Active amyloid-β (Aβ) immunotherapy is under investigation to prevent or treat early Alzheimer's disease (AD). In 2002, a Phase II clinical trial (AN1792) was halted due to meningoencephalitis in ∼6% of the AD patients, possibly caused by a T-cell-mediated immunological response. Thus, generating a vaccine that safely generates high anti-Aβ antibody levels in the elderly is required. In this study, MER5101, a novel conjugate of Aβ1-15 peptide (a B-cell epitope fragment) conjugated to an immunogenic carrier protein, diphtheria toxoid (DT), and formulated in a nanoparticular emulsion-based adjuvant, was administered to 10 mo-old APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic (Tg) and wild-type (Wt) mice. High anti-Aβ antibody levels were observed in both vaccinated APPswe/PS1ΔE9 Tg and Wt mice. Antibody isotypes were mainly IgG1 and IgG2b, suggesting a Th2-biased response. Re-stimulation of splenocytes with the Aβ1-15:DT conjugate resulted in a strong proliferative response, whereas proliferation was absent after re-stimulation with Aβ1-15 or Aβ1-40/42 peptides, indicating a cellular immune response against DT while avoiding an Aβ-specific T cell response. Moreover, significant reductions in cerebral Aβ plaque burden, accompanied by attenuated microglial activation and increased synaptic density, were observed in MER5101 vaccinated APPswe/PS1ΔE9 Tg mice compared to Tg adjuvant controls. Lastly, MER5101 immunized APPswe/PS1ΔE9 Tg mice showed improvement of cognitive deficits in both Contextual Fear Conditioning (CFC) and the Morris Water Maze (MWM). Our novel, highly immunogenic Aβ conjugate vaccine, MER5101, shows promise for improving Aβ vaccine safety and efficacy and therefore, may be useful for preventing and/or treating early AD.
Herpesvirus infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are associated with encephalitis/myelitis and lymphoproliferative diseases in immunocompromised individuals. As of now, data of herpesvirus-associated CNS diseases in transplant recipients is limited. Hence, in this prospective study, we investigated the incidence of herpesvirus-associated CNS diseases and explored the diagnosis of these diseases in 281 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) recipients. Herpesvirus-DNA and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cells were sampled from 58 recipients with herpesvirus-associated diseases or with unexplainable CNS manifestations. Results showed that 23 patients were diagnosed as herpesvirus-associated CNS diseases, including 15 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated diseases (4 encephalitis and 11 lymphoproliferative diseases), 5 herpes simplex virus type 1 encephalitis, 2 cytomegalovirus encephalitis/myelitis and 1 varicella zoster virus encephalitis. The median time of diseases onset was 65 (range 22-542) days post-transplantation. The 3-year cumulative incidence of herpesvirus-associated encephalitis/myelitis and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) was 6.3% ±1.9% and 4.1% ±1.2%, respectively. Of the evaluable cases, CSF cells mainly consisted of CD19+CD20+ B cells (7/11) and had clonal rearrangement of immunoglobulin genes (3/11) in patients with CNS-PTLD. On the contrary, in patients with encephalitis/myelitis, CSF cells were comprised of different cell populations and none of the gene rearrangement was detected. Herpesvirus-associated CNS diseases are common in the early stages of allo-HSCT, wherein EBV is the most frequent causative virus. The immunophenotypic and clonal analysis of CSF cells might be helpful in the differential diagnosis between encephalitis and lymphoproliferative diseases.
To analyze and assess health risk awareness of youth migrants in China and the factors that influence it, and to provide evidence for making health promotion interventions and decreasing health risks among Chinese youth migrants.
This was a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2009 among rural-to-urban migrants aged 15–24 years in Tianjin and Xi’an, China. A total of 1,838 youth migrants were enrolled by the stratified cluster sampling method. An anonymous questionnaire was self-administered to investigate health risk awareness. The t test and χ2 test were used to analyze differences between different groups. Logistic regression analysis was used to test the influence of various sociodemographic, living condition, and occupational factors.
The smoking rate of men (66.8%) was higher than that of women (6.8%; P < 0.05), the rate of sexual intercourse in men was higher than in women (56.8 vs 27.7%; P < 0.05), and 75.7% of participants had written into medical care systems with 40.4% of them having undergone a physical examination during the last year. Only 438 of the participants (26% of 1,647) were considered to have a satisfactory level of health risk awareness [273 (32.4% of 958) from Tianjin and 165 (28.8% of 689) from Xi’an]. No significant difference was found between the youth migrant populations of the two cities. The percentage of youth migrants with a satisfactory level of health risk awareness who thought they had a good health status was higher than that with an unsatisfactory health risk awareness who thought they had a good health status (P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that gender, age, education, reading the newspaper, and occupation significantly influenced on health risk awareness.
Youth migrants in China have a low health risk awareness. Combined and targeted health education interventions should be promoted to increase their health risk awareness.
Youth; Migrant; Health risk; Health education; Health promotion
Detailed molecular analyses of Clonal Complex 59 (CC59) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from children in seven major cities across Mainland China were examined. A total of 110 CC59 isolates from invasive and non-invasive diseases were analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), Staphylococcus cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Antibiotics susceptibilities, carriage of plasmids and 42 virulence genes and the expression of virulence factors were examined. ST59 (101/110, 91.8%) was the predominant sequence type (ST), while single locus variants (SLVs) belonging to ST338 (8/110, 7.3%) and ST375 (1/110, 0.9%) were obtained. Three SCCmec types were found, namely type III (2.7%), type IV (74.5%) and type V (22.7%). Seven spa types including t437, which accounted for 87.3%, were determined. Thirteen PFGE types were obtained. PFGE types A and B were the major types totally accounting for 81.8%. The dominant clone was ST59-t437-IVa (65.5%), followed by ST59-t437-V (14.5%). The positive rate of luks-PV and lukF-PV PVL encoding (pvl) gene was 55.5%. Plasmids were detected in 83.6% (92/110) of the strains. The plasmid size ranging from 23.4 kb to 50 kb was most prevalent which accounted for 83.7% (77/92). A significantly lower expression of hla was found in ST59-t437-IVa compared with ST59-t437-V. Among the 110 cases, 61.8% of the patients were less than 1 year old. A total of 90 cases (81.8%) were community-associated (CA) infections whereas 20 cases (18.2%) were hospital-associated (HA) infections. Out of the 110 patients, 36.4% (40/110) were diagnosed with invasive infectious diseases in which ST59-t437-IVa accounted for 67.5% (27/40). In brief, ST59-t437-IVa was proved as the dominant clone in CC59 MRSA strains. The carriage rate of pvl gene was high. CC59 MRSA could result in CA and HA infections. The majortiy of MRSA infection children were in young age.
The BMP/Smad signaling pathway plays an important role in the viability and differentiation of osteoblast; however, it is not clear whether this pathway is involved in the fluoride-induced osteoblast differentiation. In this study, we investigated the role of BMP/Smad signaling pathway in fluoride-induced osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells differentiation. Cells were exposed to fluoride of different concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 mM), and cell proliferation was determined using WST assays. The expression of osteoblast marker genes such as osteocalcin (BGP) and bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) were detected by qRT-PCR. We found that fluoride enhanced the proliferation of Saos-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner and 0.2 mM of fluoride resulted in a higher expression of osteoblast marker genes. In addition, immunofluorescence analysis showed that the promotion effects of 0.2 mM of fluoride on Saos-2 cells differentiation were associated with the activation of the BMP/Smad pathway. Expression of phosphorylated Smad1/5(p-Smad1/5) was higher in cells exposed to 0.2 mM of fluoride. Plasmid expression vectors encoding the short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting Smad4 gene were used to block the BMP/Smad pathway, which resulted in a significantly reduced expression of BGP and BALP as well as their corresponding mRNA. The mRNA levels after transfection remained low even in the presence of fluoride. The present results reveal that BMP/Smad signaling pathway was altered during the period of osteogenesis, and that the activities of p-Smad1/5 were required for Saos-2 cells viability and differentiation induced by fluoride.
Fluorine; Bone morphogenetic protein; Alkaline phosphatase; Osteocalcin; SMADs
B7-H3, a novel member of the B7 superfamily, plays a critical role during T cell activation; its functions are still unclear. In this study we obtained a novel anti-mouse B7-H3 monoclonal antibody (MAb) and characterized its biological functions. Our results demonstrated that this MAb could be used for flow cytometry and Western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses, suggesting that the performance of this MAb is much better than a commercial MAb (M3.2D7). Furthermore, data showed different expression profiles of mouse B7-H3 on various immune cells. We further showed that mouse B7-H3 protein was not expressed on normal tissues except for bladder epithelial cells using this MAb. Interestingly, the MAb could stimulate the proliferation and cytokine secretion of T cells. Taken together, this MAb might be of great value for further investigation of B7-H3 molecule.
Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus that can cause both human and equine encephalitis with high case fatality rates. EEEV can also be widespread among birds, including pheasants, ostriches, emu, turkeys, whooping cranes and chickens. The E2 protein of EEEV and other Alphaviruses is an important immunogenic protein that elicits antibodies of diagnostic value. While many therapeutic and diagnostic applications of E2 protein-specific antibodies have been reported, the specific epitopes on E2 protein recognized by the antibody responses of different susceptible hosts, including avian species, remain poorly defined. In the present study, the avian E2-reactive polyclonal antibody (PAb) response was mapped to linear peptide epitopes using PAbs elicited in chickens and ducks following immunization with recombinant EEEV E2 protein and a series of 42 partially overlapping peptides covering the entire EEEV E2 protein. We identified 12 and 13 peptides recognized by the chicken and duck PAb response, respectively. Six of these linear peptides were commonly recognized by PAbs elicited in both avian species. Among them five epitopes recognized by both avian, the epitopes located at amino acids 211–226 and 331–352 were conserved among the EEEV antigenic complex, but not other associated alphaviruses, whereas the epitopes at amino acids 11–26, 30–45 and 151–166 were specific to EEEV subtype I. The five common peptide epitopes were not recognized by avian PAbs against Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) and Duck Plague Virus (DPV). The identification and characterization of EEEV E2 antibody epitopes may be aid the development of diagnostic tools and facilitate the design of epitope-based vaccines for EEEV. These results also offer information with which to study the structure of EEEV E2 protein.
Metastasis remains to be one of the most prevalent causes leading to poor long-term survival of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. The clinical significances of tumor metastatic suppressor, N-myc downregulated gene 1 (NDRG1), have been inconsistently reported in a variety of cancerous diseases. In this study with 240 CRC clinical specimens, we showed that NDRG1 expression was significantly decreased in most of CRC tissues compared to the paired non-tumor counterparts. Statistical analysis revealed a significant inverse correlation of NDRG1 expression with tumor stage, differentiation status and metastasis. Compared with NDRG1-negative group, NDRG1-positve group had better disease-free/overall survival (p = 0.000) over 5 years’ follow-up. Furthermore, NDRG1 was considered to be an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (p = 0.001) and recurrence (p = 0.003). Our study concludes that NDRG1 is a novel favorable predictor for the prognosis in CRC patients.
Concentrations of ambient air pollution and pollutants in China have changed considerably during the last decade. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of current ambient air pollution on the health of kindergarten children.
We studied 6730 Chinese children (age, 3–7 years) from 50 kindergartens in 7 cities of Northeast China in 2009. Parents or guardians completed questionnaires that asked about the children’s histories of respiratory symptoms and risk factors. Three-year concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxides (NO2) were calculated at monitoring stations in 25 study districts. A 2-stage regression approach was used in data analyses.
The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was higher among children living near a busy road, those living near chimneys or a factory, those having a coal-burning device, those living with smokers, and those living in a home that had been recently renovated. Among girls, PM10 was associated with persistent cough (odds ratio [OR]PM10 = 1.44; 95% CI, 1.18–1.77), persistent phlegm (ORPM10 = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.02–1.81), and wheezing (ORPM10 = 1.31; 95% CI, 1.04–1.65). NO2 concentration was associated with increased prevalence of allergic rhinitis (OR = 1.96; 95% CI, 1.27–3.02) among girls. In contrast, associations of respiratory symptoms with concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2 were not statistically significant among boys.
Air pollution is particularly important in the development of respiratory morbidity among children. Girls may be more susceptible than boys to air pollution.
air pollution; children; respiratory diseases, China
Reperfusion therapy is widely utilized for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but further injury induced by rapidly initiating reperfusion of the heart is often encountered in clinical practice. Ginsenoside RK3 (RK3) is reportedly present in the processed Radix notoginseng that is often used as a major ingredient of the compound preparation for ischemic heart diseases. This study aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of RK3 against hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) induced H9c2 cardiomyocytes damage and its underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that RK3 pretreatment caused increased cell viability and decreased levels of LDH leakage compared with the H/R group. Moreover, RK3 pretreatment inhibited cell apoptosis, as evidenced by decreased caspase-3 activity, TUNEL-positive cells, and Bax expression, as well as increased Bcl-2 level. Further mechanism investigation revealed that RK3 prevented H9c2 cardiomyocytes injury and apoptosis induced by H/R via AKT/Nrf-2/HO-1 and MAPK pathways. These observations indicate that RK3 has the potential to exert cardioprotective effects against H/R injury, which might be of great importance to clinical efficacy for AMI treatment.
The effect of cobalt on the structural properties of intermetallic Tb3Fe27.4−xCoxV1.6 with Nd3(Fe,Ti)29 structure has been studied by using interatomic pair potentials obtained through the lattice inversion method. Calculated results show that the preferential occupation site of the V atom is found to be the 4i(Fe3) site, and Fe atoms are substituted for Co atoms with a strong preference for the 8j(Fe8) site. The calculated lattice constants coincide quite well with experimental values. The calculated crystal structure can recover after either an overall wide-range macrodeformation or atomic random motion, demonstrating that this system has the stable structure of Nd3(Fe,Ti)29. All these prove the effectiveness of interatomic pair potentials obtained through the lattice inversion method in the description of rare-earth materials.
Imatinib can induce complete molecular remission (CMR) in relapse chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, but it is indefinite whether imatinib is required to maintain CMR. We retrospectively reviewed 37 relapse CML post-transplants treated with imatinib (n = 20) or donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) (n = 17). The rate of CMR was 85% and 76.47% (P = 0.509) and treatment-related mortality was 0% and 29.4% (P = 0.019), respectively, in imatinib and DLI groups. Fifteen patients obtaining CMR voluntarily ceased imatinib, and did not experience relapse. The 8-year overall survival (OS) after relapse was 85%±8% and 40.3±12.1% (P = 0.017), and disease-free survival (DFS) after relapse was 85%±8% and 40.3±12.1% (P = 0.011), respectively, in imatinib and DLI groups. Imatinib resulted in higher OS and DFS than that of DLI in relapse CML. Imatinib maintenance might not be required for patients with relapse CML post-transplants after they achieved full donor chimerism and CMR.
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the microvascular complications of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, which is also associated with a poor life expectancy of diabetic patients. However, the pathogenesis of DN is still unclear. Thus, it is of great use to establish appropriate animal models of DN for doing research on pathogenesis and developing novel therapeutic strategies. Although a large number of murine models of DN including artificially induced, spontaneous, and genetically engineered (knockout and transgenic) animal models have been developed, none of them develops renal changes sufficiently reflecting those seen in humans. Here we review the identified murine models of DN from the aspects of genetic background, type of diabetes, method of induction, gene deficiency, animal age and gender, kidney histopathology, and phenotypic alterations in the hope of enhancing our comprehension of genetic susceptibility and molecular mechanisms responsible for this disease and providing new clues as to how to choose appropriate animal models of DN.
A new strain of avian paramyxovirus type 6 (APMV-6), JL, has been isolated from mallard ducks in China, and its complete genome has been sequenced and analyzed. This work is the first announced complete genome sequence of APMV-6 from mallards.
Doxorubicin (Dox) is an anthracycline antibiotic for cancer therapy with limited usage due to cardiotoxicity. Isorhamnetin is a nature antioxidant with obvious cardiac protective effect. The aim of this study is going to investigate the possible protective effect of isorhamnetin against Dox-induced cardiotoxicity and its underlying mechanisms. In an in vivo investigation, rats were intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered with Dox to duplicate the model of Dox-induced chronic cardiotoxicity. Daily pretreatment with isorhamnetin (5 mg/kg, i.p.) for 7 days was found to reduce Dox-induced myocardial damage significantly, including the decline of cardiac index, decrease in the release of serum cardiac enzymes and amelioration of heart vacuolation. In vitro studies on H9c2 cardiomyocytes, isorhamnetin was effective to reduce Dox-induced cell toxicity. A further mechanism study indicated that isorhamnetin pretreatment can counteract Dox-induced oxidative stress and suppress the activation of mitochondrion apoptotic pathway and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Isorhamnetin also potentiated the anti-cancer activity of Dox in MCF-7, HepG2 and Hep2 cells. These findings indicated that isorhamnetin can be used as an adjuvant therapy for the long-term clinical use of Dox.
The study was the first time to establish and compare two rat models of two common syndromes: Kidney Yang Deficiency syndrome (KYDS) in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and abnormal savda syndrome (ASS) in traditional Uighur medicine (TUM). Then, we also established and evaluated rat models of combining disease and syndrome models of asthma with KYDS or ASS. Results showed that usage of the high dose of corticosterone (CORT) injection or external factors could successfully establish the KYDS or ASS rat models, and the two models had similar changes in biological characterization, abnormal behaviors, dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-target organ axes (HPTOA), and sympathetic/parasympathetic (S/P) nerve system but varied in different degrees. The rat models of combining disease and syndrome of asthma with KYDS or ASS had either pathological characteristics of asthma such as airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), airway inflammation, airway remodeling, which were more serious than allergy exposure alone, or the syndrome performance of Kidney Yang Deficiency in TCM and abnormal savda in TUM. These findings provide a biological rationale for further investigation of combining disease and syndrome model of asthma as an effective animal model for exploring asthma based on the theory of traditional medicine.
This study examines the individual and workplace factors related to depression and stress in a large privately owned enterprise in China. The cross-sectional study design involved 13 privately owned retail enterprises in China. A self-report survey was administered to 4,847 employees aged 18–54 recruited through the management boards of the 13 enterprises. A chi-square test was used to compare differences between the depressed and non-depressed groups on a number of demographic variables and chronic diseases. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess depression in relation to individual factors (work ability and resilience) and organisational environmental factors (workplace ethos and culture, psychosocial environment and health promotion policies and activities). Significant relationships were found between employee depression all personal factors, and one organisational environmental factor. Personal factors include poor work ability and low resilience, while workplace factors include workplace ethos and culture. The primary organisational environmental factor was a low level of enterprise ethos and culture.
work place depression; work environment; work ability; privately owned enterprise
Adoptive T cell immunotherapy (ACT) with tumor infiltrating lymphocytes or genetically-modified T cells has yielded dramatic results in some cancers. However, T cells need to traffic properly into tumors in order to adequately exert therapeutic effects.
The chemokine CCL2 was highly secreted by malignant pleural mesotheliomas (MPM) (a planned tumor target), but the corresponding chemokine receptor (CCR2) was minimally expressed on activated human T cells transduced with a chimeric antibody receptor (CAR) directed to the MPM tumor antigen mesothelin (mesoCAR T cells). The chemokine receptor CCR2b was thus transduced into mesoCAR T cells using a lentiviral vector and the modified T cells were used to treat established mesothelin-expressing tumors.
CCR2b transduction led to CCL2-induced calcium flux and increased transmigration, as well as augmentation of in vitro T cell killing ability. A single intravenous injection of 20 million mesoCAR + CCR2b T cells into immunodeficient mice bearing large, established tumors (without any adjunct therapy) resulted in a 12.5-fold increase in T cell tumor infiltration by Day 5 compared to mesoCAR T cells. This was associated with significantly increased anti-tumor activity.
CAR T cells bearing a functional chemokine receptor can overcome the inadequate tumor localization that limits conventional CAR targeting strategies and can significantly improve anti-tumor efficacy in vivo.
Whether the 7th edition of American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM staging system (AJCC-7) is a successful revision remains debatable. We aimed to compare the predictive capacity of the AJCC-7 for colorectal cancer with the 6th edition of the AJCC TNM staging system (AJCC-6).
The National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) dataset consisting of 158,483 records was used in this study. We evaluated the predictive capacity of the two editions of the staging system using Harrell’s C index and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC).
There was a significant prognostic difference between patients at stage IIB and IIC (P < 0.001). Stage III patients with similar prognoses were adequately sub-grouped in the same stage according to AJCC-7. The Harrell’s C index revealed a value of 0.7692 for AJCC-7, which was significantly better than 0.7663 for AJCC-6 (P < 0.001). BIC analysis provided consistent results (P < 0.001).
This study demonstrates that AJCC-7 is superior to the AJCC-6 staging system in predictive capacity.
TNM system; Colorectal cancer; Prognostic prediction
The main objective of this study is to explore the contribution of complex network together with its different definitions of vertexes and edges to describe the structure of proteins. Protein folds into a specific conformation for its function depending on interactions between residues. Consequently, in many studies, a protein structure was treated as a complex system comprised of individual components residues, and edges were interactions between residues. What is the proper time for representing a protein structure as a network? To confirm the effect of different definitions of vertexes and edges in constructing the amino acid interaction networks, protein domains and the structural unit of proteins were described using this method. The identification performance of 2847 proteins with domain/domains proved that the structure of proteins was described well when RCα
was around 5.0–7.5 Å, and the optimal cutoff value for constructing the protein structure networks was 5.0 Å (Cα-Cα distances) while the ideal community division method was community structure detection based on edge betweenness in this study.
Diabetes mellitus, especially type 2 diabetes (T2DM), is one of the most common chronic diseases and continues to increase in numbers with large proportion of health care budget being used. Many animal models have been established in order to investigate the mechanisms and pathophysiologic progress of T2DM and find effective treatments for its complications. On the basis of their strains, features, advantages, and disadvantages, various types of animal models of T2DM can be divided into spontaneously diabetic models, artificially induced diabetic models, and transgenic/knockout diabetic models. Among these models, the spontaneous rodent models are used more frequently because many of them can closely describe the characteristic features of T2DM, especially obesity and insulin resistance. In this paper, we aim to investigate the current available spontaneous rodent models for T2DM with regard to their characteristic features, advantages, and disadvantages, and especially to describe appropriate selection and usefulness of different spontaneous rodent models in testing of various new antidiabetic drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Although a great deal of progress has been made toward understanding the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in fruit ripening, many components in the ABA signalling pathway remain to be elucidated. Here, a strawberry gene homologous to the Arabidopsis gene ABI1, named FaABI1, was isolated and characterized. The 1641bp cDNA includes an intact open reading frame that encodes a deduced protein of 546 amino acids, in which putative conserved domains were determined by homology analysis. Transcriptional analysis showed that the levels of FaABI1 mRNA expression declined rapidly during strawberry fruit development as evidenced by real-time PCR, semi-quantitative reverse transcription–PCR, and northern blotting analyses, suggesting that the Ser/Thr protein phosphatase PP2C1 encoded by FaABI1 may be involved in fruit ripening as a negative regulator. The results of Tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing and PBI121 vector-mediated overexpression suggested that the down- and up-regulation of FaABI1 mRNA expression levels in degreening strawberry fruit could promote and inhibit ripening, respectively. Furthermore, alteration of FaABI1 expression could differentially regulate the transcripts of a set of both ABA-responsive and ripening-related genes, including ABI3, ABI4, ABI5, SnRK2, ABRE1, CHS, PG1, PL, CHI, F3H, DFR, ANS, and UFGT. Taken together, the data provide new evidence for an important role for ABA in regulating strawberry fruit ripening in the processes of which the type 2C protein phosphatase ABI1 serves as a negative regulator. Finally, a possible core mechanism underlying ABA perception and signalling transduction in strawberry fruit ripening is discussed.
Abscisic acid (ABA); overexpression; strawberry fruit ripening; Tobacco rattle virus; type 2C protein phosphatase ABI1; virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS).
We conducted a prospective, randomized, open-label, multicenter study to compare busulfan plus fludarabine (BuFlu) with busulfan plus cyclophosphamide (BuCy) as the conditioning regimen in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR1).
Totally 108 AML-CR1 patients undergoing allo-HSCT were randomized into BuCy (busulfan 1.6 mg/kg, q12 hours, -7 ~ -4d; cyclophosphamide 60 mg/kg.d, -3 ~ -2d) or BuFlu (busulfan 1.6 mg/kg, q12 hours, -5 ~ -2d; fludarabine 30 mg/m2.d, -6 ~ -2d) group. Hematopoietic engraftment, regimen-related toxicity (RRT), graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), transplant related mortality (TRM), and overall survival were compared between the two groups.
All patients achieved hematopoietic reconstitution except for two patients who died of RRT during conditioning. All patients obtained complete donor chimerism by day +30 post-transplantation. The incidence of total and III-IV RRT were 94.4% and 81.5% (P = 0.038), and 16.7% and 0.0% (P = 0.002), respectively, in BuCy and BuFlu group. With a median follow up of 609 (range, 3–2130) days after transplantation, the 5-year cumulative incidence of TRM were 18.8 ± 6.9% and 9.9 ± 6.3% (P = 0.104); the 5-year cumulative incidence of leukemia relapse were 16.5 ± 5.8% and 16.2 ± 5.3% (P = 0.943); the 5-year disease-free survival and overall survival were 67.4 ± 7.6% and 75.3 ± 7.2% (P = 0.315), and 72.3 ± 7.5% and 81.9 ± 7.0% (P = 0.177), respectively in BuCy and BuFlu group.
Compared with BuCy, BuFlu as a myeloablative condition regimen was associated with lower toxicities and comparable anti-leukemic activity in AML-CR1 patients undergoing allo-HSCT.
Busulfan; Fludarabine; Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
To determine the association between heart rate variability (HRV) and hypertension in Chinese children.
The study was conducted in First Hospital of Jilin University, China. A total of 101 children were recruited in this study. They were divided into a high systolic blood pressure (SBP) group (HS group) and normal SBP group (NS group) according to the SBP levels. In the second set of experiments, the children were divided into a high diastolic blood pressure (DBP) group (HD group) and normal DBP group (ND group) according to the DBP levels. HRV measurements were performed, and the time domain and power spectrum values were calculated.
The differences of low frequency (LF)/high frequency (HF) ratio, HF, and standard deviation of normal-to-normal RR intervals (SDNN) between daytime and nighttime were obviously abolished in HS and HD groups. The HS group displayed significantly lower values of HRV over a 24 h period compared to the NS group (SDNN, standard deviation of the averaged normal-to-normal RR intervals [SDANN], Triangle Index, root mean square successive difference [RMSSD], total power [TP], ultra-LF [ULF], and HF). Only the Triangle Index in the HD group was lower than that in ND group.
We provide evidence that HRV is reduced and the circadian rhythm of HRV is weakened in hypertensive children, and hypothesize that a reduced HRV is a potential pathophysiological mechanism linking childhood hypertension and adulthood cardiovascular diseases.
Heart Rate; Blood Pressure; Hypertension; Children
The research on self-healing polymers has been a hot topic. The encapsulated-monomer/catalyst, supramolecular self-assembly, and reversible or dynamic covalent bond formation are the prevailingly adopted strategies. The alternative of irreversible covalent bond formation is, however, to be further developed. In this contribution, self-healing hyperbranched poly(aroyltriazole)s of PI and PII sharing such mechanism were developed. The polymers were synthesized by our developed metal-free click polymerizations of bis(aroylacetylene)s and triazide. They are processible and have excellent film-forming ability. High quality homogeneous films and sticks free from defects could be obtained by casting. The scratched films could be self-repaired upon general heating. The cut films and sticks could be healed by stacking or pressing the halves together at elevated temperature. Thus, these hyperbranched polymers could find broad applications in diverse areas, and our design concept for self-healing materials should be generally applicable to other hyperbranched polymers with reactive groups on their peripheries.