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American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology (1)
Cell stem cell (1)
Expert review of dermatology (1)
Molecular and Cellular Biology (1)
Brownell, Isaac (4)
Amaya-Manzanares, Felipe (1)
Bai, C. Brian (1)
Behringer, Richard R. (1)
Fields, Ryan C (1)
Guevara, Elizabeth (1)
Hu, Qiyong (1)
Jamrich, Milan (1)
Joyner, Alexandra L. (1)
Lee, Nancy (1)
Loomis, Cynthia A. (1)
Medina-Martinez, Olga (1)
Prystowsky, Stephen (1)
Ramírez-Valle, Francisco (1)
Rush, Zoe (1)
Sanchez, Miguel (1)
Year of Publication
Radiation therapy in the management of Merkel cell carcinoma: current perspectives
Fields, Ryan C
Expert review of dermatology
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare cutaneous neuroendocrine neoplasm with a propensity for metastatic spread. When managing MCC, surgical excision is often the initial treatment. As MCC is generally radiosensitive, many institutions include adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) in their standard treatment protocols. In the absence of prospective randomized clinical trials, a number of retrospective reports suggest that adjuvant RT can improve local and regional recurrence rates. Here, we provide an overview of recent studies on the use of RT in MCC treatment and explore the limits of the current knowledge. Ultimately, the benefits and risks associated with using RT in the treatment of MCC remain poorly described and merit more rigorous investigation.
brachytherapy; chemoradiation; external-beam radiation; Merkel cell carcinoma; neuroendocrinetumor; radiation therapy
Evidence for Mycobacteria in Sarcoidosis
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Despite its recognition as a distinct granulomatous disease for over a century, the etiology of sarcoidosis remains to be defined. Since the early 1900s, infectious agents have been suspected in causing sarcoidosis. For much of this time, mycobacteria were considered a likely culprit, yet until recently, the supporting evidence has been tenuous at best. In this review, we evaluate the reported association between mycobacteria and sarcoidosis. Historically, mycobacterial infection has been investigated using histologic stains, cultures of lesional tissue or blood, and identification of bacterial nucleic acids or bacterial antigens. More recently, advances in biochemical, molecular, and immunological methods have produced a more rigorous analysis of the antigenic drivers of sarcoidosis. The result of these efforts indicates that mycobacterial products likely play a role in at least a subset of sarcoidosis cases. This information, coupled with a better understanding of genetic susceptibility to this complex disease, has therapeutic implications.
sarcoidosis; mycobacteria; granulomas; microorganisms; peptides; immune response
Nerve-derived Sonic hedgehog defines a niche for hair follicle stem cells capable of becoming epidermal stem cells
Bai, C. Brian
Loomis, Cynthia A.
Joyner, Alexandra L.
Cell stem cell
In adult skin, stem cells in the hair follicle bulge cyclically regenerate the follicle, whereas a distinct stem cell population maintains the epidermis. The degree to which all bulge cells have equal regenerative potential is not known. We found that Sonic hedgehog (Shh) from neurons signals to a novel population of cells in the telogen bulge marked by the Hedgehog response gene Gli1. Gli1-expressing bulge cells function as multipotent stem cells in their native environment and repeatedly regenerate the anagen follicle. Shh-responding perineural bulge cells incorporate into healing skin wounds where, notably, they can change their lineage into epidermal stem cells. The perineural niche (including Shh) is dispensable for follicle contributions to acute wound healing and skin homeostasis, but is necessary to maintain bulge cells capable of becoming epidermal stem cells. Thus nerves cultivate a microenvironment where Shh creates a molecularly and phenotypically distinct population of hair follicle stem cells.
Severe Defects in Proliferation and Differentiation of Lens Cells in Foxe3 Null Mice
Behringer, Richard R.
Molecular and Cellular Biology
During mouse eye development, the correct formation of the lens occurs as a result of reciprocal interactions between the neuroectoderm that forms the retina and surface ectoderm that forms the lens. Although many transcription factors required for early lens development have been identified, the mechanism and genetic interactions mediated by them remain poorly understood. Foxe3 encodes a winged helix-forkhead transcription factor that is initially expressed in the developing brain and in the lens placode and later restricted exclusively to the anterior lens epithelium. Here, we show that targeted disruption of Foxe3 results in abnormal development of the eye. Cells of the anterior lens epithelium show a decreased rate of proliferation, resulting in a smaller than normal lens. The anterior lens epithelium does not properly separate from the cornea and frequently forms an unusual, multilayered tissue. Because of the abnormal differentiation, lens fiber cells do not form properly, and the morphogenesis of the lens is greatly affected. The abnormally differentiated lens cells remain irregular in shape, and the lens becomes vacuolated. The defects in lens development correlate with changes in the expression of growth and differentiation factor genes, including DNase II-like acid DNase, Prox1, p57, and PDGFα receptor. As a result of abnormal lens development, the cornea and the retina are also affected. While Foxe3 is also expressed in a distinct region of the embryonic brain, we have not observed abnormal development of the brain in Foxe3−/− animals.
Results 1-4 (4)
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