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1.  NIH Workshop on Clinical Translation of Molecular Imaging Probes and Technology—Meeting Report 
Molecular Imaging and Biology  2014;16(5):595-604.
A workshop on “Clinical Translation of Molecular Imaging Probes and Technology” was held August 2, 2013 in Bethesda, Maryland, organized and supported by the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB). This workshop brought together researchers, clinicians, representatives from pharmaceutical companies, molecular probe developers, and regulatory science experts. Attendees met to talk over current challenges in the discovery, validation, and translation of molecular imaging (MI) probes for key clinical applications. Participants also discussed potential strategies to address these challenges. The workshop consisted of 4 sessions, with 14 presentations and 2 panel discussions. Topics of discussion included (1) challenges and opportunities for clinical research and patient care, (2) advances in molecular probe design, (3) current approaches used by industry and pharmaceutical companies, and (4) clinical translation of MI probes. In the presentations and discussions, there were general agreement that while the barriers for validation and translation of MI probes remain high, there are pressing clinical needs and development opportunities for targets in cardiovascular, cancer, endocrine, neurological, and inflammatory diseases. The strengths of different imaging modalities, and the synergy of multimodality imaging, were highlighted. Participants also underscored the continuing need for close interactions and collaborations between academic and industrial partners, and federal agencies in the imaging probe development process.
doi:10.1007/s11307-014-0746-z
PMCID: PMC4161932  PMID: 24833042
Molecular Imaging probes; Human translation; Disease targets; Regulatory science
3.  Rapamycin and mTOR: a serendipitous discovery and implications for breast cancer 
Rapamycin was discovered more than thirty years ago from a soil sample from the island of Rapa Nui. It was isolated from Streptomyces hygroscopicus and initial characterization focused on its antifungal activities. Subsequent characterization showed that it has immunosuppressive properties and has been used successfully to reduce organ rejection with kidney transplantation. Rapamycin has proven to be a versatile compound with several seemingly unrelated properties, including antifungal, immunosuppressive, and anticancer. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Developmental Therapeutics Program demonstrated that rapamycin inhibited cell growth in tumor cell lines. These observations stimulated research to explore the underlying mechanism of anti-tumor activities. Cell growth inhibition involves binding to the mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR). The mTOR signaling pathway is critical to cell growth, proliferation, and survival and rapamycin inhibits these hallmark processes of cancer. Binding of growth factors activates mTOR signaling, which in turn leads to downstream phosphorylation of protein kinases, e.g., p70S6 kinase and lipid kinases in the phosphorylation of phosphoinositides. Understanding of mTOR signaling provided the biological basis for targeted chemotherapeutics development, including several rapamycin analogues for treating breast and other cancers.
doi:10.1186/2001-1326-1-29
PMCID: PMC3561035  PMID: 23369283
Rapamycin; Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR); Breast cancer; Targeted chemotherapeutics; Clinical translation
5.  Moving toward multimedia electronic health records: how do we get there? 
This report, based on a workshop jointly sponsored the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Biomedical Engineering and the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, examines the role and value of images as multimedia data in electronic health records (EHRs). The workshop, attended by a wide range of stakeholders, was motivated in part by the absence of image data from discussions of meaningful use of health information technology. Collectively, the workshop presenters and participants argued that images are not ancillary data and should be central to health information systems to facilitate clinical decisions and higher quality, efficiency, and safety of care. They emphasized that the imaging community has already developed standards that form the basis of interoperability. Despite the apparent value of images, workshop participants also identified challenges and barriers to their implementation within EHRs. Weighing the opportunities and challenges, workshop participants provided their perspectives on possible paths forward toward fully multimedia EHRs.
doi:10.1136/amiajnl-2011-000660
PMCID: PMC3384122  PMID: 22306113
Electronic health records; medical informatics; radiology
8.  In Vivo Kinetics of Nitrogenase Formation in Clostridium pasteurianum 
Journal of Bacteriology  1974;120(2):822-830.
Clostridium pasteurianum exhibits diauxic growth when grown in the presence of both NH3 and N2; no nitrogenase activity or formation was detected either serologically or by activity during growth on NH3. During the 60-min lag that ensued after NH3 was consumed and before growth resumed, molybdoferredoxin and azoferredoxin were first detected by activity measurements and serologically at 25 and 40 min, respectively. With the use of rifampin and dactinomycin, it was found that azoferredoxin messenger ribonucleic acid was initiated between 25 and 30 min after the inception of the lag and was completed by 38 min. An explanation of these results and their relation to possible models for the regulation of nitrogenase is given.
Images
PMCID: PMC245844  PMID: 4218235
9.  Mechanism of Carbamyl Phosphate Inhibition of Nitrogenase of Clostridium pasteurianum 
Journal of Bacteriology  1974;117(2):805-812.
Carbamyl phosphate caused a maximal inhibition of 50% of the in vitro nitrogenase activity measured by acetylene reduction and dinitrogen reduction. The addition of 1 mM carbamyl phosphate to a N2-fixing culture caused a rapid decrease of 30% of the acetylene reduction activity and also repression of nitrogenase biosynthesis. However, carbamyl phosphate had no effect on the reductant-dependent adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis and H2 evolution reactions catalyzed by nitrogenase. Studies on the binding of carbamyl phosphate to nitrogenase and each of its two components (azoferredoxin and molybdoferredoxin) indicated that optimal binding was obtained only in the presence of an operating nitrogenase system. Moreover, the binding seemed to be on the molybdoferredoxin component rather than azoferredoxin. From a Scatchard plot and a reciprocal plot of the data, the values of n = 2 and dissociation constant (K) of approximately 5 × 10−5 M were obtained. The value for the dissociation constant was of the same order of magnitude as the endogenous level of carbamyl phosphate in a N2-fixing cell. The carbamyl phosphate pool in NH3-grown cells was twice that of N2-fixing cells.
PMCID: PMC285576  PMID: 4811545

Results 1-9 (9)