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1.  DIAGNOSTIC YIELD OF NASAL SCRAPE BIOPSIES IN PRIMARY CILIARY DYSKINESIA: A MULTICENTER EXPERIENCE 
Pediatric pulmonology  2011;10.1002/ppul.21402.
Summary
Examination of ciliary ultrastructure remains the cornerstone diagnostic test for primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), a disease of abnormal ciliary structure and/or function. Obtaining a biopsy with sufficient interpretable cilia and producing quality transmission electron micrographs (TEM) is challenging. Methods for processing tissues for optimal preservation of axonemal structures are not standardized. This study describes our experience using a standard operating procedure (SOP) for collecting nasal scrape biopsies and processing TEMs in a centralized laboratory. We enrolled patients with suspected PCD at research sites of the Genetic Disorders of Mucociliary Clearance Consortium. Biopsies were performed according to a SOP whereby curettes were used to scrape the inferior surface of the inferior turbinate, with samples placed in fixative. Specimens were shipped to a central laboratory where TEMs were prepared and blindly reviewed. 448 specimens were obtained from 107 young children (0–5 years), 189 older children (5–18 years), and 152 adults (> 18 years), and 88% were adequate for formal interpretation. The proportion of adequate specimens was higher in adults than in children. 50% of the adequate TEMs showed normal ciliary ultrastructure, 39% showed hallmark ultrastructural changes of PCD, and 11% had indeterminate findings. Among specimens without clearly normal ultrastructure, 72% had defects of the outer and/or inner dynein arms, while 7% had central apparatus defects with or without inner dynein arm defects. In summary, nasal scrape biopsies can be performed in the outpatient setting and yield interpretable samples, when performed by individuals with adequate training and experience according to an SOP.
doi:10.1002/ppul.21402
PMCID: PMC3875629  PMID: 21284095
cilia; nasal biopsy; primary ciliary dyskinesia
2.  CCDC65 Mutation Causes Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia with Normal Ultrastructure and Hyperkinetic Cilia 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e72299.
Background
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetic disorder characterized by impaired ciliary function, leading to chronic sinopulmonary disease. The genetic causes of PCD are still evolving, while the diagnosis is often dependent on finding a ciliary ultrastructural abnormality and immotile cilia. Here we report a novel gene associated with PCD but without ciliary ultrastructural abnormalities evident by transmission electron microscopy, but with dyskinetic cilia beating.
Methods
Genetic linkage analysis was performed in a family with a PCD subject. Gene expression was studied in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and human airway epithelial cells, using RNA assays and immunostaining. The phenotypic effects of candidate gene mutations were determined in primary culture human tracheobronchial epithelial cells transduced with gene targeted shRNA sequences. Video-microscopy was used to evaluate cilia motion.
Results
A single novel mutation in CCDC65, which created a termination codon at position 293, was identified in a subject with typical clinical features of PCD. CCDC65, an orthologue of the Chlamydomonas nexin-dynein regulatory complex protein DRC2, was localized to the cilia of normal nasal epithelial cells but was absent in those from the proband. CCDC65 expression was up-regulated during ciliogenesis in cultured airway epithelial cells, as was DRC2 in C. reinhardtii following deflagellation. Nasal epithelial cells from the affected individual and CCDC65-specific shRNA transduced normal airway epithelial cells had stiff and dyskinetic cilia beating patterns compared to control cells. Moreover, Gas8, a nexin-dynein regulatory complex component previously identified to associate with CCDC65, was absent in airway cells from the PCD subject and CCDC65-silenced cells.
Conclusion
Mutation in CCDC65, a nexin-dynein regulatory complex member, resulted in a frameshift mutation and PCD. The affected individual had altered cilia beating patterns, and no detectable ultrastructural defects of the ciliary axoneme, emphasizing the role of the nexin-dynein regulatory complex and the limitations of certain methods for PCD diagnosis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0072299
PMCID: PMC3753302  PMID: 23991085
3.  Mutations of DNAH11 in Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Patients with Normal Ciliary Ultrastructure 
Thorax  2011;67(5):433-441.
Rationale
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an autosomal recessive, genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by oto-sino-pulmonary disease and situs abnormalities (Kartagener syndrome) due to abnormal structure and/or function of cilia. Most patients currently recognized to have PCD have ultrastructural defects of cilia; however, some patients have clinical manifestations of PCD and low levels of nasal nitric oxide, but normal ultrastructure, including a few patients with biallelic mutations in DNAH11.
Objectives
In order to test further for mutant DNAH11 as a cause of PCD, we sequenced DNAH11 in patients with a PCD clinical phenotype, but no known genetic etiology.
Methods
We sequenced 82 exons and intron/exon junctions in DNAH11 in 163 unrelated patients with a clinical phenotype of PCD, including those with normal ciliary ultrastructure (n=58), defects in outer ± inner dynein arms (n=76), radial spoke/central pair defects (n=6), and 23 without definitive ultrastructural results, but who had situs inversus (n=17), or bronchiectasis and/or low nasal nitric oxide (n=6). Additionally, we sequenced DNAH11 in 13 patients with isolated situs abnormalities to see if mutant DNAH11 could cause situs defects without respiratory disease.
Results
Of the 58 unrelated PCD patients with normal ultrastructure, 13 (22%) had two (biallelic) mutations in DNAH11; plus, 2 PCD patients without ultrastructural analysis had biallelic mutations. All mutations were novel and private. None of the patients with dynein arm or radial spoke/central pair defects, or isolated situs abnormalities, had mutations in DNAH11. Of the 35 identified mutant alleles, 24 (69%) were nonsense, insertion/deletion or Ioss-of-function splice-site mutations.
Conclusions
Mutations in DNAH11 are a common cause of PCD in patients without ciliary ultrastructural defects; thus, genetic analysis can be used to ascertain the diagnosis of PCD in this challenging group of patients.
doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2011-200301
PMCID: PMC3739700  PMID: 22184204
Cilia; Dynein; Kartagener syndrome; Dextrocardia; Heterotaxy
4.  Clinical and Genetic Aspects of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia / Kartagener Syndrome 
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder of motile cilia. Most of the disease-causing mutations identified to date involve the heavy (DNAH5) or intermediate (DNAI1) chain dynein genes in ciliary outer dynein arms, although a few mutations have been noted in other genes. Clinical molecular genetic testing for PCD is available for the most common mutations. The respiratory manifestations of PCD (chronic bronchitis leading to bronchiectasis, chronic rhino-sinusitis and chronic otitis media) reflect impaired mucociliary clearance owing to defective axonemal structure. Ciliary ultrastructural analysis in most patients (>80%) reveals defective dynein arms, although defects in other axonemal components have also been observed. Approximately 50% of PCD patients have laterality defects (including situs inversus totalis and, less commonly, heterotaxy and congenital heart disease), reflecting dysfunction of embryological nodal cilia. Male infertility is common and reflects defects in sperm tail axonemes. Most PCD patients have a history of neonatal respiratory distress, suggesting that motile cilia play a role in fluid clearance during the transition from a fetal to neonatal lung. Ciliopathies involving sensory cilia, including autosomal dominant or recessive polycystic kidney disease, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, and Alstrom syndrome, may have chronic respiratory symptoms and even bronchiectasis suggesting clinical overlap with PCD.
doi:10.1097/GIM.0b013e3181a53562
PMCID: PMC3739704  PMID: 19606528
Primary ciliary dyskinesia; PCD; Kartagener syndrome; situs inversus; dynein
5.  LRRC6 Mutation Causes Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia with Dynein Arm Defects 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(3):e59436.
Despite recent progress in defining the ciliome, the genetic basis for many cases of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) remains elusive. We evaluated five children from two unrelated, consanguineous Palestinian families who had PCD with typical clinical features, reduced nasal nitric oxide concentrations, and absent dynein arms. Linkage analyses revealed a single common homozygous region on chromosome 8 and one candidate was conserved in organisms with motile cilia. Sequencing revealed a single novel mutation in LRRC6 (Leucine-rich repeat containing protein 6) that fit the model of autosomal recessive genetic transmission, leading to a change of a highly conserved amino acid from aspartic acid to histidine (Asp146His). LRRC6 was localized to the cytoplasm and was up-regulated during ciliogenesis in human airway epithelial cells in a Foxj1-dependent fashion. Nasal epithelial cells isolated from affected individuals and shRNA-mediated silencing in human airway epithelial cells, showed reduced LRRC6 expression, absent dynein arms, and slowed cilia beat frequency. Dynein arm proteins were either absent or mislocalized to the cytoplasm in airway epithelial cells from a primary ciliary dyskinesia subject. These findings suggest that LRRC6 plays a role in dynein arm assembly or trafficking and when mutated leads to primary ciliary dyskinesia with laterality defects.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0059436
PMCID: PMC3602302  PMID: 23527195
6.  Ciliopathies: the central role of cilia in a spectrum of pediatric disorders 
The Journal of Pediatrics  2011;160(3):366-371.
doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2011.11.024
PMCID: PMC3282141  PMID: 22177992
cilia; basal body; centrosome; primary ciliary dyskinesia; polycystic kidney disease
7.  The Emerging Genetics of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia 
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an autosomal recessive, rare, genetically heterogeneous condition characterized by oto-sino-pulmonary disease together with situs abnormalities (Kartagener syndrome) owing to abnormal ciliary structure and function. Most patients are currently diagnosed with PCD based on the presence of defective ciliary ultrastructure. However, diagnosis often remains challenging due to variability in the clinical phenotype and ciliary ultrastructural changes. Some patients with PCD have normal ciliary ultrastructure, which further confounds the diagnosis. A genetic test for PCD exists but is of limited value because it investigates only a limited number of mutations in only two genes. The genetics of PCD is complicated owing to the complexity of axonemal structure that is highly conserved through evolution, which is comprised of multiple proteins. Identifying a PCD-causing gene is challenging due to locus and allelic heterogeneity. Despite genetic heterogeneity, multiple tools have been used, and there are 11 known PCD-causing genes. All of these genes combined explain approximately 50% of PCD cases; hence, more genes need to be identified. This review briefly describes the current knowledge regarding the genetics of PCD and focuses on the methodologies used to identify novel PCD-causing genes, including a candidate gene approach using model organisms, next-generation massively parallel sequencing techniques, and the use of genetically isolated populations. In conclusion, we demonstrate the multipronged approach that is necessary to circumvent challenges due to genetic heterogeneity to uncover genetic causes of PCD.
doi:10.1513/pats.201103-023SD
PMCID: PMC3209577  PMID: 21926394
cilia; dynein; Kartagener syndrome; dextrocardia; heterotaxy
8.  Effect of Polarized Release of CXC-Chemokines from Wild-Type and Cystic Fibrosis Murine Airway Epithelial Cells 
The respiratory epithelium lining the airway relies on mucociliary clearance and a complex network of inflammatory mediators to protect the lung. Alterations in the composition and volume of the periciliary liquid layer, as occur in cystic fibrosis (CF), lead to impaired mucociliary clearance and persistent airway infection. Moreover, the respiratory epithelium releases chemoattractants after infection, inciting airway inflammation. However, characterizing the inflammatory response of primary human airway epithelial cells to infection can be challenging because of genetic heterogeneity. Using well-characterized, differentiated, primary murine tracheal cells grown at an air–liquid interface, which provides an in vitro polarized epithelial model, we compared inflammatory gene expression and secretion in wild-type and ΔF508 CF airway cells after infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The expression of several CXC-chemokines, including macrophage inflammatory protein–2, small inducible cytokine subfamily member 2, lipopolysaccharide-induced chemokine, and interferon-inducible cytokine–10, was markedly increased after infection, and these proinflammatory mediators were asymmetrically released from the airway epithelium, predominantly from the basolateral surface. Equal amounts of CXC-chemokines were released from wild-type and CF cells. Secreted mediators were concentrated in the thin, periciliary fluid layer, and the dehydrated apical microenvironment of CF airway epithelial cells amplified the inflammatory signal, potentially resulting in high chemokine concentration gradients across the epithelium. Consistent with this observation, the enhanced chemotaxis of wild-type neutrophils was detected in CF airway epithelial cultures, compared with wild-type cells. These data suggest that P. aeruginosa infection of the airway epithelium induces the expression and polarized secretion of CXC-chemokines, and the increased concentration gradient across the CF airway leads to an exaggerated inflammatory response.
doi:10.1165/rcmb.2009-0249OC
PMCID: PMC3266059  PMID: 20639462
inflammation; chemotaxis; chemokine; airway; epithelium
9.  Mutations in CCDC39 and CCDC40 are the major cause of primary ciliary dyskinesia with axonemal disorganisation and absent inner dynein arms 
Human mutation  2013;34(3):462-472.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder caused by cilia and sperm dysmotility. About 12% of cases show perturbed 9+2 microtubule cilia structure and inner dynein arm (IDA) loss, historically termed ‘radial spoke defect’. We sequenced CCDC39 and CCDC40 in 54 ‘radial spoke defect’ families, as these are the two genes identified so far to cause this defect. We discovered biallelic mutations in a remarkable 69% (37/54) of families, including identification of 25 (19 novel) mutant alleles (12 in CCDC39 and 13 in CCDC40). All the mutations were nonsense, splice and frameshift predicting early protein truncation, which suggests this defect is caused by ‘null’ alleles conferring complete protein loss. Most families (73%; 27/37) had homozygous mutations, including families from outbred populations. A major putative hotspot mutation was identified, CCDC40 c.248delC, as well as several other possible hotspot mutations. Together, these findings highlight the key role of CCDC39 and CCDC40 in PCD with axonemal disorganisation and IDA loss, and these genes represent major candidates for genetic testing in families affected by this ciliary phenotype. We show that radial spoke structures are largely intact in these patients and propose this ciliary ultrastructural abnormality be referred to as ‘IDA and nexin-dynein regulatory complex (N-DRC) defect’, rather than ‘radial spoke defect’.
doi:10.1002/humu.22261
PMCID: PMC3630464  PMID: 23255504
primary ciliary dyskinesia; cilia; CCDC39; CCDC40; radial spoke; dynein regulatory complex; nexin link
10.  Primary ciliary dyskinesia in Amish communities 
The Journal of pediatrics  2010;156(6):1023-1025.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an autosomal recessive multigenic disease that results in impaired mucociliary clearance. We have diagnosed 9 subjects with primary ciliary dyskinesia from geographically dispersed Amish communities, based on clinical characteristics and ciliary ultrastructural defects. Despite consanguinity, affected individuals had evidence of genetic heterogeneity.
doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2010.01.054
PMCID: PMC2875274  PMID: 20350728
Primary ciliary dyskinesia; cilia; dynein; nitric oxide; Amish
11.  [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography for Lung Antiinflammatory Response Evaluation 
Rationale: Few noninvasive biomarkers for pulmonary inflammation are currently available that can assess the lung-specific response to antiinflammatory treatments. Positron emission tomography with [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) is a promising new method that can be used to quantify pulmonary neutrophilic inflammation.
Objectives: To evaluate the ability of FDG-PET to measure the pulmonary antiinflammatory effects of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) and recombinant human activated protein C (rhAPC) in a human model of experimentally-induced lung inflammation.
Methods: Eighteen healthy volunteers were randomized to receive placebo, lovastatin, or rhAPC before intrabronchial segmental endotoxin challenge. FDG-PET imaging was performed before and after endotoxin instillation. The rate of [18F]FDG uptake was calculated as the influx constant Ki by Patlak graphical analysis. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed to determine leukocyte concentrations for correlation with the PET imaging results.
Measurements and Main Results: There was a statistically significant decrease in Ki in the lovastatin-treated group that was not seen in the placebo-treated group, suggesting attenuation of inflammation by lovastatin treatment despite a small decrease in BAL total leukocyte and neutrophil counts that was not statistically significant. No significant decrease in Ki was observed in the rhAPC-treated group, correlating with a lack of change in BAL parameters and indicating no significant antiinflammatory effect with rhAPC.
Conclusions: FDG-PET imaging is a sensitive method for quantifying the lung-specific response to antiinflammatory therapies and may serve as an attractive platform for assessing the efficacy of novel antiinflammatory therapies at early phases in the drug development process.
Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00741013).
doi:10.1164/rccm.200904-0501OC
PMCID: PMC2742744  PMID: 19574441
lovastatin; neutrophils; drug development; biomarker
12.  Quantifying Pulmonary Inflammation in Cystic Fibrosis with Positron Emission Tomography 
Rationale: Although infection contributes to morbidity in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), the host inflammatory response is also an important cause of progressive pulmonary function deterioration. Quantifying the inflammatory burden in these patients is challenging and often requires invasive procedures. Positron emission tomographic imaging with [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18FDG]) could be used as a noninvasive alternative to quantify lung inflammation.
Objective: To determine the relationships among lung [18F]FDG uptake, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) neutrophil concentrations, and pulmonary function in patients with CF.
Methods: Twenty patients and seven healthy volunteers were studied. A subset of seven patients also consented to undergo BAL. The uptake of [18F]FDG by the lungs was measured as the net influx rate constant Ki. Patients were stratified by rate of decline in pulmonary function into stable, intermediate, and rapidly declining groups. Ki was compared among groups and was correlated against neutrophil concentrations in BAL fluid.
Results: Ki was significantly elevated (p < 0.05) among patients with CF as a whole compared with healthy control subjects (0.0015 ± 0.0009 versus 0.0007 ± 0.0002 ml blood/ml lung/min) but especially in patients with rapidly declining pulmonary function (0.0022 ± 0.0011 ml blood/ml lung/min). Ki correlated positively with the number of neutrophils present in BAL fluid.
Conclusion: Imaging with [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography can be used to assess inflammatory burden in patients with CF. Elevations in Ki may be able to identify patients with more aggressive disease and may be useful in monitoring changes in inflammatory burden in response to novel treatments.
doi:10.1164/rccm.200506-934OC
PMCID: PMC2662975  PMID: 16543553
[18F]fluorodeoxyglucose; neutrophils; pulmonary function

Results 1-12 (12)