Salp15, a 15-kDa tick salivary gland protein, is both essential for ticks to successfully obtain host blood and also facilitates transmission of Lyme borreliosis. To determine whether the Salp15 gene is expressed in Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes sinensis, principle vectors of Lyme borreliosis in China, we studied transcriptions of this gene in semi-engorged larvae, nymph and adults of these two species. A total of eight Salp15 homologues, five in I. persulcatus and three in I. sinensis, were identified by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Interestingly, the intra-species similarity of Salp15 is approximately equal to its interspecies similarity and more than one Salp15 protein is expressed in a certain tick developmental stage. Comparison of DNA and proteins with other available tick Salp15 homologues suggests that the Salp15 superfamily is genetically conserved and diverse in the Ixodes ricinus complex. These findings indicate that Salp15 proteins in the I. ricinus complex may play an essential role in interacting with the host immune system and transmission of Borrelia genospecies.
Zinc finger, BED-type containing 6 (ZBED6) is an important transcription factor in placental mammals, affecting development, cell proliferation and growth. In this study, we found that the expression of the ZBED6 and IGF2 were upregulated during C2C12 differentiation. The IGF2 expression levels were negatively associated with the methylation status in beef cattle (P < 0.05). A luciferase assay for the IGF2 intron 3 and P3 promoter showed that the mutant-type 439 A-SNP-pGL3 in driving reporter gene transcription is significantly higher than that of the wild-type 439 G-SNP-pGL3 construct (P < 0.05). An over-expression assay revealed that ZBED6 regulate IGF2 expression and promote myoblast differentiation. Furthermore, knockdown of ZBED6 led to IGF2 expression change in vitro. Taken together, these results suggest that ZBED6 inhibits IGF2 activity and expression via a G to A transition disrupts the interaction. Thus, we propose that ZBED6 plays a critical role in myogenic differentiation.
The negative feedback mechanism is essential to maintain effective immunity and tissue homeostasis. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3) modulates innate immune response, but the mechanism remains poorly understood. Here we report that vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling attenuates Toll-like receptor-mediated inflammation by enhancing the negative feedback inhibition. VDR inactivation leads to hyper inflammatory response in mice and macrophage cultures when challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), due to miR-155 overproduction that excessively suppresses SOCS1, a key regulator that enhances the negative feedback loop. Deletion of miR-155 attenuates vitamin D suppression of LPS-induced inflammation, confirming that 1,25(OH)2D3 stimulates SOCS1 by down-regulating miR-155. 1,25(OH)2D3 down-regulates bic transcription by inhibiting NF-κB activation, which is mediated by a κB cis-DNA element located within the first intron of the bic gene. Together these data identify a novel regulatory mechanism for vitamin D to control innate immunity.
vitamin D; inflammation; macrophage; miR-155; SOCS1; negative feedback
To discover drugs lowering PrPSc in prion-infected cultured neuronal cells that achieve high concentrations in brain to test in mouse models of prion disease and then treat people with these fatal diseases.
We tested 2-AMT analogs for EC50 and PK after a 40 mg/kg single dose and 40–210 mg/kg/day doses for 3 days. We calculated plasma and brain AUC, ratio of AUC/EC50 after dosing. We reasoned that compounds with high AUC/EC50 ratios should be good candidates going forward.
We evaluated 27 2-AMTs in single-dose and 10 in 3-day PK studies, of which IND24 and IND81 were selected for testing in mouse models of prion disease. They had high concentrations in brain after oral dosing. Absolute bioavailability ranged from 27–40%. AUC/EC50 ratios after 3 days were >100 (total) and 48–113 (unbound). Stability in liver microsomes ranged from 30–>60 min. Ring hydroxylated metabolites were observed in microsomes. Neither was a substrate for the MDR1 transporter.
IND24 and IND81 are active in vitro and show high AUC/EC50 ratios (total and unbound) in plasma and brain. These will be evaluated in mouse models of prion disease.
antiprion drugs; drug discovery; IND24; IND81; prion disease
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, catalyzing tryptophan (Trp) metabolism through the kynurenine (Kyn) metabolic pathway, plays important roles in immune suppression and the CNS. In this article, we report a simple, rapid and specific LC–MS/MS method for accurate determination of Kyn and Trp concentrations in human plasma from HIV-infected patients.
The human plasma sample (100 μl) was mixed with Kyn-d4 and Trp-d5 internal standards and then precipitated with trifluoroacetic acid. The supernatant was directly analyzed by LC–MS/MS. The assay using surrogate matrix calibrators was validated for precision, accuracy, matrix effect, extraction efficiency and stability. Some assay validation issues for endogenous substance bioanalysis using an LC–MS/MS method are discussed.
A simple, specific and reproducible LC–MS/MS method has been developed and validated for measuring Kyn and Trp in human plasma samples.
Individuals with ulcerative colitis (UC) are at increased risk for colorectal cancer. The standard method of surveillance for neoplasia in UC by colonoscopy is invasive and can miss flat lesions. We sought to identify a gene expression signature in non-dysplastic mucosa without active inflammation that could serve as a marker for remote neoplastic lesions.
Gene expression was analyzed by cDNA microarray in 5 normal controls, 4 UC patients without dysplasia, and 11 UC patients harboring remote neoplasia. Common gene ontology pathways of significantly differentially expressed genes were identified. Expression of genes which were progressively and significantly up-regulated from controls, to UC without neoplasia, to UC with remote neoplasia were evaluated by real time PCR. Several gene products were also examined by immunohistochemistry.
468 genes were significantly up-regulated and 541 genes were significantly down-regulated in UC patints with neoplasia compared to UC patients without neoplasia. Nine genes (ACSL1, BIRC3, CLC, CREM, ELTD1, FGG, S100A9, THBD, and TPD52L1) were progressively and significantly up-regulated from controls to non-dysplastic UC to UC with neoplasia. Immunostaining of proteins revealed increased expression of S100A9 and REG1α in UC-associated cancer and in non-dysplastic tissue from UC patients harboring remote neoplasia, compared to UC patients without neoplasia and controls.
Gene expression changes occurring as a field effect in the distal colon of patients with chronic UC identify patients harboring remote neoplastic lesions. These markers may lead to a more accurate and less invasive method of detection of neoplasia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
Inflammatory bowel disease; ulcerative colitis; dysplasia; colorectal cancer; gene expression
Post-translational modifications play central roles in myriad biological pathways including circadian regulation. We employed a circadian proteomic approach to demonstrate that circadian timing of phosphorylation is a critical factor in regulating complex GSK3β dependent pathways and identified O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) as a substrate of GSK3β. Interestingly, OGT activity is regulated by GSK3β, hence OGT and GSK3β exhibit reciprocal regulation. Modulating OGlcNAcylation levels alter circadian period length in both mice and Drosophila, and conversely protein O-GlcNAcylation is circadianly regulated. Central clock proteins, Clock and Period, are reversibly modified by O-GlcNAcylation to regulate their transcriptional activities. In addition, O-GlcNAcylation of a region in PER2 known to regulate human sleep phase (S662–S674) competes with phosphorylation of this region, and this interplay is at least partly mediated by glucose levels. Together, these results indicate that O-GlcNAcylation serves as a metabolic sensor for clock regulation and works coordinately with phosphorylation to fine tune circadian clock.
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) binds to environmental toxicants including synthetic halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and is involved in a diverse array of biological processes. Recently, the AHR was shown to control host immunity by affecting the balance between inflammatory T cells that produce IL-17 (Th17) and IL-22 versus regulatory T cells (Treg) involved in tolerance. While environmental AHR ligands can mediate this effect, endogenous ligands are likely to be more relevant in host immune responses. We investigated downstream metabolites of tryptophan as potential AHR ligands because (1) tryptophan metabolites have been implicated in regulating the balance between Th17 and Treg cells and (2) many of the AHR ligands identified thus far are derivatives of tryptophan. We characterized the ability of tryptophan metabolites to bind and activate the AHR and to increase IL-22 production in human T cells. We report that the tryptophan metabolite, cinnabarinic acid (CA), is an AHR ligand that stimulates the differentiation of human and mouse T cells producing IL-22. We compare the IL-22-stimulating activity of CA to that of other tryptophan metabolites and define stimulation conditions that lead to CA production from immune cells. Our findings link tryptophan metabolism to AHR activation and define a novel endogenous AHR agonist with potentially broad biological functions.
Even in the setting of maximally suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV persists indefinitely. Several mechanisms might contribute to this persistence, including chronic inflammation and immune dysfunction. In this study, we have explored a preclinical model for the evaluation of potential interventions that might serve to eradicate or to minimize the level of persistent virus. Given data that metabolic products of the inducible enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygeanse (IDO) might foster inflammation and viral persistence, chronically simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected, ART-treated rhesus macaques were treated with the IDO inhibitor 1-methyl tryptophan (1mT). Orally administered 1mT achieved targeted plasma levels, but did not impact tryptophan metabolism or decrease viral RNA or DNA in plasma or in intestinal tissues beyond levels achieved by ART alone. Animals treated with 1mT showed no difference in the levels of T cell activation or differentiation, or in the kinetics or magnitude of viral rebound following cessation of ART. Notwithstanding these negative results, our observations suggest that the chronically SIV-infected rhesus macaque on suppressive ART can serve as a tractable model in which to test and to prioritize the selection of other potential interventions designed to eradicate HIV in vivo. In addition, this model might be used to optimize the route and dose by which such interventions are administered and the methods by which their effects are monitored.
The concentrations, distribution, accumulation, and potential ecological risk of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, As, Pb, Cd, and Hg) in sediments from the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) tributaries were determined and studied. Pb isotopic compositions in sediments were also measured to effectively identify the potential Pb sources. The results showed that the average concentrations of heavy metals in sediment of TGR tributaries were higher than the local background values of soils and sediments in China. The assessment by Geoaccumulation Index indicated that Cu, Ni, and Hg were at the “slightly polluted” level and Cd was ranked as the “moderately polluted” level in tributary sediments of TGR. The assessment by Potential Ecological Risk Index showed that Hg and Cd were the predominant elements in tributary sediments in TGR. The Pb isotopic ratios in sediments varied from 1.171 to 1.202 for 206Pb/207Pb and from 2.459 to 2.482 for 208Pb/207Pb in TGR. All Pb isotopic ratios in sediments were similar to those from coal combustion, lead ores (the mining activities and smelting process), and cement material, indicating that these anthropogenic inputs may be the main sources for Pb pollution in sediments of TGR tributaries.
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a reversible neuropsychiatric syndrome associated with acute and chronic liver diseases. It includes a number of neuropsychiatric disturbances including impaired motor activity and coordination, intellectual and cognitive function.
In the present study, we used a chronic rat HE model by ligation of the bile duct (BDL) for 4 weeks. These rats showed increased plasma ammonia level, bile duct hyperplasia and impaired spatial learning memory and motor coordination when tested with Rota-rod and Morris water maze tests, respectively. By immunohistochemistry, the cerebral cortex showed swelling of astrocytes and microglia activation. To gain a better understanding of the effect of HE on the brain, the dendritic arbors of layer V cortical pyramidal neurons and hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons were revealed by an intracellular dye injection combined with a 3-dimensional reconstruction. Although the dendritic arbors remained unaltered, the dendritic spine density on these neurons was significantly reduced. It was suggested that the reduction of dendritic spines may be the underlying cause for increased motor evoked potential threshold and prolonged central motor conduction time in clinical finding in cirrhosis.
We found that HE perturbs CNS functions by altering the dendritic morphology of cortical and hippocampal pyramidal neurons, which may be the underlying cause for the motor and intellectual impairments associated with HE patients.
Primary sensorimotor cortex; Hippocampus; Pyramidal neuron; Dendritic spine; Liver failure; Bile duct ligation
Quantitative resistance against Leptosphaeria maculans in Brassica napus is difficult to assess in young plants due to the long period of symptomless growth of the pathogen from the appearance of leaf lesions to the appearance of canker symptoms on the stem. By using doubled haploid (DH) lines A30 (susceptible) and C119 (with quantitative resistance), quantitative resistance against L. maculans was assessed in young plants in controlled environments at two stages: stage 1, growth of the pathogen along leaf veins/petioles towards the stem by leaf lamina inoculation; stage 2, growth in stem tissues to produce stem canker symptoms by leaf petiole inoculation. Two types of inoculum (ascospores; conidia) and three assessment methods (extent of visible necrosis; symptomless pathogen growth visualised using the GFP reporter gene; amount of pathogen DNA quantified by PCR) were used. In stage 1 assessments, significant differences were observed between lines A30 and C119 in area of leaf lesions, distance grown along veins/petioles assessed by visible necrosis or by viewing GFP and amount of L. maculans DNA in leaf petioles. In stage 2 assessments, significant differences were observed between lines A30 and C119 in severity of stem canker and amount of L. maculans DNA in stem tissues. GFP-labelled L. maculans spread more quickly from the stem cortex to the stem pith in A30 than in C119. Stem canker symptoms were produced more rapidly by using ascospore inoculum than by using conidial inoculum. These results suggest that quantitative resistance against L. maculans in B. napus can be assessed in young plants in controlled conditions. Development of methods to phenotype quantitative resistance against plant pathogens in young plants in controlled environments will help identification of stable quantitative resistance for control of crop diseases.
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trials using tenofovir-based regimens have demonstrated that high levels of adherence are required to evaluate efficacy; the incorporation of objective biomarkers of adherence in trial design has been essential to interpretation, given the inaccuracy of self-report. Antiretroviral measurements in scalp hair have been useful as a marker of long-term exposure in the HIV treatment setting, and hair samples are relatively easy and inexpensive to collect, transport, and store for analysis. To evaluate the relationship between dose and tenofovir concentrations in hair, we examined the dose proportionality of tenofovir in hair in healthy, HIV-uninfected adults.
A phase I, crossover pharmacokinetic study was performed in 24 HIV-negative adults receiving directly-observed oral tenofovir tablets administered 2, 4, and 7 doses/week for 6 weeks, with a ≥3-week break between periods. Small samples of hair were collected after each six-week period and analyzed for tenofovir concentrations. Geometric-mean-ratios compared levels between each pair of dosing conditions. Intensive plasma pharmacokinetic studies were performed during the daily-dosing period to calculate areas-under-the-time-concentration curves (AUCs).
Over 90% of doses were observed per protocol. Median tenofovir concentrations in hair increased monotonically with dose. A log-linear relationship was seen between dose and hair levels, with an estimated 76% (95% CI 60–93%) increase in hair level per 2-fold dose increase. Tenofovir plasma AUCs modestly predicted drug concentrations in hair.
This study found a strong linear relationship between frequency of dosing and tenofovir levels in scalp hair. The analysis of quantitative drug levels in hair has the potential to improve adherence measurement in the PrEP field and may be helpful in determining exposure thresholds for protection and explaining failures in PrEP trials. Hair measures for adherence monitoring may also facilitate adherence measurement in real-world settings and merit further investigation in upcoming PrEP implementation studies and programs.
c-Myc is a transcription factor overexpression of which induces mammary cancer in transgenic mice. To explore whether certain microRNAs (mirRNA) mediate c-Myc induced mammary carcinogenesis, we studied mir-RNA expression profile in mammary tumors developed from MMTV-c-myc transgenic mice, and found 50 and 59 mirRNAs showing increased and decreased expression, respectively, compared with lactating mammary glands of wild type mice. Twenty-four of these mirRNAs could be grouped into eight clusters because they had the same chromosomal localizations and might be processed from the same primary RNA transcripts. The increased expression of mir-20a, mir-20b, and mir-9 as well as decreased expression of mir-222 were verified by RT-PCR, real-time RT-PCR, and cDNA sequencing. Moreover, we fortuitously identified a novel non-coding RNA, the level of which was decreased in proliferating mammary glands of MMTV-c-myc mice was further decreased to undetectable level in the mammary tumors. Sequencing of this novel RNA revealed that it was transcribed from a region of mouse chromosome 19 that harbored the metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript-1 (Malat-1), a non-protein-coding gene. These results suggest that certain mirRNAs and the chromosome 19 derived non-coding RNAs may mediate c-myc induced mammary carcinogenesis.
c-myc; MicroRNA; Breast cancer; Microarray
We describe a novel common-path optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) fiber probe design using a sapphire ball lens for cross-sectional imaging and sensing in retina vitrectomy surgery. Single mode Gaussian beam (TEM00) simulation was used to optimize lateral resolution and working distance (WD) of the common-path probe. A theoretical sensitivity model for CP-OCT was prosed to assess its optimal performance based an unbalanced photodetector configuration. Two probe designs with working distances (WD) 415μm and 1221μm and lateral resolution 11μm and 18μm, respectively were implemented with sensitivity up to 88dB. The designs are also fully compatible with conventional Michelson interferometer based OCT configurations. The reference plane of the probe, located at the distal beam exit interface of the single mode fiber (SMF), was encased within a 25-gauge hypodermic needle by the sapphire ball lens facilitates its applications in bloody and harsh environments. The performances of the fiber probe with 11μm of lateral resolution and 19μm of axial resolution were demonstrated by cross-sectional imaging of a cow cornea and retina in vitro with a 1310nm swept source OCT system. This probe was also attached to a piezoelectric motor for active compensation of physiological tremor for handheld retinal surgical tools.
optical coherence tomography; retina imaging; fiber probe
HIV-mediated immune dysfunction may influence CD4+ T cell recovery during suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). We analyzed cellular biomarkers of immunological inflammation, maturation, and senescence in HIV-infected subjects on early suppressive ART. We performed longitudinal analyses of peripheral immunological biomarkers of subjects on suppressive ART (n = 24) from early treatment (median 6.4 months, interquartile range [IQR] 4.8–13.9 months) to 1–2 years of follow-up (median 19.8 months, IQR 18.3–24.6 months). We performed multivariate regression to determine which biomarkers were associated with and/or predictive of CD4+ T cell recovery. After adjusting for the pre-ART CD4+ T cell count, age, proximal CD4+ T cell count, and length of ART medication, the percentage of CD27+CD8+ T cells remained significantly associated with the CD4+ T cell recovery rate (β = 0.092 cells/ul/month, P = 0.028). In HIV-infected subjects starting suppressive ART, patients with the highest percentage of CD8+ T cells expressing CD27 had the greatest rate of CD4+ T cell recovery.
Acupuncture therapy for preventive and treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting(PONV), a condition which commonly present after anaesthesia and surgery is a subject of growing interest.
This paper included a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effect of different type of acupuncture and acupoint selection in PONV prevention and treatment.
Randomised controlled trials(RCTs) comparing acupuncture with non-acupuncture treatment were identified from databases PubMed, Cochrane, EBSCO, Ovid, CNKI and Wanfangdata. Meta-analysis on eligible studies was performed using fixed-effects model with RevMan 5.2. Results were expressed as RR for dichotomous data, with 95%CI.
Thirty RCTs, 1276 patients (intervention) and 1258 patients (control) were identified. Meta-analysis showed that PC6 acupuncture significantly reduced the number of cases of early vomiting (postoperative 0-6h) (RR=0.36, 95%CI 0.19,0.71; P=0.003) and nausea (postoperative 0-24h) (RR=0.25, 95%CI 0.10,0.61; P=0.002), but not early nausea (postoperative 0-6h) (RR=0.64, 95%CI 0.34,1.19; P=0.150) and vomiting (postoperative 0-24h) (RR=0.82, 95%CI 0.48,1.38; P=0.450). PC6 acupressure significantly reduced the number of cases of nausea (RR=0.71, 95%CI 0.57,0.87; P=0.001) and vomiting (RR=0.62, 95%CI 0.49,0.80; P=0.000) at postoperative 0-24h. PC6 electro-acupoint stimulation significantly reduced the number of cases of nausea (RR=0.49, 95%CI 0.38,0.63; P<0.000) and vomiting (RR=0.50, 95%CI 0.36,0.70; P<0.000) at postoperative 0-24h. Stimulation of PC6 with other acupoint(s) significantly reduced the number of cases of nausea and vomiting (RR=0.29, 95%CI 0.17,0.49; P<0.000) at postoperative 0-24h. Stimulation of other acupoint(s)(non PC6) also significantly reduced the number of cases of nausea and vomiting (RR=0.63, 95%CI 0.49,0.81; P=0.000) at postoperative 0-24h. However, the quality of study was generally low in studies of PC6 combined with other acupoint(s) and other acupoint(s). Details of blinding were not reported in most reports.
Besides PC6, PC6 combined with other acupoint(s) and other alternative acupoint(s) might be beneficial in prevention and treatment of PONV, the evidence justifies future high-quality studies.
Proline accumulation was often correlated with drought tolerance of plants infected by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), whereas lower proline in some AM plants including citrus was also found under drought stress and the relevant mechanisms have not been fully elaborated. In this study proline accumulation and activity of key enzymes relative to proline biosynthesis (▵1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase, P5CS; ornithine-δ-aminotransferase, OAT) and degradation (proline dehydrogenase, ProDH) were determined in trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata, a widely used citrus rootstock) inoculated with or without Funneliformis mosseae and under well-watered (WW) or water deficit (WD). AMF colonization significantly increased plant height, stem diameter, leaf number, root volume, biomass production of both leaves and roots and leaf relative water content, irrespectively of water status. Water deficit induced more tissue proline accumulation, in company with an increase of P5CS activity, but a decrease of OAT and ProDH activity, no matter whether under AM or no-AM. Compared with no-AM treatment, AM treatment resulted in lower proline concentration and content in leaf, root, and total plant under both WW and WD. The AMF colonization significantly decreased the activity of both P5CS and OAT in leaf, root, and total plant under WW and WD, except for an insignificant difference of root OAT under WD. The AMF inoculation also generally increased tissue ProDH activity under WW and WD. Plant proline content significantly positively correlated with plant P5CS activity, negatively with plant ProDH activity, but not with plant OAT activity. These results suggest that AM plants may suffer less from WD, thereby inducing lower proline accumulation, which derives from the integration of an inhibition of proline synthesis with an enhancement of proline degradation.
Short-hairpin RNA (shRNA)-induced RNAi is used for biological discovery and therapeutics. Dicer, whose normal role is to liberate endogenous miRNAs from their precursors, processes shRNAs into different biologically active siRNAs, affecting their efficacy and potential for off-targeting. We found that in cells, Dicer induced imprecise cleavage events around the expected sites based on the previously described 5′/3′-counting rules. These promiscuous non-canonical cleavages were abrogated when the cleavage site was positioned 2 nt from a bulge or loop. Interestingly, we observed that the ~1/3 of mammalian endogenous pre-miRNAs that contained such structures were more precisely processed by Dicer. Implementing a new “loop-counting rule”, we designed potent anti-HCV shRNAs with substantially reduced off-target effects. Our results suggest that Dicer recognizes the loop/bulge structure in addition to the ends of shRNAs/pre-miRNAs for accurate processing. This has important implications for both miRNA processing and future design of shRNAs for RNAi-based genetic screens and therapies.
Dicer; shRNA; microRNA; RNAi; off-target effect; HCV
Zinc finger, BED-type containing 6 (ZBED6) is an important transcription factor in placental mammals, affecting development, cell proliferation and growth. Polymorphisms in its promoter and coding regions are likely to impact ZBED6 transcription and growth traits. In this study, rapid amplification of 5’ cDNA ends (5'-RACE) analysis revealed two transcription start sites (TSS) for the bovine ZBED6 starting within exon 1 of the ZC3H11A gene (TSS-1) and upstream of the translation start codon of the ZBED6 gene (TSS-2). There was one SNP in the promoter and two missense mutations in the coding region of the bovine ZBED6 by sequencing of the pooled DNA samples (Pool-Seq, n = 100). The promoter and coding region are the key regions for gene function; polymorphisms in these regions can alter gene expression. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis showed that ZBED6 has a broad tissue distribution in cattle and is highly expressed in skeletal muscle. Eleven promoter-detection vectors were constructed, which enabled the cloning of putative promoter sequences and analysis of ZBED6 transcriptional activity by luciferase reporter gene assays. The core region of the basal promoter of bovine ZBED6 is located within region -866 to -556. The activity of WT-826G-pGL3 in driving reporter gene transcription is significantly higher than that of the M-826A-pGL3 construct (P < 0.01). Analysis of gene expression patterns in homozygous full-sibling Chinese Qinchuan cattle showed that the mutant-type Hap-AGG exhibited a lower mRNA level than the wild-type Hap-GCA (P < 0.05) in longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM). Moreover, ZBED6 mRNA expression was low in C2C12 cells overexpressing the mutant-type ZBED6 (pcDNA3.1+-Hap-GG) (P < 0.01). Our results suggest that the polymorphisms in the promoter and coding regions may modulate the promoter activity and gene expression of bovine ZBED6 in the skeletal muscles of these cattle breeds.
Background. Efavirenz exhibits marked interindividual variability in plasma levels and toxicities. Prior pharmacogenetic studies usually measure exposure via single plasma levels, examine limited numbers of polymorphisms, and rarely model multiple contributors. We analyzed numerous genetic and nongenetic factors impacting short-term and long-term exposure in a large heterogeneous population of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected women.
Methods. We performed 24-hour intensive pharmacokinetic studies in 111 women receiving efavirenz under actual-use conditions and calculated the area-under-the-concentration-time curve (AUC) to assess short-term exposure; the efavirenz concentration in hair was measured to estimate long-term exposure. A total of 182 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 45 haplotypes in 9 genes were analyzed in relationship to exposure by use of multivariate models that included a number of nongenetic factors.
Results. Efavirenz AUCs increased 1.26-fold per doubling of the alanine aminotransferase level and 1.23-fold with orange and/or orange juice consumption. Individuals with the CYP2B6 516TT genotype displayed 3.5-fold increases in AUCs and 3.2-fold increases in hair concentrations, compared with individuals with the TG/GG genotype. Another SNP in CYP2B6 (983TT) and a p-glycoprotein haplotype affected AUCs without substantially altering long-term exposure.
Conclusions. This comprehensive pharmacogenomics study showed that individuals with the CYP2B6 516TT genotype displayed >3-fold increases in both short-term and long-term efavirenz exposure, signifying durable effects. Pharmacogenetic testing combined with monitoring of hair levels may improve efavirenz outcomes and reduce toxicities.
The MATH (meprin and TRAF-C homology) domain is a fold of seven anti-parallel β-helices involved in protein-protein interaction. Here, we report the identification and characterization of 90 MATH-domain proteins from the Brassica rapa genome. By sequence analysis together with MATH-domain proteins from other species, the B. rapa MATH-domain proteins can be grouped into 6 classes. Class-I protein has one or several MATH domains without any other recognizable domain; Class-II protein contains a MATH domain together with a conserved BTB (Broad Complex, Tramtrack, and Bric-a-Brac ) domain; Class-III protein belongs to the MATH/Filament domain family; Class-IV protein contains a MATH domain frequently combined with some other domains; Class-V protein has a relative long sequence but contains only one MATH domain; Class-VI protein is characterized by the presence of Peptidase and UBQ (Ubiquitinylation) domains together with one MATH domain. As part of our study regarding seed development of B. rapa, six genes are screened by SSH (Suppression Subtractive Hybridization) and their expression levels are analyzed in combination with seed developmental stages, and expression patterns suggested that Bra001786, Bra03578 and Bra036572 may be seed development specific genes, while Bra001787, Bra020541 and Bra040904 may be involved in seed and flower organ development. This study provides the first characterization of the MATH domain proteins in B. rapa
Brassica rapa; Phylogenetic analysis; MATH domain protein; Protein domain organization; Gene expression; Seed development.
Objective To determine whether the novel avian influenza H7N9 virus can transmit from person to person and its efficiency.
Design Epidemiological investigations conducted after a family cluster of two patients with avian H7N9 in March 2013.
Setting Wuxi, Eastern China.
Participants Two patients, their close contacts, and relevant environments. Samples from the patients and environments were collected and tested by real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), viral culture, and haemagglutination inhibition assay. Any contacts who became ill had samples tested for avian H7N9 by rRT-PCR. Paired serum samples were obtained from contacts for serological testing by haemagglutination inhibition assays.
Main outcomes measures Clinical data, history of exposure before the onset of illnesses, and results of laboratory testing of pathogens and further analysis of sequences and phylogenetic tree to isolated strains.
Results The index patient became ill five to six days after his last exposure to poultry. The second patient, his daughter aged 32, who provided unprotected bedside care in the hospital, had no known exposure to poultry. She developed symptoms six days after her last contact with her father. Two strains were isolated successfully from the two patients. Genome sequence and analyses of phylogenetic trees showed that both viruses were almost genetically identical. Forty three close contacts of both patients were identified. One had mild illness but had negative results for avian H7N9 by rRT-PCR. All 43 close contacts tested negative for haemagglutination inhibition antibodies specific for avian H7N9.
Conclusions The infection of the daughter probably resulted from contact with her father (the index patient) during unprotected exposure, suggesting that in this cluster the virus was able to transmit from person to person. The transmissibility was limited and non-sustainable.
Retroperitoneal lymph node and lung metastasis are important prognostic factors for gynecologic cancer. The present study aimed to develop a new animal model for retroperitoneal lymph node and lung metastasis. VX2 squamous cell carcinoma tumor tissues were injected into the left gastrocnemius muscle of 38 healthy female New Zealand white rabbits. Animals were randomized into three groups according to day of sacrifice: 1, day 19; 2, day 22; and 3, day 25. Implanted primary tumor (IPTu), left and right retroperitoneal lymph node volumes and lung wet weights were measured on the day of sacrifice. The IPTu and left and right retroperitoneal lymph node volumes increased in a time-dependent manner. In addition, the proportion of animals with metastasis to the left peritoneal lymph nodes and the number of nodes involved increased over time. For days 19, 22 and 25, the proportion of animals with nodal metastasis was 58.3, 84.6 and 100%, respectively, and the number of affected nodes (range) was 3 (2–3), 3 (3–5) and 4 (4–5), respectively. No metastasis was detected in the right peritoneal lymph nodes. Metastasis to the lungs also increased with time, but was not statistically significant at days 19, 22 and 25 with metastasis present in 33.3, 38.5 and 76.9% of animals, respectively. Rates of metastases to the left retroperitoneal lymph nodes and lungs were found to positively correlate with the volumes (r=0.416 and 0.449, respectively). The current study assessed the characterization of a rabbit VX2 carcinoma model. This animal model is likely to be useful for evaluating retroperitoneal lymph node and lung metastasis.
retroperitoneal lymph nodes; lung metastasis; metastasis; VX2 carcinoma; rabbit model
Glucocorticoids (GC) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2 D3) are steroid hormones with anti-inflammatory properties with enhanced effects when combined. We previously showed that transcriptional response to GCs was correlated with inter-individual and inter-ethnic cellular response. Here, we profiled cellular and transcriptional responses to 1,25(OH)2 D3 from the same donors. We studied cellular response to combined treatment with GCs and 1,25(OH)2 D3 in a subset of individuals least responsive to GCs. We found that combination treatment had significantly greater inhibition of proliferation than with either steroid hormone alone. Overlapping differentially expressed (DE) genes between the two hormones were enriched for adaptive and innate immune processes. Non-overlapping differentially expressed genes with 1,25(OH)2 D3 treatment were enriched for pathways involving the electron transport chain, while with GC treatment, non-overlapping genes were enriched for RNA-related processes. These results suggest that 1,25(OH)2 D3 enhances GC anti-inflammatory properties through a number of shared and non-shared transcriptionally-mediated pathways.