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author:("mortems, Luc")
1.  Dutch senior medical students and disaster medicine: a national survey 
Background
Medical students have been deployed in victim care of several disasters throughout history. They are corner stones in first-line care in recent pandemic planning. Furthermore, every physician and senior medical student is expected to assist in case of disaster situations, but are they educated to do so? Being one of Europe’s densest populated countries with multiple nuclear installations, a large petrochemical industry and also at risk for terrorist attacks, The Netherlands bear some risks for incidents. We evaluated the knowledge on Disaster Medicine in the Dutch medical curriculum. Our hypothesis is that Dutch senior medical students are not prepared at all.
Methods
Senior Dutch medical students were invited through their faculty to complete an online survey on Disaster Medicine, training and knowledge. This reported knowledge was tested by a mixed set of 10 theoretical and practical questions.
Results
With a mean age of 25.5 years and 60 % females, 999 participants completed the survey. Of the participants, 51 % considered that Disaster Medicine should absolutely be taught in the regular medical curriculum and only 2 % felt it as useless; 13 % stated to have some knowledge on disaster medicine. Self-estimated capability to deal with various disaster situations varied from 1.47/10 in nuclear incidents to 3.92/10 in influenza pandemics. Self-estimated knowledge on these incidents is in the same line (1.71/10 for nuclear incidents and 4.27/10 in pandemics). Despite this limited knowledge and confidence, there is a high willingness to respond (ranging from 4.31/10 in Ebola outbreak over 5.21/10 in nuclear incidents to 7.54/10 in pandemics). The case/theoretical mix gave a mean score of 3.71/10 and raised some food for thought. Although a positive attitude, 48 % will place contaminated walking wounded in a waiting room and 53 % would use iodine tablets as first step in nuclear decontamination. Of the participants, 52 % even believes that these tablets protect against external radiation, 41 % thinks that these tablets limit radiation effects more than shielding and 57 % believes that decontamination of chemical victims consists of a specific antidote spray in military cabins.
Conclusions
Despite a high willingness to respond, our students are not educated for disaster situations.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12245-015-0077-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12245-015-0077-0
PMCID: PMC4558995  PMID: 26335099
Education; Disaster medicine; Medical students; Curriculum
2.  18F-MK-9470 PET imaging of the type 1 cannabinoid receptor in prostate carcinoma: a pilot study 
EJNMMI Research  2013;3:59.
Background
Preclinical and histological data show overexpression of the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) in prostate carcinoma (PCa). In a prospective study, the feasibility of 18F-MK-9470 positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in patients with primary and metastatic PCa was evaluated.
Methods
Eight patients were included and underwent 18F-MK-9470 PET/CT imaging. For five patients with primary PCa, dynamic PET/CT imaging was performed over three acquisition intervals (0 to 30, 60 to 90 and 120 to 150 min post-injection). In malignant and benign prostate tissue regions, time activity curves of the mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean) were determined as well as the corresponding area under the curve to compare 18F-MK-9470 uptake over time. Muscle uptake of 18F-MK-9470 was used as reference for non-specific binding. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used as anatomical reference and for delineating intraprostatic tumours. Histological and immunohistochemical (IHC) examination was performed on the whole-mount histopathology sections of four patients who underwent radical prostatectomy to assess the MRI-based tumour versus benign tissue classification. For three patients with proven advanced metastatic disease, two static PET/CTs were performed 1 and 3 h post-injection. 18F-MK-9470 uptake was evaluated in bone lesions of metastatic PCa by comparing SUVmean values of metastases with these of the contralateral bone tissue.
Results
18F-MK-9470 uptake was significantly higher in benign and malignant prostate tissue compared to muscle, but it did not differ between both prostate tissue compartments. IHC findings of corresponding prostatic histopathological sections indicated weak CB1R expression in locally confined PCa, which was not visualized with 18F-MK-9470 PET. Metastases in the axial skeleton could not be detected while some metastases in the appendicular skeleton showed higher 18F-MK-9470 uptake as compared to the uptake in contralateral normal bone.
Conclusions
18F-MK-9470 PET could not detect local PCa or bone metastases in the axial skeleton but was able to visualize metastases in the appendicular skeleton. Based on these pilot observations, it seems unlikely that CB1R PET will play a significant role in the evaluation of PCa.
doi:10.1186/2191-219X-3-59
PMCID: PMC3750838  PMID: 23915639
Prostate cancer; CB1R; PET/CT; MRI; 18F-MK-9470
3.  Bioluminescence imaging of therapy response does not correlate with FDG-PET response in a mouse model of Burkitt lymphoma 
Since the development and evaluation of novel anti-cancer therapies require molecular insight in the disease state, both FDG-PET and BLI imaging were evaluated in a Burkitt B-cell lymphoma xenograft model treated with cyclophosphamide or temsirolimus. Daudi xenograft mice were treated with either cyclophosphamide or temsirolimus and imaged with BLI and FDG-PET on d0 (before treatment), d2, d4, d7, d9 and d14 following the start of therapy. Besides tumor volume changes, therapy response was assessed with immunohistochemical analysis (apoptosis). BLI revealed a flare following both therapeutics that was significantly higher when compared to control tumors. FDG-PET decreased immediatelly, long before the tumor reduced in size. Late after therapy, BLI signal intensities decreased significantly compared to baseline subsequent to tumor size reduction while apoptosis was immediately induced following both treatment regimen. Unlike FDG, BLI was not able to reflect reduced levels of viable cells and was not able to predict tumor size response and apoptosis response.
PMCID: PMC3477743  PMID: 23133822
Bioluminescence imaging; therapy response; FDG-PET
4.  Molecular imaging of therapy response with 18F-FLT and 18F-FDG following cyclophosphamide and mTOR inhibition 
Purpose
Evaluation and comparison of 3’-[18F]-fluoro-3’-deoxy-L-thymidine (FLT) and 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG)-PET to monitor early response following both cyclophosphamide and temsirolimus treatment in a mouse model of Burkitt lymphoma.
Methods
Daudi xenograft mice were treated with either cyclophosphamide or temsirolimus and imaged with FLT-PET and FDG-PET on appropriate days post therapy inititiation. Immunohistochemical (IHC) studies (H&E, TUNEL, CD20, PCNA and ki-67) and DNA flow cytometry studies were performed.
Results
FDG tumor uptake decreased immediately after cyclophosphamide treatment while FLT-PET showed only a late and less pronounced decrease. A fast induction of apoptosis was observed together with an early accumulation of cells in the S-phase of the cell cycle, suggesting DNA repair. Temsirolimus treatment reduced both FDG and FLT tumor uptake immediately after therapy and resulted in a fast induction of apoptosis and G0-G1 phase accumulation.
Conclusion
FLT response was less distinct than FDG response and may be controlled by DNA repair early after cyclophosphamide. Nevertheless, FLT-PET was able to reflect decreased proliferation following temsirolimus.
PMCID: PMC3478112  PMID: 23133806
FDG-PET; FLT-PET; Burkitt lymphoma; cyclophosphamide; mTOR inhibition; therapy response
5.  Improving tetanus prophylaxis in the emergency department: a prospective, double‐blind cost‐effectiveness study 
Emergency Medicine Journal : EMJ  2007;24(9):648-653.
Background
The choice of tetanus prophylaxis for patients with wounds depends on obtaining their vaccination history, which has been demonstrated to be unreliable. Use of a rapid immunoassay (Tétanos Quick Stick, the TQS), combined with knowledge of certain demographic characteristics, may improve the evaluation of tetanus immunity and thus help to avoid inadequate prophylactic measures and reduce costs.
Objectives
To evaluate the contribution of the TQS in the choice of tetanus prophylaxis and to perform a cost‐effectiveness analysis. The final aim was to define the place of the TQS in a modified algorithm for assessment of tetanus immunity in the emergency department.
Method
In this Belgian prospective, double‐blind, multicentre study, 611 adult patients with a wound were included; 498 (81.5%) records were valid. The TQS test was performed by a nurse before the vaccination history was taken and the choice of prophylaxis was made, using the official algorithm (Belgian Superior Health Council), by a doctor who was unaware of the TQS result.
Results
The prevalence of protective anti‐tetanus immunity was 74.1%. Immunity was lower in older patients and in female patients. The TQS was a cost‐effective tool for patients presenting with a tetanus‐prone wound and considered from the vaccination history to be unprotected. Use of the TQS would have improved management in 56.9% (95% CI 47.7% to 65.7%) of patients by avoiding unnecessary treatments, leading to a reduction in the mean cost per patient (€10.58/patient with the TQS versus €11.34/patient without). The benefits of the TQS use were significantly greater in patients <61 years old: unnecessary treatment would have been avoided in 76.9% (95% CI 65.8% to 85.4%) of cases and the mean cost per patient reduced to €8.31.
Conclusion
In selected patients, the TQS is a cost‐effective tool to evaluate tetanus immunity. An algorithm is proposed for ED assessment of tetanus immunity integrating age and the TQS result.
doi:10.1136/emj.2007.048520
PMCID: PMC2464632  PMID: 17711944
tetanus prophylaxis; wound; immunologic test; cost‐effectiveness; algorithm

Results 1-5 (5)