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1.  Pathways to Improve Student Pharmacists’ Experience in Research 
Objective. To describe the implementation of a student research program and to provide outcomes from the initial 4 years’ experience.
Design. Students conducted individual research projects in a 4-year longitudinal program (known as Pathway), with faculty member advising and peer mentoring. A prospective assessment compared perceptions of those who completed the Pathway program with those of students who did not. Descriptive statistics, t tests, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used.
Assessment. The class of 2013 was the first to complete the Pathway program. In the Pathway assessment project, 59% (n=47) of students who responded reached self-set goals. Pathway students agreed that this research experience improved their ability to work/think independently, evaluate literature, and distinguish themselves from other students.
Conclusion. The Pathway program helped students understand the research process and reach other self-set goals.
PMCID: PMC4469024  PMID: 26089567
capstone; student research experience; faculty student advising; longitudinal
2.  p38 MAPK Activation, JNK Inhibition, Neoplastic Growth Inhibition and Increased Gap Junction Communication in Human Lung Carcinoma and Ras-Transformed Cells by 4-Phenyl-3-Butenoic Acid 
Journal of cellular biochemistry  2012;113(1):269-281.
Human lung neoplasms frequently express mutations that down-regulate expression of various tumor suppressor molecules, including mitogen-activated protein kinases such as p38 MAPK. Conversely, activation of p38 MAPK in tumor cells results in cancer cell cycle inhibition or apoptosis initiated by chemotherapeutic agents such as retinoids or cisplatin, and is therefore an attractive approach for experimental anti-tumor therapies. We now report that 4-phenyl-3-butenoic acid (PBA), an experimental compound that reverses the transformed phenotype at non-cytotoxic concentrations, activates p38 MAPK in tumorigenic cells at concentrations and treatment times that correlate with decreased cell growth and increased cell-cell communication. H2009 human lung carcinoma cells and ras-transformed liver epithelial cells treated with PBA showed increased activation of p38 MAPK and its downstream effectors which occurred after 4 h and lasted beyond 48 h. Untransformed plasmid control cells showed low activation of p38 MAPK compared to ras-transformed and H2009 carcinoma cells, which correlates with the reduced effect of PBA on untransformed cell growth. The p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, negated PBA’s activation of p38 MAPK downstream effectors. PBA also increased cell-cell communication and connexin 43 phosphorylation in ras-transformed cells, which were prevented by SB203580. In addition, PBA decreased activation of JNK, which is upregulated in many cancers. Taken together, these results suggest that PBA exerts its growth regulatory effect in tumorigenic cells by concomitant up-regulation of p38 MAPK activity, altered connexin 43 expression, and down-regulation of JNK activity. PBA may therefore be an effective therapeutic agent in human cancers that exhibit down-regulated p38 MAPK activity and/or activated JNK and altered cell-cell communication.
PMCID: PMC3893766  PMID: 21898549
p38 MAPK; connexin; JNK; SB203580
3.  A clinical pathway for community-acquired pneumonia: an observational cohort study 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2011;11:188.
Six hospitals instituted a voluntary, system-wide, pathway for community acquired pneumonia (CAP). We proposed this study to determine the impact of pathway antibiotics on patient survival, hospital length of stay (LOS), and total hospital cost.
Data were collected for adults from six U.S. hospitals with a principal CAP discharge diagnosis code, a chest infiltrate, and medical notes indicative of CAP from 2005-2007. Pathway and non-pathway cohorts were assigned according to antibiotics received within 48 hours of admission. Pathway antibiotics included levofloxacin 750 mg monotherapy or ceftriaxone 1000 mg plus azithromycin 500 mg daily. Multivariable regression models assessed 90-day mortality, hospital LOS, total hospital cost, and total pharmacy cost.
Overall, 792 patients met study criteria. Of these, 505 (64%) received pathway antibiotics and 287 (36%) received non-pathway antibiotics. Adjusted means and p-values were derived from Least Squares regression models that included Pneumonia Severity Index risk class, patient age, heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and admitting hospital as covariates. After adjustment, patients who received pathway antibiotics experienced lower adjusted 90-day mortality (p = 0.02), shorter mean hospital LOS (3.9 vs. 5.0 days, p < 0.01), lower mean hospital costs ($2,485 vs. $3,281, p = 0.02), and similar mean pharmacy costs ($356 vs. $442, p = 0.11).
Pathway antibiotics were associated with improved patient survival, hospital LOS, and total hospital cost for patients admitted to the hospital with CAP.
PMCID: PMC3142517  PMID: 21733161
4.  Pharmacy Students' Participation in a Research Experience Culminating in Journal Publication 
To examine factors that influenced doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students to collaborate with faculty members, preceptors, or others on scholarly activities that resulted in publication of an article in a pharmacy journal, and whether this experience influenced their consideration of a career in academic pharmacy.
A 17-question survey instrument was e-mailed to student authors of papers published between 2004 and 2008 in 6 pharmacy journals. Responses were analyzed to determine factors influencing student participation in research and whether the experience led them to consider a career in academic pharmacy.
Factors about their participation in the scholarly activity that respondents found valuable included personal fulfillment and making a contribution to the literature. Respondents indicated they were more interested in a career in academic pharmacy after their participation in the scholarly experience (p < 0.001).
Participation in scholarly activities and student authorship of a peer-reviewed journal manuscript during pharmacy school may lead to increased interest in a career in academic pharmacy.
PMCID: PMC2865413  PMID: 20498740
pharmacy student; publication; scholarship; faculty recruitment; journal

Results 1-5 (5)