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author:("Oh, Jong-ryoo")
1.  Prognostic Significance of Metabolic Tumor Volume Measured by 18F-FDG PET/CT in Operable Primary Breast Cancer 
Purpose
We investigated whether PET indices measured by 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) can predict prognosis in patients with operable primary breast cancer.
Methods
We reviewed 53 patients with operable primary breast cancer who underwent pretreatment FDG PET/CT. PET indices, maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) and metabolic tumor volume (MTV), were measured in the primary breast tumor (P), metastatic lymph nodes (N) and total tumor (T). The Cox proportional hazards model was used with age, tumor size, clinical lymph node status, method of surgery, presence or absence of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, histological type, histological grade, hormone receptors and HER2 status to predict disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS).
Results
Median follow-up period was 50 months (range, 17–73 months), during which 17 patients had recurrent disease and nine of whom died. The univariate analysis showed that high SUV of N (NSUV, P = 0.011), MTV of N (NMTV, P = 0.011) and MTV of T (TMTV, P = 0.045) as well as high histological grade (P = 0.008), negative estrogen (P = 0.045) and negative progesterone (P = 0.029) receptor status were associated with shorter DFS. High NSUV (P = 0.035), NMTV (P = 0.035) and TMTV (P = 0.035) as well as high histological grade (P = 0.012) and negative estrogen receptor status (P = 0.009) were associated with shorter OS. NSUV, NMTV and TMTV were found to be significantly associated with high histological grade (P = 0.005). However, those failed to be statistically significant prognostic factors on multivariate analysis.
Conclusions
PET indices seem to be useful in the preoperative evaluation of prognosis in patients with operable primary breast cancer. NSUV, NMTV and TMTV might be considerable factors associated with patient outcome in operable breast cancer.
doi:10.1007/s13139-012-0161-9
PMCID: PMC4043062  PMID: 24900075
Breast cancer; FDG PET/CT; Maximum standardized uptake value; Metabolic tumor volume; Prognosis
2.  Ga-68 Somatostatin Receptor PET/CT in von Hippel-Lindau Disease 
Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a dominantly inherited familial cancer syndrome with a variety of benign and malignant tumors such as retinal and central nervous system hemangioblastomas, endolymphatic sac tumors, renal cysts and tumors, pancreatic cysts and tumors, pheochromocytomas, and epididymal cystadenomas. Cross-sectional modalities (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) as well as ultrasound play a major role in the initial evaluation and follow-up of the various manifestations of VHL disease. Ga-68-labeled somatostatin receptor analogs already have a significant role in the diagnosis, staging, and therapy management of neuroendocrine neoplasms and neural crest tumors. Herein, we report a case presenting a variety of malignancies in VHL and showing the usefulness of Ga-68 somatostatin receptor PET/CT as a one-stop-shop imaging modality in the management of VHL disease.
doi:10.1007/s13139-012-0133-0
PMCID: PMC4042996  PMID: 24900047
Ga-68 DOTA-TOC PET/CT; Ga-68 DOTA-TATE PET/CT; Ga-68 DOTA-NOC PET/CT; von Hippel-Lindau disease; Hemangioblastoma; Pheochromocytoma
3.  The Clinical Usefulness of 18F-FDG PET/CT in Patients with Systemic Autoimmune Disease 
Purpose
Individuals with systemic autoimmune disease have an increased susceptibility to both inflammation and malignancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients with systemic autoimmune disease.
Methods
Forty patients diagnosed with systemic autoimmune disease were enrolled. Diagnostic accuracy of FDG PET/CT for detecting malignancy was assessed. FDG PET/CT findings, including maximum standardized uptake (SUVmax) of lymphadenopathy (LAP), liver, bone marrow, spleen, joint and muscles, were considered for the characterization of LAPs.
Results
FDG PET/CT could detect metabolically activated lesions in 36 out of 40 patients (90%) including inflammatory lesions in 28 out of 32 patients (88%). The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of FDG PET/CT for the detection of malignancy were 100, 67, 70, 25, and 100%, respectively. Multiple LAPs were found in 25 of 40 patients (63%), and comprised three malignancies, four cases of tuberculosis, and 18 reactive changes. A SUVmax ratio of bone marrow to liver below 0.78 could distinguish malignancy from tuberculosis + reactive change (AUC = 1.000, sensitivity: 100%, specificity: 100%). The SUVmax ratio of spleen to liver in the reactive group was also significantly higher than that in the malignancy group (P = 0.014). SUVmax of LAP in the TB group was significantly higher than that in the reactive group (P = 0.040).
Conclusions
PET/CT is useful in detecting and differentiating inflammation and malignancy in patients with systemic autoimmune disease. Frequent false-positive interpretations can be minimized by consideration of FDG uptake in bone marrow and spleen.
doi:10.1007/s13139-011-0094-8
PMCID: PMC4043003  PMID: 24900001
Autoimmune disease; PET/CT; Neoplasms; Tuberculosis; Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia
4.  False-positive uptake on radioiodine whole-body scintigraphy: physiologic and pathologic variants unrelated to thyroid cancer 
Radioiodine whole-body scintigraphy (WBS), which takes advantage of the high avidity of radioiodine in the functioning thyroid tissues, has been used for detection of differentiated thyroid cancer. Radioiodine is a sensitive marker for detection of thyroid cancer; however, radioiodine uptake is not specific for thyroid tissue. It can also be seen in healthy tissue, including thymus, breast, liver, and gastrointestinal tract, or in benign diseases, such as cysts and inflammation, or in a variety of benign and malignant non-thyroidal tumors, which could be mistaken for thyroid cancer. In order to accurately interpret radioiodine scintigraphy results, one must be familiar with the normal physiologic distribution of the tracer and frequently encountered physiologic and pathologic variants of radioiodine uptake. This article will provide a systematic overview of potential false-positive uptake of radioiodine in the whole body and illustrate how such unexpected findings can be appropriately evaluated.
PMCID: PMC3477738  PMID: 23133823
Differentiated thyroid cancer; radioiodine; I-131; I-123; whole-body scintigraphy; false-positive; physiologic uptake; pathologic uptake
5.  Improved Detection of Lung or Bone Metastases with an I-131 Whole Body Scan on the 7th Day After High-Dose I-131 Therapy in Patients with Thyroid Cancer 
Purpose
The purpose of this study is to compare post-therapy third day and seventh day I-131 whole body scans (3DWBS and 7DWBS) in detecting lung or bone metastasis from well-differentiated thyroid cancer.
Materials and Methods
We enrolled 52 patients with lung or bone metastasis out of 1,152 patients who were treated with high-dose I-131 therapy from January 2008 to June 2009. All patients underwent 3DWBS and 7DWBS. I-131 avidity was classified into three grades: no uptake, suspicious for uptake, and definite uptake. We compared the presence and grades of metastatic lesions on each scan. We categorized all cases into three groups based on I-131 uptake on each scan and compared several clinical parameters including FDG uptake and thyroglobulin (Tg) level among the groups.
Results
Sixty metastatic cases from 52 patients (45 lung and 15 bone metastases) were included. In 35 cases, I-131-avid metastatic lesions were detected by both 3DWBS and 7DWBS (group A). In 15 cases, metastatic lesions were missed on 3DWBS but detected on 7DWBS (group B). In 10 cases, I-131 uptake was not detected on either 3DWBS or 7DWBS (group C). Ten of 45 cases (22.2%) of lung metastasis that were negative on 3DWBS were detected on 7DWBS (p = 0.002). Five of 15 cases (33.3%) of bone metastasis that were negative on 3DWBS were detected on 7DWBS (p = 0.0625). The serum Tg level (TSH stimulated) was significantly different among groups A, B, and C (p = 0.0030). However, after exclusion of cases without a history of I-131 therapy, there was no significant difference in serum Tg level among the groups (p = 0.2330). The number of cases with a prior history of metastasis was higher in group A than in group B (p = 0.0069). However, there was no significant difference in prior history of metastasis between groups A and C (p = 0.8107).
Conclusion
7DWBS showed more lung or bone metastatic lesions than 3DWBS. After high-dose I-131 therapy, 7DWBS should be considered regardless of the results of the 3DWBS for the diagnosis of lung or bone metastasis from well-differentiated thyroid cancer.
doi:10.1007/s13139-010-0051-y
PMCID: PMC4042915  PMID: 24899964
Thyroid cancer; Distant metastasis; I-131; Post-therapy scan; Scan time

Results 1-5 (5)