Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)–coronavirus (CoV) produces a devastating primary viral pneumonia with diffuse alveolar damage and a marked increase in circulating cytokines. One of the major cell types to be infected is the alveolar type II cell. However, the innate immune response of primary human alveolar epithelial cells infected with SARS-CoV has not been defined. Our objectives included developing a culture system permissive for SARS-CoV infection in primary human type II cells and defining their innate immune response. Culturing primary human alveolar type II cells at an air–liquid interface (A/L) improved their differentiation and greatly increased their susceptibility to infection, allowing us to define their primary interferon and chemokine responses. Viral antigens were detected in the cytoplasm of infected type II cells, electron micrographs demonstrated secretory vesicles filled with virions, virus RNA concentrations increased with time, and infectious virions were released by exocytosis from the apical surface of polarized type II cells. A marked increase was evident in the mRNA concentrations of interferon–β and interferon–λ (IL-29) and in a large number of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. A surprising finding involved the variability of expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme–2, the SARS-CoV receptor, in type II cells from different donors. In conclusion, the cultivation of alveolar type II cells at an air–liquid interface provides primary cultures in which to study the pulmonary innate immune responses to infection with SARS-CoV, and to explore possible therapeutic approaches to modulating these innate immune responses.
lung innate immune response; cytokine responses to SARS coronavirus; lung cell differentiation; air–liquid interface cultures
Alveolar type II epithelial cells (ATIIs) are one of the primary targets for influenza A pneumonia. The lack of a culture system for maintaining differentiated ATIIs hinders our understanding of pulmonary innate immunity during viral infection. We studied influenza A virus (IAV)-induced innate immune responses in differentiated primary human ATIIs and alveolar macrophages (AMs). Our results indicate that ATIIs, but not AMs, support productive IAV infection. Viral infection elicited strong inflammatory chemokine and cytokine responses in ATIIs, including secretion of IL-8, IL-6, MCP-1, RANTES, and MIP-1β, but not TNF-α, whereas AMs secreted TNF-α as well as other cytokines in response to infection. Wild-type virus A/PR/8/34 induced a greater cytokine response than reassortant PR/8 virus, A/Phil/82, despite similar levels of replication. IAV infection increased mRNA expression of IFN genes IFN-β, IL-29 (IFN-λ1), and IL-28A (IFN-λ2). The major IFN protein secreted by type II cells was IL-29 and ATIIs appear to be a major resource for production of IL-29. Administration of IL-29 and IFN-β before infection significantly reduced the release of infectious viral particles and CXC and CC chemokines. IL-29 treatment of type II cells induced mRNA expression of antiviral genes MX1, OAS, and ISG56 but not IFN-β. IL-29 induced a dose-dependent decrease of viral nucleoprotein and an increase of antiviral genes but not IFN-β. These results suggest that IL-29 exerts IFN-β-independent protection in type II cells through direct activation of antiviral genes during IAV infection.
Emphysema is caused by the cigarette smoke (CS)–induced destruction of alveolar wall septa, and CS is the main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To study the mechanisms of response to this insult, we focused on oxidant-induced lung injury and the potential role of nuclear erythroid 2–related factor–2 (Nrf2), which is a key regulator of the antioxidant defense system. We studied the protective role of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against the injury of alveolar type II (ATII) cells induced by CS in vivo and in vitro. ATII cells were isolated and purified using magnetic MicroBeads (Miltenyi Biotec, Auburn, CA) from Nrf2−/− mice and wild-type mice. We analyzed pulmonary injury, inflammation, glutathione (GSH) concentrations, the expression of glutathione cysteine ligase catalytic subunit mRNA, glutathione cysteine ligase modifier subunit mRNA, and glutathione reductase mRNA, and Nrf2, heme oxygenase–1, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate–reduced:quinone oxireductase levels by Western blotting, TUNEL assay, and immunocytofluorescence for 4-hydroxynonenal as a marker of oxidative stress. We found that CS induced greater injury in ATII cells obtained from Nrf2−/− mice than from wild-type mice. Furthermore, NAC attenuated the injuries by CS in ATII cells obtained from wild-type mice both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, NAC decreased the injury of ATII cells obtained from Nrf2−/− mice. Our results suggest that Nrf2–GSH signaling is important for the protective activity of NAC. In addition, in ATII cells deficient in Nrf2, this compound can provide partial protection through its reactive oxygen species–scavenging activities. Targeting the antioxidant system regulated by Nrf2 may provide an effective strategy against lung injury in COPD.
murine alveolar type II cells; lung; Nrf2; NAC; cigarette smoke
Human coronavirus strain 229E (HCoV-229E) commonly causes upper respiratory tract infections. However, lower respiratory tract infections can occur in some individuals, indicating that cells in the distal lung are susceptible to HCoV-229E. This study determined the virus susceptibility of primary cultures of human alveolar epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages (AMs). Fluorescent antibody staining indicated that HCoV-229E could readily infect AMs, but no evidence was found for infection in differentiated alveolar epithelial type II cells and only a very low level of infection in type II cells transitioning to the type I-like cell phenotype. However, a human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE) was readily infected. The innate immune response of AMs to HCoV-229E infection was evaluated for cytokine production and interferon (IFN) gene expression. AMs secreted significant amounts of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES/CCL5) and macrophage inflammatory protein 1β (MIP-1β/CCL4) in response to HCoV-229E infection, but these cells exhibited no detectable increase in IFN-β or interleukin-29 in mRNA levels. AMs from smokers had reduced secretion of TNF-α compared with non-smokers in response to HCoV-229E infection. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) and SP-D are part of the innate immune system in the distal lung. Both surfactant proteins bound to HCoV-229E, and pre-treatment of HCoV-229E with SP-A or SP-D inhibited infection of 16HBE cells. In contrast, there was a modest reduction in infection in AMs by SP-A, but not by SP-D. In summary, AMs are an important target for HCoV-229E, and they can mount a pro-inflammatory innate immune response to infection.
In order to obtain a global picture of how alveolar macrophages respond to influenza A virus (IAV) infection, we used a quantitative proteomics method to systematically examine protein expression in the IAV-infected primary human alveolar macrophages. Of the 1214 proteins identified, 43 were significantly up-regulated and 63 significantly down-regulated at > 95% confidence. The expression of an array of interferon (IFN)-induced proteins was significantly increased in the IAV-infected macrophages. The protein with the greatest expression increase was ISG15, an IFN-induced protein that has been shown to play an important role in antiviral defense. Concomitantly, quantitative real time PCR analysis revealed that the gene expression of type I IFNs increased substantially following virus infection. Our results are consistent with the notion that type I IFNs play a vital role in the response of human alveolar macrophages to IAV infection. In addition to the IFN-mediated responses, inflammatory response, apoptosis and redox state rebalancing appeared also to be major pathways that were affected by IAV infection. Furthermore, our data suggest that alveolar macrophages may play a crucial role in regenerating alveolar epithelium during IAV infection.
Influenza A virus; IFN-α/β; quantitative proteomics; primary alveolar macrophage; protein expression; LC-MS/MS; SILAC
Because they are the natural target for respiratory pathogens, primary human respiratory epithelial cells provide the ideal in vitro system for isolation and study of human respiratory viruses, which display a high degree of cell, tissue, and host specificity. Human coronavirus HKU1, first discovered in 2005, has a worldwide prevalence and is associated with both upper and lower respiratory tract disease in both children and adults. Research on HCoV-HKU1 has been difficult because of its inability to be cultured on continuous cell lines and only recently it was isolated from clinical specimens using primary human, ciliated airway epithelial cells. Here we demonstrate that HCoV-HKU1 can infect and be serially propagated in primary human alveolar type II cells at the air-liquid interface. We were not able to infect alveolar type I-like cells or alveolar macrophages. Type II alveolar cells infected with HCoV-HKU1 demonstrated formation of large syncytium. At 72 hours post inoculation, HCoV-HKU1 infection of type II cells induced increased levels of mRNAs encoding IL29,CXCL10, CCL5, and IL-6 with no significant increases in the levels of IFNβ. These studies demonstrate that type II cells are a target cell for HCoV-HKU1 infection in the lower respiratory tract, that type II alveolar cells are immune-competent in response to infection exhibiting a type III interferon and proinflammatory chemokine response, and that cell to cell spread may be a major factor for spread of infection. Furthermore, these studies demonstrate that human alveolar cells can be used to isolate and study novel human respiratory viruses that cause lower respiratory tract disease.
The 2009/2010 pandemic influenza virus (H1N1pdm) contains an avian-lineage PB2 gene that lacks E627K and D701N substitutions important in the pathogenesis and transmission of avian-origin viruses in humans or other mammals. Previous studies have shown that PB2-627K is not necessary because of a compensatory Q591R substitution. The role that PB2-701N plays in the H1N1pdm phenotype is not well understood. Therefore, PB2-D701N was introduced into an H1N1pdm virus (A/New York/1682/2009 (NY1682)) and analyzed in vitro and in vivo. Mini-genome replication assay, in vitro replication characteristics in cell lines, and analysis in the mouse and ferret models demonstrated that PB2-D701N increased virus replication rates and resulted in more severe pathogenicity in mice and more efficient transmission in ferrets. In addition, compared to the NY1682-WT virus, the NY1682-D701N mutant virus induced less IFN-λ and replicated to a higher titer in primary human alveolar epithelial cells. These findings suggest that the acquisition of the PB2-701N substitution by H1N1pdm viruses may result in more severe disease or increase transmission in humans.
The rat coronavirus sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) causes respiratory infection and provides a system for investigating respiratory coronaviruses in a natural host. A viral suspension in the form of a microspray aerosol was delivered by intratracheal instillation into the distal lung of 6–8-week-old Fischer 344 rats. SDAV inoculation produced a 7 % body weight loss over a 5 day period that was followed by recovery over the next 7 days. SDAV caused focal lesions in the lung, which were most severe on day 4 post-inoculation (p.i.). Immunofluorescent staining showed that four cell types supported SDAV virus replication in the lower respiratory tract, namely Clara cells, ciliated cells in the bronchial airway and alveolar type I and type II cells in the lung parenchyma. In bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) a neutrophil influx increased the population of neutrophils to 45 % compared with 6 % of the cells in control samples on day 2 after mock inoculation. Virus infection induced an increase in surfactant protein SP-D levels in BALF of infected rats on days 4 and 8 p.i. that subsided by day 12. The concentrations of chemokines MCP-1, LIX and CINC-1 in BALF increased on day 4 p.i., but returned to control levels by day 8. Intratracheal instillation of rats with SDAV coronavirus caused an acute, self-limited infection that is a useful model for studying the early events of the innate immune response to respiratory coronavirus infections in lungs of the natural virus host.
The mechanism of ozone-induced lung cell injury is poorly understood. One hypothesis is that ozone induces lipid peroxidation and that these peroxidased lipids produce oxidative stress and DNA damage. Oxysterols are lipid peroxide formed by the direct effect of ozone on pulmonary surfactant and cell membranes. We studied the effects of ozone and the oxysterol 5β,6β-epoxycholesterol (β-epoxide) and its metabolite cholestan-6-oxo-3,5-diol (6-oxo-3,5-diol) on human alveolar epithelial type I-like cells (ATI-like cells) and type II cells (ATII cells). Ozone and oxysterols induced apoptosis and cytotoxicity in ATI-like cells. They also generated reactive oxygen species and DNA damage. Ozone and β-epoxide were strong inducers of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and Fos-related antigen 1 (Fra1) protein expressions. Furthermore, we found higher sensitivity of ATI-like cells than ATII cells exposed to ozone or treated with β-epoxide or 6-oxo-3,5-diol. In general the response to the cholesterol epoxides was similar to the effect of ozone. The importance of understanding the response of human ATI-like cells and ATII cells to oxysterols may be useful for further studies, because these compounds may represent useful biomarkers in other diseases.
alveolar type I-like cells; ozone; oxysterols; apoptosis
Alveolar type II (ATII) cells cultured at an air–liquid (A/L) interface maintain differentiation, but they lose these properties when they are submerged. Others showed that an oxygen tension gradient develops in the culture medium as ATII cells consume oxygen. Therefore, we wondered whether hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) signaling could explain differences in the phenotypes of ATII cells cultured under A/L interface or submerged conditions. ATII cells were isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats and cultured on inserts coated with a mixture of rat-tail collagen and Matrigel, in medium including 5% rat serum and 10 ng/ml keratinocyte growth factor, with their apical surfaces either exposed to air or submerged. The A/L interface condition maintained the expression of surfactant proteins, whereas that expression was down-regulated under the submerged condition, and the effect was rapid and reversible. Under submerged conditions, there was an increase in HIF1α and HIF2α in nuclear extracts, mRNA levels of HIF inducible genes, vascular endothelial growth factor, glucose transporter–1 (GLUT1), and the protein level of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isozyme–1. The expression of surfactant proteins was suppressed and GLUT1 mRNA levels were induced when cells were cultured with 1 mM dimethyloxalyl glycine. The expression of surfactant proteins was restored under submerged conditions with supplemented 60% oxygen. HIF signaling and oxygen tension at the surface of cells appears to be important in regulating the phenotype of rat ATII cells.
HIF; ATII cells; surfactant proteins; VEGF; GLUT1
Alveolar Type II (ATII) cells are important targets for seasonal and pandemic influenza. To investigate the influenza-induced innate immune response in those cells, we measured the global gene expression profile of highly differentiated ATII cells infected with the influenza A virus at a multiplicity of infection of 0.5 at 4 hours and 24 hours after inoculation. Infection with influenza stimulated a significant increase in the mRNA concentrations of many host defense–related genes, including pattern/pathogen recognition receptors, IFN, and IFN-induced genes, chemokines, and suppressors of cytokine signaling. We verified these changes by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. At the protein level, we detected a robust virus-induced secretion of the three glutamic acid-leucine-arginine (ELR)-negative chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, according to ELISA. The ultraviolet inactivation of virus abolished the chemokine and cytokine response. Viral infection did not appear to alter the differentiation of ATII cells, as measured by cellular mRNA and concentrations of surfactant proteins. However, viral infection significantly reduced the secretion of surfactant protein (SP)–A and SP–D. In addition, influenza A virus triggered a time-dependent activation of phosphatidylinositol 3–kinase signaling in ATII cells. The inhibition of this pathway significantly decreased the release of infectious virus and the chemokine response, but did not alter virus-induced cell death. This study provides insights into influenza-induced innate immunity in differentiated human ATII cells, and demonstrates that the alveolar epithelium is a critical part of the initial innate immune response to influenza.
human Type II cell; influenza; chemokine; PI3k; differentiation
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a disease characterized by diffuse alveolar damage. We isolated alveolar type II cells and maintained them in a highly differentiated state. Type II cell cultures supported SARS-CoV replication as evidenced by RT-PCR detection of viral subgenomic RNA and an increase in virus titer. Virus titers were maximal by 24 hours and peaked at approximately 105 pfu/mL. Two cell types within the cultures were infected. One cell type was type II cells, which were positive for SP-A, SP-C, cytokeratin, a type II cell-specific monoclonal antibody, and Ep-CAM. The other cell type was composed of spindle-shaped cells that were positive for vimentin and collagen III and likely fibroblasts. Viral replication was not detected in type I-like cells or macrophages. Hence, differentiated adult human alveolar type II cells were infectible but alveolar type I-like cells and alveolar macrophages did not support productive infection.
SARS; lung; alveolar macrophage; ACE2
Ozone is known to produce an acute influx of neutrophils, and alveolar epithelial cells can secrete chemokines and modulate inflammatory processes. However, direct exposure of alveolar epithelial cells and macrophages to ozone (O3) produces little chemokine response. To determine if cell–cell interactions might be responsible, we investigated the effect of alveolar macrophage–conditioned media after ozone exposure (MO3CM) on alveolar epithelial cell chemokine production. Serum-free media were conditioned by exposing a rat alveolar macrophage cell line NR8383 to ozone for 1 hour. Ozone stimulated secretion of IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-18 from NR8383 cells, but there was no secretion of chemokines or TNF-α. Freshly isolated type II cells were cultured, so as to express the biological markers of type I cells, and these cells are referred to as type I–like cells. Type I–like cells were exposed to diluted MO3CM for 24 hours, and this conditioned medium stimulated secretion of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemattractant-1 (CXCL1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (CCL2). Secretion of these chemokines was inhibited by the IL-1 receptor antagonist. Although both recombinant IL-1α and IL-1β stimulated alveolar epithelial cells to secrete chemokines, recombinant IL-1α was 100-fold more potent than IL-1β. Furthermore, neutralizing anti-rat IL-1α antibodies inhibited the secretion of chemokines by alveolar epithelial cells, whereas neutralizing anti-rat IL-1β antibodies had no effect. These observations indicate that secretion of IL-1α from macrophages stimulates alveolar epithelial cells to secrete chemokines that can elicit an inflammatory response.
alveolar epithelial cells; cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant; monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; IL-1α; cell–cell interactions
Influenza A virus (IAV) infection primarily targets respiratory epithelial cells and produces clinical outcomes ranging from mild upper respiratory infection to severe pneumonia. Recent studies have shown the importance of lung antioxidant defense systems against injury by IAV. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) activates the majority of antioxidant genes.
Alveolar type II (ATII) cells and alveolar macrophages (AM) were isolated from human lungs not suitable for transplantation and donated for medical research. In some studies ATII cells were transdifferentiated to alveolar type I-like (ATI-like) cells. Alveolar epithelial cells were infected with A/PR/8/34 (PR8) virus. We analyzed PR8 virus production, influenza A nucleoprotein levels, ROS generation and expression of antiviral genes. Immunocytofluorescence was used to determine Nrf2 translocation and western blotting to detect Nrf2, HO-1 and caspase 1 and 3 cleavage. We also analyzed ingestion of PR8 virus infected apoptotic ATII cells by AM, cytokine levels by ELISA, glutathione levels, necrosis and apoptosis by TUNEL assay. Moreover, we determined the critical importance of Nrf2 using adenovirus Nrf2 (AdNrf2) or Nrf2 siRNA to overexpress or knockdown Nrf2, respectively.
We found that IAV induced oxidative stress, cytotoxicity and apoptosis in ATI-like and ATII cells. We also found that AM can ingest PR8 virus-induced apoptotic ATII cells (efferocytosis) but not viable cells, whereas ATII cells did not ingest these apoptotic cells. PR8 virus increased ROS production, Nrf2, HO-1, Mx1 and OAS1 expression and Nrf2 translocation to the nucleus. Nrf2 knockdown with siRNA sensitized ATI-like cells and ATII cells to injury induced by IAV and overexpression of Nrf2 with AdNrf2 protected these cells. Furthermore, Nrf2 overexpression followed by infection with PR8 virus decreased virus replication, influenza A nucleoprotein expression, antiviral response and oxidative stress. However, AdNrf2 did not increase IFN-λ1 (IL-29) levels.
Our results indicate that IAV induces alveolar epithelial injury and that Nrf2 protects these cells from the cytopathic effects of IAV likely by increasing the expression of antioxidant genes. Identifying the pathways involved in protecting cells from injury during influenza infection may be particularly important for developing new therapeutic strategies.
Human alveolar epithelial cells; Alveolar macrophages; Influenza A virus; Nrf2; Apoptosis; Efferocytosis
Cultures of differentiating fetal human type II cells have been available for many years. However, studies with differentiated adult human type II cells are limited. We used a published method for type II cell isolation and developed primary culture systems for maintenance of differentiated adult human alveolar epithelial cells for in vitro studies. Human type II cells cultured on Matrigel (basolateral access) or a mixture of Matrigel and rat tail collagen (apical access) in the presence of keratinocyte growth factor, isobutylmethylxanthine, 8-bromo-cyclicAMP, and dexamethasone (KIAD) expressed the differentiated type II cell phenotype as measured by the expression of surfactant protein (SP)-A, SP-B, SP-C, and fatty acid synthase and their morphologic appearance. These cells contain lamellar inclusion bodies and have apical microvilli. In both systems the cells appear well differentiated. In the apical access system, type II cell differentiation markers initially decreased and then recovered over 6 d in culture. Lipid synthesis was also increased by the addition of KIAD. In contrast, type II cells cultured on rat tail collagen (or tissue culture plastic) slowly lose their lamellar inclusions and expression of the surfactant proteins and increase the expression of type I cell markers. The expression of the phenotypes is regulated by the culture conditions and is, in part, reversible in vitro.
type I cell; type II cell; surfactant; lipogenesis
The first influenza pandemic of the 21st century was caused by novel H1N1 viruses that emerged in early 2009. An Asp-to-Gly change at position 222 of the receptor-binding protein hemagglutinin (HA) correlates with more-severe infections in humans. The amino acid at position 222 of HA contributes to receptor-binding specificity with Asp (typically found in human influenza viruses) and Gly (typically found in avian and classic H1N1 swine influenza viruses), conferring binding to human- and avian-type receptors, respectively. Here, we asked whether binding to avian-type receptors enhances influenza virus pathogenicity. We tested two 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses possessing HA-222G (isolated from severe cases) and two viruses that possessed HA-222D. In glycan arrays, viruses possessing HA-222D preferentially bound to human-type receptors, while those encoding HA-222G bound to both avian- and human-type receptors. This difference in receptor binding correlated with efficient infection of viruses possessing HA-222G, compared to those possessing HA-222D, in human lung tissue, including alveolar type II pneumocytes, which express avian-type receptors. In a nonhuman primate model, infection with one of the viruses possessing HA-222G caused lung damage more severe than did infection with a virus encoding HA-222D, although these pathological differences were not observed for the other virus pair with either HA-222G or HA-222D. These data demonstrate that the acquisition of avian-type receptor-binding specificity may result in more-efficient infection of human alveolar type II pneumocytes and thus more-severe lung damage. Collectively, these findings suggest a new mechanism by which influenza viruses may become more pathogenic in mammals, including humans.
Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) stimulates fatty acid and phospholipid synthesis in alveolar type II cells in vitro. KGF stimulates lipogenic enzymes, including fatty acid synthase and stearyl-CoA desaturase-1, and transcription factors involved in lipogenesis, such as sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1c and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)α and C/EBPδ. To define the role of SREBP-1c on the induction of lipogenic genes and lipogenesis by KGF in primary cultures of rat type II cells, we used adenoviral vectors to alter levels of SREBP-1c. Overexpression of a dominant-negative form of SREBP-1 decreased lipogenesis and decreased the induction of fatty acid synthase and stearyl coenzyme A desaturase–1 by KGF. Conversely, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of a constitutively active form of SREBP-1c mimicked the effect of KGF on lipogenic enzymes and lipogenesis. These data indicate that SREBP-1c is required for the stimulation of lipogenesis by KGF in the alveolar type II cells and is a key regulator of lung lipid metabolism and that expression of SREBP-1c is sufficient to induce lipogenesis in rat type II cells.
adenovirus; fatty acid synthesis; surfactant
Alveolar macrophages (AM) are one of the key cell types for initiating inflammatory and immune responses to influenza virus in the lung. However, the genome-wide changes in response to influenza infection in AM have not been defined. We performed gene profiling of human AM in response to H1N1 influenza A virus PR/8 using Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 chips and verified the changes at both mRNA and protein levels by real-time RT-PCR and ELISA. We confirmed the response with a contemporary H3N2 influenza virus A/New York/238/2005 (NY/238). To understand the local cellular response, we also evaluated the impact of paracrine factors on virus-induced chemokine and cytokine secretion. In addition, we investigated the changes in the expression of macrophage receptors and uptake of pathogens after PR/8 infection. Although macrophages fail to release a large amount of infectious virus, we observed a robust induction of type I and type III interferons and several cytokines and chemokines following influenza infection. CXCL9, 10, and 11 were the most highly induced chemokines by influenza infection. UV-inactivation abolished virus-induced cytokine and chemokine response, with the exception of CXCL10. The contemporary influenza virus NY/238 infection of AM induced a similar response as PR/8. Inhibition of TNF and/or IL-1β activity significantly decreased the secretion of the proinflammatory chemokines CCL5 and CXCL8 by over 50%. PR/8 infection also significantly decreased mRNA levels of macrophage receptors including C-type lectin domain family 7 member A (CLEC7A), macrophage scavenger receptor 1 (MSR1), and CD36, and reduced uptake of zymosan. In conclusion, influenza infection induced an extensive proinflammatory response in human AM. Targeting local components of innate immune response might provide a strategy for controlling influenza A infection-induced proinflammatory response in vivo.
Ozone exposure produces acute inflammation and neutrophil influx in the distal lung. Alveolar epithelial cells cover a large surface area, secrete chemokines, and may initiate or modify the inflammatory response. The effect of ozone on chemokine production by these cells has not been defined. Isolated rat type II cells were cultured in different conditions to express the morphologic appearance and biochemical markers for the type I and the type II cell phenotypes. These cells were exposed to ozone at an air/liquid interface. The type I–like cells were more susceptible to injury than the type II cells and showed signs of injury at exposure levels of 100 ppb ozone for 60 min. Both phenotypes showed evidence of lipid peroxidation after ozone exposure as measured by 8-isoprostane production, but neither phenotype secreted increased amounts of MIP-2 (CXCL3), CINC-1 (CXCL1), or MCP-1 (CCL2) in response to ozone. Both cell phenotypes secreted MIP-2 and MCP-1 in response to IL-1β or lipopolysaccharide, but there was no priming or synergy with ozone. It is likely that the inflammatory response to ozone in the alveolar compartment is not due to the direct effect of ozone on epithelial cells.
alveolar epithelium; LPS; 8-isoprostane; MCP-1; MIP-2
Alveolar epithelial cells are among the first cells to encounter inhaled particles or organisms. These cells likely participate in the initiation and modulation of the inflammatory response by production of chemokines. However, there is little information on the extent or regulation of chemokine production by these cells. Rat type II cells were studied under differentiated and dedifferentiated conditions to determine their ability to express and secrete CXC chemokines. Both differentiated and dedifferentiated type II cells secreted MIP-2, MCP-1, and CINC-2 in response to a cytokine mixture of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-γ or to IL-1β alone. The cytokine mixture also induced iNOS expression and nitrite secretion. Both differentiated and dedifferentiated type II cells expressed CINC-1 (GRO), CINC-2α, CINC-3 (MIP-2), and MCP-1 mRNA, and their expression was increased by the cytokine mixture or by IL-1β alone. However, CINC-2β, a splice variant of CINC-2, was only expressed under differentiated conditions stimulated by KGF and was not increased by the cytokine mixture or by IL-1β. In situ hybridization of normal lung and lung instilled with Ad-KGF demonstrated that CINC-2β was expressed by alveolar and bronchiolar epithelial cells in vivo. We conclude that CINC-2β is regulated differently from most other chemokines and that its expression is related to the state of alveolar type II cell differentiation.
CCL2; chemokines; CXCL1; inflammation; type II cells
Cigarette smoke (CS) is a highly complex mixture and many of its components are known carcinogens, mutagens, and other toxic substances. CS induces oxidative stress and cell death, and this cell toxicity plays a key role in the pathogenesis of several pulmonary diseases.
We studied the effect of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) in human alveolar epithelial type I-like (ATI-like) cells. These are isolated type II cells that are differentiating toward the type I cell phenotype in vitro and have lost many type II cell markers and express type I cell markers. ATI-like cells were more sensitive to CSE than alveolar type II cells, which maintained their differentiated phenotype in vitro. We observed disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, apoptosis and necrosis that were detected by double staining with acridine orange and ethidium bromide or Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide and TUNEL assay after treatment with CSE. We also detected caspase 3 and caspase 7 activities and lipid peroxidation. CSE induced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and increased expression of Nrf2, HO-1, Hsp70 and Fra1. Moreover, we found that Nrf2 knockdown sensitized ATI-like cells to CSE and Nrf2 overexpression provided protection against CSE-induced cell death. We also observed that two antioxidant compounds N-acetylcysteine and trolox protected ATI-like cells against injury by CSE.
Our study indicates that Nrf2 activation is a major factor in cellular defense of the human alveolar epithelium against CSE-induced toxicity and oxidative stress. Therefore, antioxidant agents that modulate Nrf2 would be expected to restore antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes and to prevent CS-related lung injury and perhaps lessen the development of emphysema.
Highly pathogenic influenza H5N1 virus continues to pose a threat to public health. Although the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of the H5N1 virus have not been fully defined, it has been suggested that cytokine dysregulation plays an important role. As the human respiratory epithelium is the primary target cell for influenza viruses, elucidating the viral tropism and innate immune responses of influenza H5N1 virus in the alveolar epithelium may help us to understand the pathogenesis of the severe pneumonia associated with H5N1 disease. Here we used primary cultures of differentiated human alveolar type II cells, alveolar type I-like cells, and alveolar macrophages isolated from the same individual to investigate viral replication competence and host innate immune responses to influenza H5N1 (A/HK/483/97) and H1N1 (A/HK/54/98) virus infection. The viral replication kinetics and cytokine and chemokine responses were compared by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We demonstrated that influenza H1N1 and H5N1 viruses replicated productively in type II cells and type I-like cells although with different kinetics. The H5N1 virus replicated productively in alveolar macrophages, whereas the H1N1 virus led to an abortive infection. The H5N1 virus was a more potent inducer of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines than the H1N1 virus in all cell types. However, higher levels of cytokine expression were observed for peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages than for alveolar macrophages in response to H5N1 virus infection. Our findings provide important insights into the viral tropisms and host responses of different cell types found in the lung and are relevant to an understanding of the pathogenesis of severe human influenza disease.
Strategies to stimulate endogenous surfactant production require a detailed understanding of the regulation of lipogenesis in alveolar type II cells. We developed culture conditions in which keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) stimulates fatty acid and phospholipid synthesis. KGF stimulated acetate incorporation into phosphatidylcholine, disaturated phosphatidylcholin, and phosphatidylglycerol more than 5% rat serum alone. To determine the mRNA levels of lipogenic enzymes and transport proteins, we analyzed gene expression by oligonucleotide microarrays. KGF increased the mRNA levels for fatty acid synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1), and epidermal fatty acid–binding protein more than rat serum alone. In addition, KGF increased the mRNA levels of the transcription factors CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) and C/EBPδ as well as SREBP-1c (ADD-1), but not PPARγ. These changes in C/EBPα and C/EBPδ were confirmed by in situ hybridization. SCD-1 was also found to be highly expressed in alveolar type II cells in vivo. Furthermore, KGF increased protein levels of fatty acid synthase, C/EBPα, C/EBPδ, SREBP-1, epidermal fatty acid–binding protein, and SCD. Finally, the liver X receptor agonist T0901317 increased acetate incorporation and SREBP-1 but not SREBP-2 protein levels. In summary, KGF stimulates lipogenesis in type II cells by a coordinated expression of lipogenic enzymes and transport proteins regulated by C/EBP isoforms and SREBP-1c.
Surfactant proteins are produced predominantly by alveolar type II (ATII) cells, and the expression of these proteins can be altered by cytokines and growth factors. Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalance is suggested to be important in the pathogenesis of several adult lung diseases. Recently, we developed a culture system for maintaining differentiated adult human ATII cells. Therefore, we sought to determine the effects of IL-13 and IFN-γ on the expression of surfactant proteins in adult human ATII cells in vitro. Additional studies were done with rat ATII cells.
Adult human ATII cells were isolated from deidentified organ donors whose lungs were not suitable for transplantation and donated for medical research. The cells were cultured on a mixture of Matrigel and rat-tail collagen for 8 d with differentiation factors and human recombinant IL-13 or IFN-γ.
IL-13 reduced the mRNA and protein levels of surfactant protein (SP)-C, whereas IFN-γ increased the mRNA level of SP-C and proSP-C protein but not mature SP-C. Neither cytokine changed the mRNA level of SP-B but IFN-γ slightly decreased mature SP-B. IFN-γ reduced the level of the active form of cathepsin H. IL-13 also reduced the mRNA and protein levels of SP-D, whereas IFN-γ increased both mRNA and protein levels of SP-D. IL-13 did not alter SP-A, but IFN-γ slightly increased the mRNA levels of SP-A.
We demonstrated that IL-13 and IFN-γ altered the expression of surfactant proteins in human adult ATII cells in vitro. IL-13 decreased SP-C and SP-D in human ATII cells, whereas IFN-γ had the opposite effect. The protein levels of mature SP-B were decreased by IFN-γ treatment, likely due to the reduction in active form cathpesin H. Similarly, the active form of cathepsin H was relatively insufficient to fully process proSP-C as IFN-γ increased the mRNA levels for SP-C and proSP-C protein, but there was no increase in mature SP-C. These observations suggest that in disease states with an overexpression of IL-13, there would be some deficiency in mature SP-C and SP-D. In disease states with an excess of IFN-γ or therapy with IFN-γ, these data suggest that there might be incomplete processing of SP-B and SP-C.