A key feature of the immune system is its ability to discriminate self from nonself. Breakdown in any of the mechanisms that maintain unresponsiveness to self (a state known as self-tolerance) contributes to the development of autoimmune conditions. Recent studies in mice show that CD8+ T cells specific for the unconventional MHC class I molecule Qa-1 bound to peptides derived from the signal sequence of Hsp60 (Hsp60sp) contribute to self/nonself discrimination. However, it is unclear whether they exist in humans and play a role in human autoimmune diseases. Here we have shown that CD8+ T cells specific for Hsp60sp bound to HLA-E (the human homolog of Qa-1) exist and play an important role in maintaining peripheral self-tolerance by discriminating self from nonself in humans. Furthermore, in the majority of type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients tested, there was a specific defect in CD8+ T cell recognition of HLA-E/Hsp60sp, which was associated with failure of self/nonself discrimination. However, the defect in the CD8+ T cells from most of the T1D patients tested could be corrected in vitro by exposure to autologous immature DCs loaded with the Hsp60sp peptide. These data suggest that HLA-E–restricted CD8+ T cells may play an important role in keeping self-reactive T cells in check. Thus, correction of this defect could be a potentially effective and safe approach in the therapy of T1D.
Protein ADP-ribosylation, including mono- and poly-ADP-ribosylation, is increasingly recognized to play important roles in various biological pathways. Molecular understanding of the functions of ADP-ribosylation requires the identification of the sites of modification. Although tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is widely recognized as an effective means for determining protein modifications, identification of ADP-ribosylation sites has been challenging due to the labile and hydrophilic nature of the modification. Here we applied precursor ion scanning-triggered MS/MS analysis on a hybrid quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer for selectively detecting ADP-ribosylated peptides and determining the auto- ADP-ribosylation sites of CD38 (cluster of differentiation 38) E226D and E226Q mutants. CD38 is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to ADP-ribose. Here we show that NAD can covalently label CD38 E226D and E226Q mutants but not wild-type CD38. In this study, we have successfully identified the D226/Q226 and K129 residues of the two CD38 mutants being the ADP-ribosylation sites using precursor ion scanning hybrid quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry. The results offer insights about the CD38 enzymatic reaction mechanism. The precursor ion scanning method should be useful for identifying the modification sites of other ADP-ribosyltransferases such as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases.
ADP-ribosylation; CD38; Precursor ion scanning; Mass spectrometry; Posttranslational modification
The present study aimed to evaluate alterations in the levels of iron, divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) with the iron-responsive element (IRE), transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1), ferroportin 1 (FPN1), and iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1) in the temporal cortex of human brains with Parkinson disease (PD).
Iron content was measured using an ICP-MS 7500CE detector. IRP1, DMT1+IRE, TfR1, and FPN1 expressions were determined by Western blotting.
Iron content was significantly lower in the temporal cortex of patients with PD when compared with age-matched healthy controls. Unexpectedly, the levels of DMT1+IRE, TfR1, FPN1, and IRP1 were decreased in the temporal cortex in PD brains. No changes were observed in the temporal cortex of postmortem Alzheimer disease brains.
Iron deprivation and iron-related protein dysregulation suggest that a different iron regulatory mechanism may exist, and that iron redistribution may occur between the temporal cortex and the substantia nigra of patients with PD.
Neointimal formation after vessel injury is a complex process involving multiple cellular and molecular processes. Inhibition of intimal hyperplasia plays an important role in preventing proliferative vascular diseases, such as restenosis. In this study, we intended to identify whether sodium ferulate could inhibit neointimal formation and further explore potential mechanisms involved.
Cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) isolated from rat thoracic aorta were pre-treated with 200 µmol/L sodium ferulate for 1 hour and then stimulated with 1 µmol/L angiotensin II (Ang II) for 1 hour or 10% serum for 48 hours. Male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to balloon catheter insertion were administrated with 200 mg/kg sodium ferulate (or saline) for 7 days before sacrificed.
In presence of sodium ferulate, VSMCs exhibited decreased proliferation and migration, suppressed intracellular reactive oxidative species production and NADPH oxidase activity, increased SOD activation and down-regulated p38 phosphorylation compared to Ang II-stimulated alone. Meanwhile, VSMCs treated with sodium ferulate showed significantly increased protein expression of smooth muscle α-actin and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain protein. The components of Notch pathway, including nuclear Notch-1 protein, Jagged-1, Hey-1 and Hey-2 mRNA, as well as total β-catenin protein and Cyclin D1 mRNA of Wnt signaling, were all significantly decreased by sodium ferulate in cells under serum stimulation. The levels of serum 8-iso-PGF2α and arterial collagen formation in vessel wall were decreased, while the expression of contractile markers was increased in sodium ferulate treated rats. A decline of neointimal area, as well as lower ratio of intimal to medial area was observed in sodium ferulate group.
Sodium ferulate attenuated neointimal hyperplasia through suppressing oxidative stress and phenotypic switching of VSMCs.
Post-mating, sexual interactions of opposite sexes differ considerably in different organisms. Post-mating interactions such as re-mating behavior and male harassment can affect the fitness of both sexes. Echinothrips americanus is a new insect pest in Mainland China, and little is known about its post-mating interactions. In this study, we observed re-mating frequency and male harassment frequency and their effects on fitness parameters and offspring sex ratios of E. americanus females. Furthermore, we tested the impact of mating and post-mating interactions on fitness parameters of males. Our results revealed that the re-mating frequency in female adults was extremely low during a 30-day period. However, post-mating interactions between females and males, consisting mainly of male harassment and female resistance, did occur and significantly reduced female longevity and fecundity. Interestingly, increased access to males did not affect the ratio of female offspring. For males, mating dramatically reduced their longevity. However, post-mating interactions with females had no effects on the longevity of mated males. These results enrich our basic knowledge about female and male mating and post-mating behaviors in this species and provide important information about factors that may influence population regulation of this important pest species.
The end-Permian mass extinction was followed by the formation of an enigmatic rock layer with a distinctive macroscopic spotted or dendroid fabric. This deposit has been interpreted as microbial reef rock, digitate dendrolite, digital thrombolite, dendritic thrombolite, or bacterial deposits. Agreement has been reached in considering them as microbialites, but not in their formation. This study has revealed that the spotted and dendroid microbialites were composed of numerous fossil casts formed by the planktic cyanobacterium, Microcystis, a coccoid genus that at the present-day commonly forms blooms in modern lakes, rivers, and reservoirs. The abundance of the fossils and the diagenesis they experienced has determined the macroscopic fabric: where they abundant, the rock appears as dendroid, otherwise, it appears as spotted. The ancient Microcystis bloom might produce toxin to kill other metazoans, and be responsible for the oceanic anoxia that has puzzled so many researchers for so many years.
The conjunctival and cerebral vasculatures share similar embryological origins, with similar structural and physiological characteristics. Tracking the conjunctival microvasculature may provide useful information for predicting the onset, progression and prognosis of both systemic and central nervous system (CNS) vascular diseases. The bulbar conjunctival vasculature was imaged using a retinal function imager (RFI, Optical Imaging Ltd, Rehovot, Israel). Hemoglobin in red blood cells was used as an intrinsic motion-contrast agent in the generation of detailed noninvasive capillary-perfusion maps (nCPMs) and the calculation of the blood flow velocity. Five healthy subjects were imaged under normal conditions and again under the stress condition of wearing a contact lens. The retina was also imaged in one eye of one subject for comparison. The nCPMs showed the conjunctival microvasculature in exquisite detail, which appeared as clear as the retinal nCPMs. The blood flow velocities in the temporal conjunctival microvasculature were 0.86 ± 0.08 (mean ± SD, mm/s) for the bare eye and 0.99 ± 0.11 mm/s with contact lens wear. It is feasible to use RFI for imaging the conjunctival vasculature.
retina; conjunctiva; microvasculature; quantitative analysis; segmentation; image processing; blood flow
A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the efficacy and safety of three main iron chelators, namely, deferoxamine (DFO), deferiprone (DFP) and deferasirox (DFX) for thalassemia major (TM) patients.
Randomized controlled trials comparing mono-therapy DFO, DFP, DFX and combined DFP with DFO therapy in TM patients from January 1990 to December 2012 were searched and selected. Two independent authors assessed data from extracted randomized trials for efficacy and safety in the measurements of serum ferritin (SF), live iron concentration (LIC), myocardial iron content (MIC), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and adverse events (AEs).
Sixteen studies were selected. In the comparison of DFP versus DFO treatment groups, a significant difference was revealed on MIC and LVEF (P=0.01 and P=0.007, respectively) but not on SF or LIC level (P=0.65 and P=0.37, respectively). In comparing combined therapy (DFP plus DFO) versus DFO, a significant difference was shown on MIC and LVEF measurements (P<0.00001 and P=0.003, respectively), but not on SF or LIC levels (P=0.93 and P=0.62, respectively). Moreover, the combined DFP with DFO treatment had significantly higher risk than DFO treatment (RR 1.46 with 95%CI 1.04 to 2.04). When comparing DFX with DFO, a significant difference was shown on the SF level (P=0.003), and there was no difference between DFX and DFO in safety evaluation (RR 1.53 with 95%CI 0.31 to 7.49).
Findings indicated that the most effective and safe iron chelators remains to be proven, and further large-scale, long-term studies are needed.
Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxias are a group of neurodegenerative disorders that are characterized by complex clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Although more than 20 disease-causing genes have been identified, many patients are still currently without a molecular diagnosis. In a two-generation autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia family, we mapped a linkage to a minimal candidate region on chromosome 16p13.3 flanked by single-nucleotide polymorphism markers rs11248850 and rs1218762. By combining the defined linkage region with the whole-exome sequencing results, we identified a homozygous mutation (c.493CT) in CHIP (NM_005861) in this family. Using Sanger sequencing, we also identified two compound heterozygous mutations (c.389AT/c.441GT; c.621C>G/c.707GC) in CHIP gene in two additional kindreds. These mutations co-segregated exactly with the disease in these families and were not observed in 500 control subjects with matched ancestry. CHIP colocalized with NR2A, a subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, in the cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata, hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Wild-type, but not disease-associated mutant CHIPs promoted the degradation of NR2A, which may underlie the pathogenesis of ataxia. In conclusion, using a combination of whole-exome sequencing and linkage analysis, we identified CHIP, encoding a U-box containing ubiquitin E3 ligase, as a novel causative gene for autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia.
Chinese herbal medicine has been commonly used in the treatment of postinfectious cough. The aim of this review is to systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for postinfectious cough. An extensive search for RCTs was performed using multiple electronic databases, supplemented with a manual search. All studies included were confirmed with specific inclusion criteria. Methodological quality of each study was examined according to the Cochrane risk of bias assessment. Quality of evidence was evaluated using rating approach developed by GRADE working group. The literature search yielded 352 results, of which 12 RCTs satisfied the inclusion criteria, offering moderate-to-high levels of evidence. Methodological quality was considered high in three trials, while in the other nine studies the unclear risk of bias was in the majority. Findings suggested that, compared with western conventional medicine or placebo, Chinese herbal medicine could effectively improve core symptoms of postinfectious cough, act better and have earlier antitussive effect, and enhance patients' quality of life. No serious adverse event was reported.
Osteoarthritis is a relatively common musculoskeletal disorder that increases in prevalence with age. Worldwide, knee osteoarthritis is one of the leading causes of disability, particularly in the elderly. In numerous trials of agents for long-term pain therapy, no well-established and replicable results have been achieved. Complementary and alternative medical approaches have been employed for thousands of years to relieve knee osteoarthritis pain. Among herbal medicines, the golden plaster is the preferred and most commonlyused method in China to reduce pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis, as it causes few adverse effects. The purpose of this study will be to evaluate the efficacy and safety of golden plaster on pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis.
This study will be a multicenter randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 320 participants aged 45 to 79 years with knee osteoarthritis, whose scores on a visual analog scale (VAS) are more than 20 mm,will be randomly allocated into a treatment group and a control group. A golden plaster will be administered externally to participants in the treatment group for 2 weeks, while the control group will receive a placebo plaster externally for 2 weeks. Follow-up will be at regular intervals during a 4-week period with a VAS score for pain, quality of life, and complications.
This study will be a methodologically sound randomized controlled trial to assess pain relief after the intervention of golden plaster, compared to a placebo intervention in patients with knee osteoarthritis.
ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: ChiCTR-TRC-13003418
Clinical trials; Golden plaster; Knee osteoarthritis; Visual analog scale
Graphene double quantum dots (DQDs) open to use charge or spin degrees of freedom for storing and manipulating quantum information in this new electronic material. However, impurities and edge disorders in etched graphene nano-structures hinder the ability to control the inter-dot tunnel coupling, tC, the most important property of the artificial molecule. Here we report measurements of tC in an all-metal-side-gated graphene DQD. We find that tC can be controlled continuously about a factor of four by employing a single gate. Furthermore, tC, can be changed monotonically about another factor of four as electrons are gate-pumped into the dot one by one. The results suggest that the strength of tunnel coupling in etched graphene DQDs can be varied in a rather broad range and in a controllable manner, which improves the outlook to use graphene as a base material for qubit applications.
To date, no effective systemic therapies have been made available for paraganglioma. However, multiple mutations in susceptibility genes have been identified that are potential targets for sorafenib, an oral multitargeted tyrosine-kinase inhibitor.
We report the case of a 69-year-old Chinese man with mediastinal paraganglioma that had metastasized to the bone. The paraganglioma responded to sorafenib, a novel multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets angiogenesis, the Raf-kinase pathway, the platelet-derived growth factor Ret, and c-Kit. The patient was diagnosed as having paraganglioma after biopsy of the mediastinal mass. We first treated the patient with radiotherapy. Then he tolerated an etoposide-and-cisplatin chemotherapy regimen. Subsequently, he received 6 months of maintenance treatment with sorafenib (400 mg twice daily). A dramatic reduction in tumor volume was observed. At present, the patient has achieved a partial response, and his clinical status remains unchanged.
We suggest that sorafenib should be further investigated in the management of patients with paraganglioma.
sorafenib; paraganglioma; molecular-targeted drug
Genome-wide association study (GWAS) analysis identified three new susceptibility loci for PACG. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether these three loci in PLEKHA7, COL11A1, and PCMTD1-ST18 are associated with PAC and ocular biometric characteristics, such as axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and diopter of spherical power (DS). The study was a part of the Jiangsu Eye Study. The samples were collected from 232 PAC subjects and 306 controls from a population-based prevalence survey conducted in Funing County of Jiangsu, China. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of rs11024102 in PLEKHA7, rs3753841 in COL11A1, and rs1015213 in PCMTD1-ST18 were genotyped by TaqMan-MGB probe using the RT-PCR system. None of the three polymorphisms showed differences in the distribution of genotypes and allele frequencies between the PAC group and the control group. No significant association was determined between the 3 SNPs and AL, ACD, or DS of PAC subjects. We concluded that even though PLEKHA7 rs11024102, COL11A1 rs3753841, and PCMTD1-ST18 rs1015213 are associated with PACG, those sequence variations are not associated with PAC in a Han Chinese population. Our results also did not support a significant role for these three SNPs in ocular biometry such as AL, ACD, and DS.
Parkinson disease (PD), a devastating neurodegenerative disorder, affects motor abilities and cognition as well. It is not clear whether the proapoptotic protein, Bid, is involved in tumor necrosis factor death receptor I (TNFRI)–mediated destructive signal transduction pathways such as cell dysfunction or neurodegeneration in the temporal cortex of patients with PD.
Molecular and biochemical approaches were used to dissect mitochondrial related components of the destructive signaling pathway in the temporal cortex from rapidly autopsied brains (postmortem interval mean 2.6 hours). Brains from patients with PD (n = 15) had an average age of 81.4 years, compared to the average age of 84.36 years in age-matched control patient brains (n = 15).
TNFRI and its adaptor protein, TRADD, were not only present in the cytoplasm of the temporal cortex, but were significantly elevated (42.3% and 136.1%, respectively) in PD brains compared to age-matched control brains. Bid in the PD temporal cortex could be further cleaved into tBid in the cytosol, which is translocated into the mitochondria, where cytochrome c is then released and caspase-3 is subsequently activated.
Patients with PD have an activated Bid-mediated destructive signal pathway via TNFRI in the temporal cortex. Such deficits are pervasive, suggesting that they might contribute to cortex degeneration as PD manifests.
Several studies analyzed the associations of Vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms with urolithiasis risk in different ethnic groups. However, the results were inconclusive. To evaluate a more precise estimation of the relationship, a meta-analysis was performed.
Pubmed, EMBASE, Wanfang Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Weipu Database were searched. Data were extracted independently by two investigators. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of associations.
Twenty-three case–control studies were included in this meta-analysis. Significant associations between ApaI, BsmI, FokI, and TaqI polymorphisms and urolithiasis risk were observed. However, sensitivity analyses for BsmI and FokI polymorphisms indicated that the results were not reliable and credible. In addition, there was a significant association of the ApaI-TaqI haplotype with urolithiasis risk.
This meta-analysis suggested that ApaI and TaqI polymorphisms in VDR gene were associated with urolithiasis risk.
Urolithiasis; Vitamin D receptor; Polymorphism; Meta-analysis
The Sir2 family of enzymes or sirtuins are known as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylases1 and have been implicated in the regulation of transcription, genome stability, metabolism, and lifespan2, 3. However, four of the seven mammalian sirtuins have very weak deacetylase activity in vitro. Here we show that human Sirt6 efficiently removes long chain fatty acyl groups, such as myristoyl, from lysine residues. The crystal structure of Sirt6 reveals a large hydrophobic pocket that can accommodate long chain fatty acyl groups. We demonstrate further that Sirt6 promotes the secretion of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) by removing the fatty acyl modification on K19 and K20 of TNFα. Protein lysine fatty acylation has been known to occur in mammalian cells, but the function and regulatory mechanisms of this modification were unknown. Our data suggest that protein lysine fatty acylation is a novel mechanism that regulates protein secretion. The discovery of Sirt6 as an enzyme that controls protein lysine fatty acylation provides new opportunities to investigate the physiological function of the previously ignored protein posttranslational modification.
Histone3-lysine79 (H3K79) methyltransferase DOT1L has been found to be a drug target for acute leukemia with MLL (mixed lineage leukemia) gene translocations. A total of 55 adenosine-containing compounds were designed and synthesized, among which several potent DOT1L inhibitors were identified with Ki values as low as 0.5 nM. These compounds also show high selectivity (>4,500-fold) over three other histone methyltransferases. Structure activity relationships (SAR) of these compounds for their inhibitory activities against DOT1L are discussed. Potent DOT1L inhibitors exhibit selective activity against the proliferation of MLL-translocated leukemia cell lines MV4;11 and THP1 with EC50 values of 4–11 μM. Isothermal titration calorimetry studies showed two representative inhibitors bind with a high affinity to the DOT1L:nucleosome complex, and only compete with the enzyme cofactor SAM (S-adenosyl-L-methionine), but not the substrate nucleosome.
Quercetin is the most abundant flavonoid in fruit and vegetables and is believed to attenuate cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that quercetin inhibits cardiac hypertrophy by blocking AP-1 (c-fos, c-jun) and activating PPAR-γ signaling pathways.
The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism underlying quercetin-mediated attenuation of cardiac hypertrophy. Quercetin therapy reduced blood pressure and markedly reduced the ratio of left ventricular to body weight (LVW/BW) (P<0.05, vs. spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs)). In vitro, quercetin also significantly attenuated Ang II-induced H9C2 cells hypertrophy, as indicated by its concentration dependent inhibitory effects on [3H]leucine incorporation into H9C2 cells (64% reduction) and by the reduced hypertrophic surface area in H9C2 cells compared with the Ang II group (P<0.01, vs. Ang II group). Concurrently, we found that PPAR-γ activity was significantly increased in the quercetin-treated group both in vivo and in vitro when analyzed using immunofluorescent or immunohistochemical assays (P<0.05, vs. SHRs or P<0.01, vs. the Ang II group). Conversely, in vivo, AP-1 (c-fos, s-jun) activation was suppressed in the quercetin-treated group, as was the downstream hypertrophy gene, including mRNA levels of ANP and BNP (P<0.05, vs. SHRs). Additionally, both western blotting and real time-PCR demonstrated that PPAR-γ protein and mRNA were increased in the myocardium and AP-1 protein and mRNA were significantly decreased in the quercetin-treated group (P<0.05, vs. SHRs). Furthermore, western blotting and real time-PCR analyses also showed that transfection with PPAR-γ siRNA significantly increased AP-1 signaling and reversed the effects of quercetin inhibition on mRNA expression levels of genes such as ANP and BNP in hypertrophic H9C2 cells.
Our data indicate that quercetin may inhibit cardiac hypertrophy by enhancing PPAR-γ expression and by suppressing the AP-1 signaling pathway.
The fate of a hole injected in an antiferromagnet is an outstanding issue of strongly correlated physics. It provides important insights into doped Mott insulators closely related to high-temperature superconductivity. Here, we report a systematic numerical study of t-J ladder systems based on the density matrix renormalization group. It reveals a surprising result for the single hole's motion in an otherwise well-understood undoped system. Specifically, we find that the common belief of quasiparticle picture is invalidated by the self-localization of the doped hole. In contrast to Anderson localization caused by disorders, the charge localization discovered here is an entirely new phenomenon purely of strong correlation origin. It results from destructive quantum interference of novel signs picked up by the hole, and since the same effect is of a generic feature of doped Mott physics, our findings unveil a new paradigm which may go beyond the single hole doped system.
A possible mechanism of susceptibility to superinfection with simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-1157ipd3N4 was explored in twelve SHIVSF162P3-infected Chinese rhesus macaques. Based on the kinetics of viral replication for the second infecting virus following SHIV-1157ipd3N4 inoculation, the monkeys were divided into two groups: those relatively resistant to superinfection (SIR) and those relatively sensitive to superinfection (SIS). We found that superinfection-resistant macaques had high primary viremia, whereas superinfection-sensitive macaques had low primary viremia, suggesting that primary SHIVSF162P3 infection with a high viral-replication level would repress superinfection with a heterologous SHIV-1157ipd3N4. Although no correlation of protection against superinfection with virus-specific CD4+ T cell or CD8+ T cell immune responses from gut was observed prior to superinfection, superinfection susceptibility was strongly correlated with CD4+ Tcm cells from gut both prior to the second infecting virus inoculation and on day 7 after superinfection, but not with CD4+ Tem cells from gut or with CD4+ Tcm cells from peripheral blood and lymph node. These results point to the important roles of gut-derived CD4+ Tcm cells for the study of the mechanisms of protection against superinfection and the evaluation of the safety and efficacy of vaccines and therapies against acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) show promise for treatment of a variety of neurological and other disorders. Cat has a high degree of linkage with the human genome and has been used as a model for analysis of neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer’s disease and motor disorders. The present study was designed to characterize bone marrow-derived MSCs from cats and to investigate the capacity to generate functional peptidergic neurons. MSCs were expanded with cells from the femurs of cats and then characterized by phenotype and function. Phenotypically, feline and human MSCs shared surface markers, and lacked hematopoietic markers, with similar morphology. As compared to a subset of human MSCs, feline MSCs showed no evidence of the major histocompatibility class II. Since the literature suggested Stro-1 as an indicator of pluripotency, we compared early and late passages feline MSCs and found its expression in >90% of the cells. However, the early passage cells showed two distinct populations of Stro-1-expressing cells. At passage 5, the MSCs were more homogeneous with regards to Stro-1 expression. The passage 5 MSCs differentiated to osteogenic and adipogenic cells, and generated neurons with electrophysiological properties. This correlated with the expression of mature neuronal markers with concomitant decrease in stem cell-associated genes. At day 12 induction, the cells were positive for MAP2, Neuronal Nuclei, tubulin βIII, Tau and synaptophysin. This correlated with electrophysiological maturity as presented by excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs). The findings indicate that the cat may constitute a promising biomedical model for evaluation of novel therapies such as stem cell therapy in such neurological disorders as Alzheimer’s disease and stroke.
cat; mesenchymal stem cells; neuronal differentiation; immunohistochemistry; feline; bone marrow
We present 2 cases of fulminant malignant hyperthermia (MH), complicated with massive rhabdomyolysis. The patients were successfully treated in the intensive care unit of our university teaching hospital, despite the lack of availability of dantrolene in our country, by early application of continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH). Both male patients developed fulminant malignant hyperthermia during anesthesia for oromaxillofacial surgery. CVVH was employed when the values of creatine phosphokinase (CPK), myoglobin (Mb), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) increased significantly. After emergency treatment and CVVH therapy, the values of CPK, Mb, and LDH in the blood plasma of the patients decreased significantly. The complications, including acute renal failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and acute respiratory distress syndrome were also treated without any obvious organ damage. Early detection and management are the keys to treat MH successfully. CVVH is a valuable therapeutic application in the initial/critical management of severe rhabdomyolysis. If these complications occur even with initial treatment with dantrolene, our experiences may be useful adjunctive treatments to consider.
Malignant hyperthermia; Continuous veno-venous hemofiltration.
Alcohol addiction is a major social and health concern. Here, we determined the expression profile of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rats treated with alcohol. The results suggest that multiple miRNAs were aberrantly expressed in rat NAc after alcohol injection. Among them, miR-382 was down-regulated in alcohol-treated rats. In both cultured neuronal cells in vitro and in the NAc in vivo, we identified that the dopamine receptor D1 (Drd1) is a direct target gene of miR-382. Via this target gene, miR-382 strongly modulated the expression of DeltaFosB. Moreover, overexpression of miR-382 significantly attenuated alcohol-induced up-regulation of DRD1 and DeltaFosB, decreased voluntary intake of and preference for alcohol and inhibited the DRD1-induced action potential responses. The results indicated that miRNAs are involved in and may represent novel therapeutic targets for alcoholism.
alcohol addiction; DeltaFosB; dopamine receptor D1; microRNAs; miR-382
The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of evaluating the therapeutic effects of intravenous diltiazem in a newly established rat model of coronary thrombotic micro-embolism (CME). CME was induced by injecting 0.199 ml saline containing 5 mg of automicrothrombotic particulates (∼10 μm) into the aorta of Sprague Dawley rats. The injection was carried out over 10 sec using a tuberculin syringe with a 28-gauge needle. The CME model rats were randomly divided into untreated (CME, n=38) and diltiazem-treated (CME+DIL, n=38) groups. Diltiazem (1 mg/ml, 50 μg/min/kg) was intravenously injected using an infusion pump through the tail vein for 175 min, 5 min following the injection of the automicrothrombotic particulates. Hemodynamic measurements, echocardiography and pathohistological examinations were performed at various time-points (3 h, 24 h and 7 and 28 days) postoperatively. Arteriolar thrombosis, multifocal myocardial necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration with markedly increased myocardial tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression, reduced left ventricular (LV) systolic function and increased plasma von Willebrand factor (vWF), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and serum c-troponin I (c-TnI) levels (indicating vascular endothelial injury and myocardial necrosis) were observed in the CME model rats. These pathological responses in CME rats were partly attenuated by intravenous diltiazem treatment. The present CME model is suitable for evaluating the therapeutic effects of intravenous diltiazem; intravenous diltiazem treatment significantly improved cardiac function through alleviating inflammatory responses and microvascular thrombotic injury in this rat model of CME.
coronary thrombosis; microembolism; no flow phenomenon; diltiazem