Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) consist of antimicrobial molecules embedded in a web of extracellular DNA. Formation of NETs is considered to be a defense mechanism utilized by neutrophils to ensnare and kill invading pathogens, and has been recently termed NETosis. Neutrophils can be stimulated to undergo NETosis ex vivo, and are predicted to contain high levels of serine proteases, such as neutrophil elastase (NE), cathepsin G (CG) and proteinase 3 (PR3). Serine proteases are important effectors of neutrophil-mediated immunity, which function directly by degrading pathogenic virulent factors and indirectly via proteolytic activation or deactivation of cytokines, chemokines and receptors. In this study, we utilized a diverse and unbiased peptide library to detect and profile protease activity associated with NETs induced by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). We obtained a “proteolytic signature” from NETs derived from healthy donor neutrophils and used proteomics to assist in the identification of the source of this proteolytic activity. In addition, we profiled each neutrophil serine protease and included the newly identified enzyme, neutrophil serine protease 4 (NSP4). Each enzyme had overlapping yet distinct endopeptidase activities and often cleaved at unique sites within the same peptide substrate. The dominant proteolytic activity in NETs was attributed to NE; however, cleavage sites corresponding to CG and PR3 activity were evident. When NE was immunodepleted, the remaining activity was attributed to CG and to a lesser extent PR3 and NSP4. Our results suggest that blocking NE activity would abrogate the major protease activity associated with NETs. In addition, the newly identified substrate specificity signatures will guide the design of more specific probes and inhibitors that target NET-associated proteases.
The ZFP36/Tis11 family of zinc-finger proteins regulate cellular processes by binding to adenine uridine rich elements in the 3′ untranslated regions of various mRNAs and promoting their degradation. We show here that ZFP36L1 expression is largely extinguished during the transition from B cells to plasma cells, in a reciprocal pattern to that of ZFP36 and the plasma cell transcription factor, BLIMP1. Enforced expression of ZFP36L1 in the mouse BCL1 cell line blocked cytokine-induced differentiation while shRNA-mediated knock-down enhanced differentiation. Reconstruction of regulatory networks from microarray gene expression data using the ARACNe algorithm identified candidate mRNA targets for ZFP36L1 including BLIMP1. Genes that displayed down-regulation in plasma cells were significantly over-represented (P = <0.0001) in a set of previously validated ZFP36 targets suggesting that ZFP36L1 and ZFP36 target distinct sets of mRNAs during plasmacytoid differentiation. ShRNA-mediated knock-down of ZFP36L1 in BCL1 cells led to an increase in levels of BLIMP1 mRNA and protein, but not for mRNAs of other transcription factors that regulate plasmacytoid differentiation (xbp1, irf4, bcl6). Finally, ZFP36L1 significantly reduced the activity of a BLIMP1 3′ untranslated region-driven luciferase reporter. Taken together, these findings suggest that ZFP36L1 negatively regulates plasmacytoid differentiation, at least in part, by targeting the expression of BLIMP1.
Surgical repair of a discontinuity in traumatized or degenerated soft tissues is traditionally accomplished using sutures. A current trend is to reinforce this primary repair with surgical grafts, meshes, or patches secured with perforating mechanical devices (i.e., sutures, staples, or tacks). These fixation methods frequently lead to chronic pain and mesh detachment. We developed a series of biodegradable adhesive polymers that are synthetic mimics of mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs), composed of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA)-derivatives, polyethylene glycol (PEG), and polycaprolactone (PCL). These polymers can be cast into films, and their mechanical properties, extent of swelling, and degradation rate can be tailored through the composition of the polymers as well as blending with additives. When coated onto a biologic mesh used for hernia repair, these adhesive constructs demonstrated adhesive strengths significantly higher than fibrin glue. With further development, a pre-coated bioadhesive mesh may represent a new surgical option for soft tissue repair.
biomimetic material; tissue adhesive; surgical mesh; multiblock copolymer; DOPA
Atypical insufficiency fractures of the femur in patients on long-term bisphosphonate therapy have been well described in recent literature. The majority of cases are associated with minimal or no trauma and occur in the subtrochanteric or diaphyseal region.
We describe the case of a 76-year-old British Caucasian woman who presented initially to an emergency department and then to her primary care physician with a long-standing history of bilateral knee pain after minor trauma. Plain radiographs showed subtle linear areas of sclerosis bilaterally in her proximal tibiae. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the presence of insufficiency fractures in these areas along with her left distal femur. There are very few reports of atypical insufficiency fractures involving the tibia in patients on long-term bisphosphonate therapy and this appears to be the only documented bilateral case involving the metaphyseal regions of the proximal tibia and distal femur.
In addition to existing literature describing atypical fractures in the proximal femur and femoral shaft, there is a need for increased awareness that these fractures can also occur in other weight-bearing areas of the skeleton. All clinicians involved in the care of patients taking long-term bisphosphonates need to be aware of the growing association between new onset lower limb pain and atypical insufficiency fractures.
The Achilles tendon is the most frequently ruptured tendon. Both acute and chronic (neglected) tendon ruptures can dramatically affect a patient’s quality of life, and require a prolonged period of recovery before return to pre-injury activity levels. This paper describes the use of an adhesive-coated biologic scaffold to augment primary suture repair of transected Achilles tendons. The adhesive portion consisted of a synthetic mimic of mussel adhesive proteins that can adhere to various surfaces in a wet environment, including biologic tissues. When combined with biologic scaffolds such as bovine pericardium or porcine dermal tissues, these adhesive constructs demonstrated lap shear adhesive strengths significantly greater than that of fibrin glue, while reaching up to 60% of the strength of a cyanoacrylate-based adhesive. These adhesive constructs were wrapped around transected cadaveric porcine Achilles tendons repaired with a combination of parallel and three-loop suture patterns. Tensile mechanical testing of the augmented repairs exhibited significantly higher stiffness (22–34%), failure load (24–44%), and energy to failure (27–63%) when compared to control tendons with suture repair alone. Potential clinical implications of this novel adhesive biomaterial are discussed.
The accompanying article, written by John Murphy, a retired lawyer and lifelong outdoorsman from his beloved Colorado Rockies, draws the striking parallel between his experiences as a mountain climber and as a patient with metastatic melanoma facing the hope and uncertainty of experimental therapy. Both are life-threatening circumstances, demanding courage and hope, and challenging our soul in a way almost unique to human experience. Both involve a conscious choice to move forward into dangerous and uncertain territory, and require a determination to look death (John's “Reaper”) in the eye. Many remarkable books and films have been written about such experiences. I recall in particular the 2003 documentary film Touching the Void, about the incredible survival of a mountaineer who returned from a perilous fall in Peru. I highly recommend it to the reader. Another is Laura Hillenbrand's Unbroken: A World War II Story of Survival, Resilience, and Redemption (Random House, 2010), about the survival of a prisoner of war, the celebrated miler Louis Zamperini. Again, unbridled courage and undeniable hope turned futility into future.
John Murphy's reflections remind us of the daily heroism of our patients who are holding tight to the lifeline offered by clinical research. Good climbing, John. All of us are with you on that Knife Edge, waiting for our turn to ascend... and hoping to be as courageous as you were then on Capitol Peak and are again now on the Knife Edge of a clinical trial. For our turn will come.
Nasu-Hakola syndrome is a hereditary cause of pathological fractures. Uniquely, patients also develop neuropsychiatric symptoms and signs. The disease is ultimately fatal. We propose a management strategy for pathological fractures in sufferers based on the stage of the disease.
Dry powder inhaler formulations comprising commercial lactose–drug blends can show restricted detachment of drug from lactose during aerosolisation, which can lead to poor fine particle fractions (FPFs) which are suboptimal. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the crystallisation of lactose from different ethanol/butanol co-solvent mixtures could be employed as a method of altering the FPF of salbutamol sulphate from powder blends. Lactose particles were prepared by an anti-solvent recrystallisation process using various ratios of the two solvents. Crystallised lactose or commercial lactose was mixed with salbutamol sulphate and in vitro deposition studies were performed using a multistage liquid impinger. Solid-state characterisation results showed that commercial lactose was primarily composed of the α-anomer whilst the crystallised lactose samples comprised a α/β mixture containing a lower number of moles of water per mole of lactose compared to the commercial lactose. The crystallised lactose particles were also less elongated and more irregular in shape with rougher surfaces. Formulation blends containing crystallised lactose showed better aerosolisation performance and dose uniformity when compared to commercial lactose. The highest FPF of salbutamol sulphate (38.0 ± 2.5%) was obtained for the lactose samples that were crystallised from a mixture of ethanol/butanol (20:60) compared to a FPF of 19.7 ± 1.9% obtained for commercial lactose. Engineered lactose carriers with modified anomer content and physicochemical properties, when compared to the commercial grade, produced formulations which generated a high FPF.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1208/s12248-010-9241-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
deposition study; dry powder inhaler; lactose; particle engineering; salbutamol sulphate
During the Cenozoic, Southeast Asia was profoundly affected by plate tectonic events, dynamic river systems, fluctuating sea levels, shifting coastlines, and climatic variation, which have influenced the ecological and evolutionary trajectories of the Southeast Asian flora and fauna. We examined the role of these paleogeographic factors on shaping phylogeographic patterns focusing on a species of semiaquatic snake, Enhydris subtaeniata (Serpentes: Homalopsidae) using sequence data from three mitochondrial fragments (cytochrome b, ND4, and ATPase—2785 bp). We sampled E. subtaeniata from seven locations in three river drainage basins that encompassed most of this species’ range. Genetic diversities were typically low within locations but high across locations. Moreover, each location had a unique suite of haplotypes not shared among locations, and pairwise φST values (0.713–0.998) were highly significant between all location pairs. Relationships among phylogroups were well resolved and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed strong geographical partitioning of genetic variance among the three river drainage basins surveyed. The genetic differences observed among the populations of E. subtaeniata were likely shaped by the Quaternary landscapes of Indochina and the Sunda Shelf. Historically, the middle and lower Mekong consisted of strongly dissected river valleys separated by low mountain ranges and much of the Sunda Shelf consisted of lowland river valleys that served to connect faunas associated with major regional rivers. It is thus likely that the contemporary genetic patterns observed among populations of E. subtaeniata are the result of their histories in a complex terrain that created abundant opportunities for genetic isolation and divergence yet also provided lowland connections across now drowned river valleys.
Freshwater snake; Homalopsidae; Khorat basin; Mekong River; Pleistocene; Sea levels; Sundaland
Pre-operative anaemia is well recognised in patients presenting with colorectal cancer (CRC). While the benefits of long-term FeSO4 supplementation on Fe deficiency anaemia are well established, it is not known if short-course supplementation (2–3 weeks) impacts significantly on pre-operative haemoglobin (Hb) levels. This study examines the impact of short-term, oral FeSO4 supplementation on patients undergoing surgery for CRC.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
All patients with CRC presenting to a single surgeon were included. At diagnosis, baseline Hb and blood film were checked on all patients who then received 200 mg tds of FeSO4. Haemoglobin was rechecked pre-operatively and daily postoperatively. Patients requiring pre-operative blood transfusions were excluded from analysis.
Between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2006, 117 patients were identified, 14 of whom were excluded. Patients received a median of 39 days’ treatment with FeSO4. Fifty-eight (56.3%) patients were anaemic at presentation gaining a mean of 1.73 g/dl (P < 0.001) from short-course FeSO4 supplementation. Right-sided tumours (lower mean Hb at presentation; P = 0.008) responded more to FeSO4 when compared to left-sided tumours (P < 0.017). Increase in Hb was unrelated to pathological stage. The transfusion rate for all curative resections was 0.69 units/patient. For the historical cohort (patients undergoing curative resection between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2003), the mean transfusion rate fell from 1.69 units/patient.
Routine short-course supplementation with iron offers improved pre-operative Hb prior to surgery in CRC, especially in right-sided lesions and those with presenting anaemia.
Colorectal cancer; FeSO4 supplementation; Anaemia; Haemoglobin
Objective. To describe the integration of science of safety (SoS) topics in doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curricula of US colleges and schools of pharmacy.
Methods. A questionnaire that contained items pertaining to what and how SoS topics are taught in PharmD curricula was e-mailed to representatives at 107 US colleges and schools of pharmacy.
Results. The majority of the colleges and schools responding indicated that they had integrated SoS topics into their curriculum, however, some gaps (eg, teaching students about communicating risk, Food and Drug Administration [FDA] Sentinel Initiative, utilizing patient databases) were identified that need to be addressed.
Conclusions. The FDA and the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) should continue to collaborate to develop resources needed to ensure that topics proposed by the FDA in their SoS framework are taught at all colleges and schools of pharmacy.
medication safety; pharmacy education; curriculum; science of safety
Objective. To evaluate pharmacy students’ perceived benefits of the portfolio process and to gather suggestions for improving the process.
Methods. A questionnaire was designed and administered to 250 first-, second-, and third-year pharmacy students at the University of Arizona College of Pharmacy.
Results. Although the objectives of the portfolio process were for students to understand the expected outcomes, understand the impact of extracurricular activities on attaining competencies, identify what should be learned, identify their strengths and weaknesses, and modify their approach to learning, overall students perceived the portfolio process as having less than moderate benefit. First-year students wanted more examples of portfolios while second- and third-year students suggested that more time with their advisor would be beneficial.
Conclusions. The portfolio process will continue to be refined and efforts made to improve students’ perceptions of the process as it is intended to develop the self-assessments skills they will need to improve their knowledge and professional skills throughout their pharmacy careers.
survey; portfolio; questionnaire; expected outcomes; assessment
Objective. To identify opinions about pharmacy graduates’ science of safety (SoS) educational needs.
Methods. Semi-structured interviews were performed with 25 educators and researchers at US pharmacy colleges and schools and 5 individuals from associations engaged in drug safety-related issues.
Results. Themes that emerged from the 30 interviews with key informants included: pharmacists should meet minimum SoS requirements; medication safety education is inconsistent; and barriers exist to improving SoS curricula. Student deficiencies noted included the lack of: student acceptance of a “culture of safety”: ability to effectively communicate verbally about medication safety; knowledge of the drug development process; and quality improvement skills. Key informants did not agree on how to address these gaps.
Conclusions. While educators, researchers, and other leaders in drug safety-related issues thought that US colleges and schools of pharmacy covered portions of SoS well, there were perceived deficiencies. Minimum standards should be set to assist with curricular adoption of SoS.
medication safety; patient safety pharmacy education; science of safety; education
Objectives. To evaluate pharmacy students' drug-drug interaction (DDI) knowledge retention over 1 year and to determine whether presenting DDI vignettes increased knowledge retention.
Methods. A knowledge assessment tool was distributed to fourth-year pharmacy students before and after completing a DDI educational session. The questionnaire was re-administered after 1 year to assess knowledge retention. During the intervening year, students had the option of presenting DDI case vignettes to preceptors and other health professionals as part of their advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs).
Results. Thirty-four of 78 pharmacy students completed both the post-intervention and 1-year follow-up assessments. Students’ knowledge of 4 DDI pairs improved, knowledge of 3 DDI pairs did not change, and knowledge of the remainder of DDI pairs decreased. Average scores of the 18 students who completed all tests and presented at least 1 vignette during their APPEs were higher on the 1-year follow-up assessment than students who did not, suggesting greater DDI knowledge retention (p = 0.04).
Conclusion. Although pharmacy students’ overall DDI knowledge decreased in the year following an educational session, those who presented vignettes to health professionals retained more DDI knowledge, particularly on those DDIs for which they gave presentations. Other methods to enhance pharmacy students’ retention of DDI knowledge of clinically important DDIs are needed.
drug-drug interaction; assessment
This paper provides baseline information on integrating the science of safety into the professional degree curriculum at colleges and schools of pharmacy. A multi-method examination was conducted that included a literature review, key informant interviews of 30 individuals, and in-depth case studies of 5 colleges and schools of pharmacy. Educators believe that they are devoting adequate time to science of safety topics and doing a good job teaching students to identify, understand, report, manage, and communicate medication risk. Areas perceived to be in need of improvement include educating pharmacy students about the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) role in product safety, how to work with the FDA in post-marketing surveillance and other FDA safety initiatives, teaching students methods to improve safety, and educating students to practice in interprofessional teams. The report makes 10 recommendations to help pharmacy school graduates be more effective in protecting patients from preventable drug-related problems.
safety; curriculum; pharmacy education; FDA; quality
Spatial hearing uses both monaural and binaural mechanisms that require sensitive hearing for normal function. Deaf children using either bilateral (BCI) or unilateral (UCI) cochlear implants would thus be expected to have poorer spatial hearing than normally hearing (NH) children. However, the relationship between spatial hearing in these various listener groups has not previously been extensively tested under ecologically valid conditions using a homogeneous group of children who are UCI users. We predicted that NH listeners would outperform BCI listeners who would, in turn, outperform UCI listeners.
We tested two methods of spatial hearing to provide norms for NH and UCI using children and preliminary data for BCI users. NH children (n = 40) were age matched (6–15 years) to UCI (n = 12) and BCI (n = 6) listeners. Testing used a horizontal ring of loudspeakers within a booth in a hospital outpatient clinic. In a ‘lateral release’ task, single nouns were presented frontally, and masking noises were presented frontally, or 90° left or right. In a ‘localization’ task, allowing head movements, nouns were presented from loudspeakers separated by 30°, 60° or 120° about the midline.
Normally hearing children improved with age in speech detection in noise, but not in quiet or in lateral release. Implant users performed more poorly on all tasks. For frontal signals and noise, UCI and BCI listeners did not differ. For lateral noise, BCI listeners performed better on both sides (within ∼2 dB of NH), whereas UCI listeners benefited only when the noise was opposite the unimplanted ear. Both the BCI and, surprisingly, the UCI listeners performed better than chance at all loudspeaker separations on the ecologically valid, localization task. However, the BCI listeners performed about twice as well and, in two cases, approached the performance of NH children.
Children using either UCI or BCI have useful spatial hearing. BCI listeners gain benefits on both sides, and localize better, but not as well as NH listeners.
Unilateral cochlear implants; Bilateral cochlear implants; Lateral release; Sound localization; Head movements
Zinc is an essential trace element involved in a wide range of biological
processes and human diseases. Zinc excess is deleterious, and animals require
mechanisms to protect against zinc toxicity. To identify genes that modulate
zinc tolerance, we performed a forward genetic screen for Caenorhabditis
elegans mutants that were resistant to zinc toxicity. Here we
demonstrate that mutations of the C. elegans histidine ammonia
lyase (haly-1) gene promote zinc tolerance. C. elegans
haly-1 encodes a protein that is homologous to vertebrate HAL, an
enzyme that converts histidine to urocanic acid. haly-1 mutant
animals displayed elevated levels of histidine, indicating that C.
elegans HALY-1 protein is an enzyme involved in histidine
catabolism. These results suggest the model that elevated histidine chelates
zinc and thereby reduces zinc toxicity. Supporting this hypothesis, we
demonstrated that dietary histidine promotes zinc tolerance. Nickel is another
metal that binds histidine with high affinity. We demonstrated that
haly-1 mutant animals are resistant to nickel toxicity and
dietary histidine promotes nickel tolerance in wild-type animals. These studies
identify a novel role for haly-1 and histidine in zinc
metabolism and may be relevant for other animals.
Zinc is an essential nutrient that is critical for human health. However, excess
zinc can cause toxicity, indicating that regulatory mechanisms are necessary to
maintain homeostasis. The analysis of mechanisms that promote zinc homeostasis
can elucidate fundamental regulatory processes and suggest new approaches for
treating disorders of zinc metabolism. To discover genes that modulate zinc
tolerance, we screened for C. elegans mutants that were
resistant to zinc toxicity. Here we demonstrate that mutations of the histidine
ammonia lyase (haly-1) gene promote zinc tolerance.
haly-1 encodes a protein that is similar to vertebrate HAL,
an enzyme that converts histidine to urocanic acid. Mutations in the human HAL
gene cause elevated levels of serum histidine and abnormal zinc metabolism.
Mutations in C. elegans haly-1 cause elevated levels of
histidine, suggesting that histidine causes resistance to excess zinc.
Consistent with this hypothesis, we demonstrated that dietary histidine promoted
tolerance to excess zinc in wild-type worms. Mutations in
haly-1 and supplemental dietary histidine also caused
resistance to nickel, another metal that can bind histidine. A likely mechanism
of protection is chelation of zinc and nickel by histidine. These studies
suggest that histidine plays a physiological role in zinc metabolism.
Research on diphtheria and anthrax toxins over the past three decades has culminated in a detailed understanding of their structure function relationships (e.g., catalytic (C), transmembrane (T), and receptor binding (R) domains), as well as the identification of their eukaryotic cell surface receptor, an understanding of the molecular events leading to the receptor-mediated internalization of the toxin into an endosomal compartment, and the pH triggered conformational changes required for pore formation in the vesicle membrane. Recently, a major research effort has been focused on the development of a detailed understanding of the molecular interactions between each of these toxins and eukaryotic cell factors that play an essential role in the efficient translocation of their respective catalytic domains through the trans-endosomal vesicle membrane pore and delivery into the cell cytosol. In this review, I shall focus on recent findings that have led to a more detailed understanding of the mechanism by which the diphtheria toxin catalytic domain is delivered to the eukaryotic cell cytosol. While much work remains, it is becoming increasingly clear that the entry process is facilitated by specific interactions with a number of cellular factors in an ordered sequential fashion. In addition, since diphtheria, anthrax lethal factor and anthrax edema factor all carry multiple coatomer I complex binding motifs and COPI complex has been shown to play an essential role in entry process, it is likely that the initial steps in catalytic domain entry of these divergent toxins follow a common mechanism.
diphtheria toxin; catalytic domain entry; coatomer complex I
Here we present an interesting and extremely rare case of a 66 year old male who developed a colocutaneous fistula secondary to amoebiasis. The patient presented with an acute history of right lower abdominal pain, weight loss and a palpable mass. A CT scan demonstrated a fluid filled cavity in the right iliac fossa consistent with an appendiceal abscess which was drained under radiological guidance. However, following drainage his symptoms remained requiring open surgical drainage, and a controlled caecostomy was performed due to a small caecal perforation. Despite appropriate conservative therapy he failed to progress, and developed localised sepsis in the right iliac fossa with a colocutaneous fistula, requiring a formal right hemicolectomy. The histological examination confirmed the presence of abundant trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica.
We highlight the fact that in the modern age of immigration and long distance travel, it will become increasingly likely that the so-called ‘tropical’ diseases will present throughout the world. This case also highlights the need to keep an open mind in cases that do not progress as expected, and to react accordingly to any unusual developments.
Colocutaneous fistula; Appendicular abscess; Amoebic dysentery; Amoebiasis
Falls are a major public health problem in the elderly population. The associated health care cost is great. It has therefore become an important public health matter to evaluate those interventions that might be effective in reducing the risk of falls. Risk factors that predict an increased risk of falling are described. We discuss interventions that can be employed in the community to reduce the risk of falls and associated injuries by discipline, including physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and physician-led interventions. We also discuss the cost-effectiveness of such interventions.
fall; fracture; prevention; public health
To compare requirements for pharmacy practice faculty positions in advertisements from 2002 through 2006 to those reported from 1990 through 1994.
Positions advertised from January 2002 through December 2006 in 3 newsletters and journals were evaluated for required or preferred degree, completion of residencies and/or fellowships, years of work experience, board certification, and other postgraduate training and education. Advertisements were separated by tenure-eligibility and rank.
Of 426 advertisements for faculty members, 77% required additional training, including residencies and fellowships or their equivalent in experience. Board certification was required in only 0.9% but preferred in 11%. Advertisements for tenure-eligible positions did not have more extensive requirements than nontenured, nor did upper vs. lower rank.
Compared to 1996, the number of advertisements requiring postgraduate training to secure a faculty position almost doubled. Whether the qualifications of faculty members recruited match the requirements is unknown.
pharmacy manpower; faculty shortage; faculty career
To examine factors that influenced doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students to collaborate with faculty members, preceptors, or others on scholarly activities that resulted in publication of an article in a pharmacy journal, and whether this experience influenced their consideration of a career in academic pharmacy.
A 17-question survey instrument was e-mailed to student authors of papers published between 2004 and 2008 in 6 pharmacy journals. Responses were analyzed to determine factors influencing student participation in research and whether the experience led them to consider a career in academic pharmacy.
Factors about their participation in the scholarly activity that respondents found valuable included personal fulfillment and making a contribution to the literature. Respondents indicated they were more interested in a career in academic pharmacy after their participation in the scholarly experience (p < 0.001).
Participation in scholarly activities and student authorship of a peer-reviewed journal manuscript during pharmacy school may lead to increased interest in a career in academic pharmacy.
pharmacy student; publication; scholarship; faculty recruitment; journal