp801-null mice were protected from ceramide-induced alveolar enlargement, and exhibited improved static lung compliance compared with wild-type mice. In conclusion, ceramide and RTP801 participate in alveolar cell apoptosis through a process of mutual up-regulation, which may result in self-amplification loops, leading to alveolar damage.
emphysema; sphingolipids; apoptosis; cigarette smoke; stress response
The article by Yao and coworkers in this issue (Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 2008;39:7–18) reveals that the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21CIP1/WAF1/SDI1 (designated hereafter as p21), which has been linked to cell cycle growth arrest due to stress or danger cell responses, may modulate alveolar inflammation and alveolar destruction, and thus enlightens our present understanding of how the lung senses injury due to cigarette smoke and integrates these responses with those that activate inflammatory pathways potentially harmful to the lung (1). Furthermore, the interplay of p21 and cellular processes involving cell senescence and the imbalance of cell proliferation/apoptosis may provide us with a more logical explanation of how p21, acting as a sensor of cellular stress, might have such potent and wide roles in lung responses triggered by cigarette smoke. Molecular switches, ontologically designed for the protection of the host, are now hijacked by injurious stresses (such as cigarette smoke), leading to organ damage.
Heparanase, a heparan sulfate-specific glucuronidase, mediates the onset of pulmonary neutrophil adhesion and inflammatory lung injury during early sepsis. We hypothesized that glomerular heparanase is similarly activated during sepsis and contributes to septic acute kidney injury (AKI). We induced polymicrobial sepsis in mice using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in the presence or absence of competitive heparanase inhibitors (heparin or nonanticoagulant N-desulfated re-N-acetylated heparin [NAH]). Four hours after surgery, we collected serum and urine for measurement of renal function and systemic inflammation, invasively determined systemic hemodynamics, harvested kidneys for histology/protein/mRNA, and/or measured glomerular filtration by inulin clearance. CLP-treated mice demonstrated early activation of glomerular heparanase with coincident loss of glomerular filtration, as indicated by a >twofold increase in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and a >50% decrease in inulin clearance (P < 0.05) in comparison to sham mice. Administration of heparanase inhibitors 2 h prior to CLP attenuated sepsis-induced loss of glomerular filtration rate, demonstrating that heparanase activation contributes to early septic renal dysfunction. Glomerular heparanase activation was not associated with renal neutrophil influx or altered vascular permeability, in marked contrast to previously described effects of pulmonary heparanase on neutrophilic lung injury during sepsis. CLP induction of renal inflammatory gene (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β) expression was attenuated by NAH pretreatment. While serum inflammatory indices (KC, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β) were not impacted by NAH pretreatment, heparanase inhibition attenuated the CLP-induced increase in serum IL-10. These findings demonstrate that glomerular heparanase is active during sepsis and contributes to septic renal dysfunction via mechanisms disparate from heparanase-mediated lung injury.
Acute kidney injury; heparan sulfate; heparanase; heparin; mice; sepsis
Viruses constitute a constant and renewed threat to humans. Not only do viruses cause disease directly due to their tissue tropism and pathogenicity, but they have also been linked to autoimmunity. In their study in this issue of the JCI, Kang et al. show that exposure to cigarette smoke induces alterations in the innate immune response to viral infection and that these changes hasten alveolar destruction characteristic of emphysema in mice (see the related beginning on page 2771). This study builds on evidence that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have clinical exacerbations associated with viral or bacterial infections, which lead to worsened lung function and increased mortality. This novel paradigm may aid related genetic, biomarker, and therapeutic developments and provides important insights into the pathogenesis of emphysematous lung destruction.
Centrilobular emphysema caused by chronic cigarette smoking is a heterogeneous disease with a predominance of upper lobe involvement. It is presumed that this heterogeneity indicates a particular susceptibility to cigarette smoke or the fact that the inhaled smoke distributes preferentially to upper lung zones. The less involved areas might therefore retain the capacity for lung regeneration and gain of pulmonary function in terminally ill patients. We propose that the interplay between molecular and cellular switches involved in the lung response to environmental injuries determines the heterogeneous pattern of emphysema due to cigarette smoke. Regional activation of alveolar destruction by apoptosis and oxidative stress coupled with regional failure of defense mechanisms may account for the irregular pattern of lung destruction in cigarette smoke–induced emphysema. Protection afforded by the key antioxidant transcription factor Nrf-2 and the antiproteolytic and antiapoptotic actions of α1-antitrypsin is central to maintain lung homeostasis and lung structure. As the lung is injured by environmental pollutants, including cigarette smoke, molecular sensors of cellular stress, such as the mTOR/protein translation regulator RTP-801, may engage both inflammation and alveolar cell apoptosis. As injury prevails during the course of this chronic disease, it leads to a more homogeneous pattern of lung disease.
aging; apoptosis; emphysema; inflammation; oxidative stress
Emphysema consists of a unique pattern of alveolar destruction, resulting in marked airspace enlargement with reduction of alveolar capillary exchange area. Classical concepts of the pathogenesis of emphysema have relied on the paradigm set by the inflammation and protease/antiprotease imbalance. We propose herein that cigarette smoke constitutes an environmental hazard that causes alveolar destruction by the interaction of apoptosis, oxidative stress, and protease/antiprotease imbalance. We draw a parallel between organismal aging, organ structural maintenance, and the damage resulting from chronic cigarette smoke inhalation. The stochastic interaction between environmental hazards and the effort of an organism or a particular organ to fend off these hazards results in the accumulation of cellular damage and features characteristic of aging. Inflammation follows as the result of the multiplication of injuries. We highlight the importance of understanding the biology of the interaction of alveolar cells in homeostasis and in alveolar destruction, and the potential role of novel processes related to senescence and stress response. An evolutionary perspective of emphysema that incorporates mechanisms related to aging may lead to important advances in the understanding and therapeutic targeting of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
aging; apoptosis; emphysema; inflammation; oxidative stress
Rationale: The impact of modern treatments of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) on pulmonary vascular pathology remains unknown.
Objectives: To assess the spectrum of pulmonary vascular remodeling in the modern era of PAH medication.
Methods: Assessment of pulmonary vascular remodeling and inflammation in 62 PAH and 28 control explanted lungs systematically sampled.
Measurements and Main Results: Intima and intima plus media fractional thicknesses of pulmonary arteries were increased in the PAH group versus the control lungs and correlated with pulmonary hemodynamic measurements. Despite a high variability of morphological measurements within a given PAH lung and among all PAH lungs, distinct pathological subphenotypes were detected in cohorts of PAH lungs. These included a subset of lungs lacking intima or, most prominently, media remodeling, which had similar numbers of profiles of plexiform lesions as those in lungs with more pronounced remodeling. Marked perivascular inflammation was present in a high number of PAH lungs and correlated with intima plus media remodeling. The number of profiles of plexiform lesions was significantly lower in lungs of male patients and those never treated with prostacyclin or its analogs.
Conclusions: Our results indicate that multiple features of pulmonary vascular remodeling are present in patients treated with modern PAH therapies. Perivascular inflammation may have an important role in the processes of vascular remodeling, all of which may ultimately lead to increased pulmonary artery pressure. Moreover, our study provides a framework to interpret and design translational studies in PAH.
pulmonary circulation; vessel remodeling; angiogenesis; inflammation
There is a growing realization that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease involves several processes present in aging and cellular senescence. The impact of these processes in the pathogenesis of the main manifestations is multiple, particularly in the propagation of a proinflammatory phenotype, loss of reparative potential, and amplification of oxidative stress, all ultimately leading to tissue damage. This review highlights salient aspects related to senescence discussed in the 2011 Aspen Lung Conference.
aging; senescence; oxidative stress; inflammation
Rationale: Germline mutations in the enzyme telomerase cause telomere shortening, and have their most common clinical manifestation in age-related lung disease that manifests as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Short telomeres are also a unique heritable trait that is acquired with age.
Objectives: We sought to understand the mechanisms by which telomerase deficiency contributes to lung disease.
Methods: We studied telomerase null mice with short telomeres.
Measurements and Main Results: Although they have no baseline histologic defects, when mice with short telomeres are exposed to chronic cigarette smoke, in contrast with controls, they develop emphysematous air space enlargement. The emphysema susceptibility did not depend on circulating cell genotype, because mice with short telomeres developed emphysema even when transplanted with wild-type bone marrow. In lung epithelium, cigarette smoke exposure caused additive DNA damage to telomere dysfunction, which limited their proliferative recovery, and coincided with a failure to down-regulate p21, a mediator of cellular senescence, and we show here, a determinant of alveolar epithelial cell cycle progression. We also report early onset of emphysema, in addition to pulmonary fibrosis, in a family with a germline deletion in the Box H domain of the RNA component of telomerase.
Conclusions: Our data indicate that short telomeres lower the threshold of cigarette smoke–induced damage, and implicate telomere length as a genetic susceptibility factor in emphysema, potentially contributing to its age-related onset in humans.
telomerase; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; dyskeratosis congenita; interstitial lung disease
It has been well demonstrated that phosphodiesterase-5A (PDE5A) is expressed in smooth muscle cells and plays an important role in regulation of vascular tone. The role of endothelial PDE5A, however, has not been yet characterized. The present study was undertaken to determine the presence, localization, and potential physiologic significance of PDE5A within vascular endothelial cells.
Methods and results
We demonstrate primary location of human, mouse, and bovine endothelial PDE5A at or near caveolae. We found that the spatial localization of PDE5A at the level of caveolin-rich lipid rafts allows for a feedback loop between endothelial PDE5A and nitric oxide synthase (NOS3). Treatment of human endothelium with PDE5A inhibitors resulted in a significant increase in NOS3 activity, whereas overexpression of PDE5A using an adenoviral vector, both in vivo and in cell culture, resulted in decreased NOS3 activity and endothelium-dependent vasodilation. The molecular mechanism responsible for these interactions is primarily regulated by cGMP-dependent second messenger. PDE5A overexpression also resulted in a significant decrease in protein kinase 1 (PKG1) activity. Overexpression of PKG1 rapidly activated NOS3, whereas silencing of the PKG1 gene with siRNA inhibited both NOS3 phosphorylation (S1179) and activity, indicating a novel role for PKG1 in direct regulation of NOS3.
Our data collectively suggest another target for PDE5A inhibition in endothelial dysfunction and provide another physiologic significance for PDE5A in the modulation of endothelial-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation. Using both in vitro and in vivo models, as well as human data, we show that inhibition of endothelial PDE5A improves endothelial function.
PDE5A; Phosphodiesterase; Endothelial cells; Lipid rafts; Caveolin-1; Sildenafil; NOS3; cGMP; Adenoviral transfection; Primary human endothelial cells; Signalling pathway; Pulmonary circulation
α-1 Antitrypsin (A1AT) is a serpin with a major protective effect against cigarette smoke–induced emphysema development, and patients with mutations of the A1AT gene display a markedly increased risk for developing emphysema. We reported that A1AT protects lung endothelial cells from apoptosis and inhibits caspase-3 activity. It is not clear if cigarette smoking or A1AT mutations alter the caspase-3 inhibitory activity of A1AT and if this serpin alters the function of other caspases. We tested the hypothesis that the caspase-3 inhibitory activity of A1AT is impaired by cigarette smoking and that the A1AT RCL, the key antiprotease domain of the serpin, is required for its interaction with the caspase. We examined the caspase-3 inhibitory activity of human A1AT purified from plasma of actively smoking and nonsmoking individuals, either affected or unaffected with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We also tested the caspase inhibitory activity of two mutant forms of A1AT, the recombinant human piZZ and the RCL–deleted (RCL-null) A1AT forms. A1AT purified from the blood of active smokers exhibited marked attenuation in its caspase-3 inhibitory activity, independent of disease status. In vitro exposure of the normal (MM) form of A1AT to cigarette smoke extract reduced its ability to interact with caspase-3, measured by isothermal titration calorimetry, as did the deletion of the RCL, but not the ZZ point mutation. In cell-free assays A1AT was capable of inhibiting all executioner caspases, -3, -7 and especially -6, but not the initiator or inflammatory caspases. The inhibitory effect of A1AT against caspase-6 was tested in vivo, where overexpression of both human MM and ZZ-A1AT via adeno-associated virus transduction significantly protected against apoptosis and against airspace damage induced by intratracheal instillation of caspase-6 in mice. These data indicate a specific inhibitory effect of A1AT on executioner caspases, which is profoundly attenuated by active exposure to cigarette smoking and is dependent on the protein RCL, but is not affected by the PiZZ mutation.
Rationale: Vascular remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) involves proliferation and migration of endothelial and smooth muscle cells, leading to obliterative vascular lesions. Previous studies have indicated that the endothelial cell proliferation is quasineoplastic, with evidence of monoclonality and instability of short DNA microsatellite sequences.
Objectives: To assess whether there is larger-scale genomic instability.
Methods: We performed genome-wide microarray copy number analysis on pulmonary artery endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells isolated from the lungs of patients with PAH.
Measurements and Main Results: Mosaic chromosomal abnormalities were detected in PAEC cultures from five of nine PAH lungs but not in normal (n = 8) or disease control subjects (n = 5). Fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis confirmed the presence of these abnormalities in vivo in two of three cases. One patient harbored a germline mutation of BMPR2, the primary genetic cause of PAH, and somatic loss of chromosome-13, which constitutes a second hit in the same pathway by deleting Smad-8. In two female subjects with mosaic loss of the X chromosome, methylation analysis showed that the active X was deleted. One subject also showed completely skewed X-inactivation in the nondeleted cells, suggesting the pulmonary artery endothelial cell population was clonal before the acquisition of the chromosome abnormality.
Conclusions: Our data indicate a high frequency of genetically abnormal subclones within PAH lung vessels and provide the first definitive evidence of a second genetic hit in a patient with a germline BMPR2 mutation. We propose that these chromosome abnormalities may confer a growth advantage and thus contribute to the progression of PAH.
endothelium; somatic genetics; chromosome deletion
α1-Antitrypsin (A1AT) is a polyvalent, acute-phase reactant with an extensive range of biological functions that go beyond those usually linked to its antiprotease (serpin) activities. Genetic mutations cause a systemic deficiency of A1AT, leading to liver and pulmonary diseases, including emphysema and chronic bronchitis. The pathogenesis of emphysema, which involves the destruction of small airway structures and alveolar units, is triggered by cigarette smoke and pollutants. The tissue damage caused by these agents is further potentiated by the mutual interactions between apoptosis, oxidative stress, and protease/antiprotease imbalance. These processes lead to the activation of endogenous mediators of tissue destruction, including the lipid ceramide, extracellular matrix proteins, and abnormal inflammatory cell signaling. In this review, we propose that A1AT has a range of actions that are not restricted to protease inhibition but rather extend to mitigate a range of these pathological processes involved in the development of emphysema. We discuss the evidence indicating that A1AT blocks apoptosis by binding and inhibiting active caspase-3 and modulates a broad range of inflammatory responses induced by neutrophils and by lipopolyssacharide and tumor necrosis factor-α signaling.
COPD; apoptosis; inflammation; proteinase inhibitor; serpin
Pulmonary hypertension is a severe and progressive disease, a key feature of which is pulmonary vascular remodeling. Several growth factors, including EGF, PDGF, and TGF-β1, are involved in pulmonary vascular remodeling during pulmonary hypertension. However, increased knowledge of the downstream signaling cascades is needed if effective clinical interventions are to be developed. In this context, calpain provides an interesting candidate therapeutic target, since it is activated by EGF and PDGF and has been reported to activate TGF-β1. Thus, in this study, we examined the role of calpain in pulmonary vascular remodeling in two rodent models of pulmonary hypertension. These data showed that attenuated calpain activity in calpain-knockout mice or rats treated with a calpain inhibitor resulted in prevention of increased right ventricular systolic pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy, as well as collagen deposition and thickening of pulmonary arterioles in models of hypoxia- and monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension. Additionally, inhibition of calpain in vitro blocked intracellular activation of TGF-β1, which led to attenuated Smad2/3 phosphorylation and collagen synthesis. Finally, smooth muscle cells of pulmonary arterioles from patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension showed higher levels of calpain activation and intracellular active TGF-β. Our data provide evidence that calpain mediates EGF- and PDGF-induced collagen synthesis and proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells via an intracrine TGF-β1 pathway in pulmonary hypertension.
Schistosomiasis-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is one of the most common causes of pulmonary hypertension worldwide. A potential contributing mechanism to the pathogenesis of this disease is a localized immune reaction to retained and persistent parasite-derived antigens. We sought to identify Schistosoma-derived egg antigens present in the lungs of individuals who died of the disease. We obtained 18 lung samples collected at autopsy from individuals who died of schistosomiasis-associated PAH in Brazil. A rabbit polyclonal antibody was created to known Schistosoma mansoni-soluble egg antigen (SEA). Histologic assessment and immunostaining of the human tissue was performed, along with immunostaining and immunoblotting of lung tissue from mice experimentally infected with S. mansoni. All 18 lung samples had evidence of pulmonary vascular remodeling with plexiform lesions and arterial medial thickening, but no visible eggs were seen. The anti-SEA antibody detected S. mansoni egg antigens in visible eggs in mouse lung and human intestine specimens, but did not identify a significant amount of egg antigen in the human lung specimens. In mouse granulomas containing degraded eggs, we observed colocalization of egg antigens and macrophage lysosomes. In conclusion, there is unlikely to be a significant amount of persistent parasite-derived antigens within the lungs of individuals who die of schistosomiasis-associated PAH. This suggests that retained and persistent parasite proteins are not contributing to a localized immune response in the pathogenesis of this disease.
pulmonary arterial hypertension; pulmonary hypertension; schistosomiasis
Pulmonary emphysema is a disease characterized by alveolar cellular loss and inflammation. Recently, excessive apoptosis of structural alveolar cells has emerged as a major mechanism in the development of emphysema. Here, we investigated the proapoptotic and monocyte chemoattractant cytokine endothelial monocyte-activating protein 2 (EMAPII). Lung-specific overexpression of EMAPII in mice caused simplification of alveolar structures, apoptosis, and macrophage accumulation, compared with that in control transgenic mice. Additionally, in a mouse model of cigarette smoke–induced (CS-induced) emphysema, EMAPII levels were significantly increased in murine lungs. This upregulation was necessary for emphysema development, as neutralizing antibodies to EMAPII resulted in reduced alveolar cell apoptosis, inflammation, and emphysema-associated structural changes in alveoli and small airways and improved lung function. The mechanism of EMAPII upregulation involved an apoptosis-dependent feed-forward loop, since caspase-3 instillation in the lung markedly increased EMAPII expression, while caspase inhibition decreased its production, even in transgenic EMAPII mice. These findings may have clinical significance, as both current smokers and ex-smoker chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients had increased levels of secreted EMAPII in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared with that of nonsmokers. In conclusion, we suggest that EMAPII perpetuates the mechanism of CS-induced lung emphysema in mice and, given its secretory nature, is a suitable target for neutralization antibody therapy.
Exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) is the primary factor associated with the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). CS increases the level of oxidants in the lungs, resulting in a depletion of antioxidants, which promotes oxidative stress and the destruction of alveolar tissue. In response to CS, pulmonary epithelial cells counteract increased levels of oxidants by activating Nrf2-dependent pathways to augment the expression of detoxification and antioxidant enzymes, thereby protecting the lung from injury. We hypothesize that increasing the pathways activated by Nrf2 will afford protection against CS-induced lung damage. To this end we have developed a novel mouse model in which the cytosolic inhibitor of Nrf2, Keap1, is genetically deleted in Clara cells, which predominate in the upper airways in mice. Deletion of Keap1 in Clara cells resulted in increased expression of Nrf2-dependent genes, such as Nqo1 and Gclm, as determined by microarray analysis and quantitative PCR. Deletion of Keap1 in airway epithelium decreased Keap1 protein levels and significantly increased the total level of glutathione in the lungs. Increased Nrf2 activation protected Clara cells against oxidative stress ex vivo and attenuated oxidative stress and CS-induced inflammation in vivo. Expression of KEAP1 was also decreased in human epithelial cells through siRNA transfection, which increased the expression of Nrf2-dependent genes and attenuated oxidative stress. In conclusion, activating Nrf2 pathways in tissue-specific Keap1 knockout mice represents an important genetic approach against oxidant-induced lung damage.
cigarette smoke; Nrf2; Keap1; inflammation; oxidative stress