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1.  PET/CT in the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease in pediatric patients: a review 
The literature on positron emission tomography and computed tomography using 18fluoro-deoxyglusose (FDG-PET/CT) in the diagnosis of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is presented. Only five papers representing independent studies were identified and included in this review. Of these, two studies dealt with both stand-alone FDG-PET and FDG-PET/CT, while three were about stand-alone FDG-PET only. No studies could be found that focused on FDG-PET/CT only. The five studies comprised analysis of a total 181 pediatric patients (0-18 years of age). They unanimously indicated that FDG-PET/CT is a versatile method with a diagnostic high sensitivity ranging from 70% to 97%. In conclusion, the pediatric literature on FGD-PET/CT’s role in the diagnosis of IBD is very limited. Prospective studies of well characterized populations are needed in order to validate this novel imaging modality in pediatric IBD.
PMCID: PMC3999402  PMID: 24795836
Inflammatory bowel disease; ulcerative colitis; Crohn’s disease; positron-emission tomography and computed tomography
2.  FDG-PET/CT can rule out malignancy in patients with vocal cord palsy 
The aim was to investigate the performance of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT to rule out malignancy in patients with confirmed vocal cord palsy (VCP). Between January 2011 and June 2013, we retrospectively included consecutive patients referred to PET/CT with paresis or paralysis of one or both vocal cords. PET/CT results were compared to clinical workup and histopathology. The study comprised 65 patients (32 females) with a mean age of 66±12 years (range 37-89). Eleven patients (17%) had antecedent cancer. Twenty-seven (42%) were diagnosed with cancer during follow-up. The palsy was right-sided in 24 patients, left-sided in 37, and bilateral in 4. Median follow-up was 7 months (interquartile range 4-11 months). Patients without cancer were followed for at least three months. PET/CT suggested a malignancy in 35 patients (27 true positives, 8 false positives) and showed none in 30 (30 true negatives, 0 false negatives). Thus, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy were (95% confidence intervals in parenthesis): 100% (88%-100%), 79% (64%-89%), 77% (61%-88%), 100% (89%-100%), and 88% (78%-94%), respectively. Sixteen patients had palliative treatment, while 11 were treated with curative intent, emphasising the severity of VCP and the need for a rapid and accurate diagnostic work-up. In this retrospective survey, biopsy proven malignancy (whether newly diagnosed or relapsed) was the cause of VCP in almost half of patients (42%). PET/CT had a high sensitivity (100%) with a relatively high false positive rate, but was excellent in ruling out malignancy (negative predictive value 100%).
PMCID: PMC3992212  PMID: 24753985
FDG-PET/CT; palsy; paresis; paralysis; vocal cord; laryngeal nerve
3.  Interim analyses in diagnostic versus treatment studies: differences and similarities 
The purpose of this paper was to contrast interim analyses in (randomized controlled) treatment studies with interim analyses in paired diagnostic studies of accuracy with respect to planning and conduct. The term ‘treatment study’ refers to a (randomized) clinical trial that aims to demonstrate the superiority or noninferiority of one treatment compared with another, and the term ‘diagnostic study’ to a clinical study that compares two diagnostic procedures, using a third diagnostic procedure as the gold standard. Though interim analyses in treatment studies and paired diagnostic studies show similarities in a priori planning of timing, decision rules, and the consequences of the analyses, they differ with respect to (1) the need for sample size adjustments, (2) the possibility of early decisions without early stopping, and (3) the impact of keeping results secret. These differences are due, respectively, to certain characteristics of paired diagnostic studies: the dependence of the sample size on the agreement rate between the modalities, multiple aims of diagnostic accuracy studies, and the advantages of early unblinding of results at the individual level. We exemplified our points by using a recent investigation at our institution on the detection of bone metastases from prostate cancer in patients with histologically confirmed prostate cancer in which 99mTc-MDP whole body bone scintigraphy was compared to positron emission tomography/computed tomography with 18F-fluorocholine as tracer, using magnetic resonance imaging as a reference.
PMCID: PMC3477734  PMID: 23133821
Study design; diagnostic imaging; PET/CT; efficacy studies; accuracy studies; sample size
4.  How to study optimal timing of PET/CT for monitoring of cancer treatment 
Purpose
The use of PET/CT for monitoring treatment response in cancer patients after chemo- or radiotherapy is a very promising approach to optimize cancer treatment. However, the timing of the PET/CT-based evaluation of reduction in viable tumor tissue is a crucial question. We investigated how to plan and analyze studies to optimize this timing.
Methods
General considerations about studying the optimal timing are given and four fundamental steps are illustrated using data from a published study.
Results
The optimal timing should be examined by optimizing the schedule with respect to predicting the overall individual time course we can observe in the case of dense measurements. The optimal timing needs not to and should not be studied by optimizing the association with the prognosis of the patient.
Conclusions
The optimal timing should be examined in specific ‘schedule optimizing studies’. These should be clearly distinguished from studies evaluating the prognostic value of a reduction in viable tumor tissue.
PMCID: PMC3477720  PMID: 23133795
cancer; response evaluation; prognostic value; optimal schedule
5.  PET/CT without capacity limitations: a Danish experience from a European perspective 
European Radiology  2011;21(6):1277-1285.
Objectives
We report the 3-year clinical experience of a large new Danish PET/CT centre without capacity limitations in relation to national and European developments.
Methods
The use of PET/CT in cancer was registered from early 2006 to early 2009 to judge the impact on patient management and to compare it with national and European trends.
Results
6056 PET/CT examinations were performed in 4327 patients. Activity increased by 86 examinations per month compared with the same month the year before. Referrals came primarily from oncology (23.0%), haematology (21.6%), surgery (12.6%), internal medicine (12.7%) and gynaecology (5.5%). Referral indications were diagnosis (31.3%), staging (22.3%), recurrence detection (21.2%), response evaluation (17.0%) and other (8.2%). Response from nearly 60% of users showed that PET/CT caused a change in diagnosis and/or staging and/or treatment plan in 36.0% of cases. During the study period, there was a steep increase in the national use of FDG and in the European use of PET/CT.
Conclusions
We recorded a constantly increasing use of PET/CT that caused a change in diagnosis and/or staging and/or treatment plan in 36.0% of cases. In line with national and European trends this may suggest a shift in favour of functional rather than anatomical imaging.
doi:10.1007/s00330-010-2025-y
PMCID: PMC3088822  PMID: 21274717
Radionuclide imaging; PET/CT; Referral pattern; Indications; Clinical impact
6.  Diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal chest pain: design of a multi-purpose trial 
Background
Acute chest pain is a major health problem all over the western world. Active approaches are directed towards diagnosis and treatment of potentially life threatening conditions, especially acute coronary syndrome/ischemic heart disease. However, according to the literature, chest pain may also be due to a variety of extra-cardiac disorders including dysfunction of muscles and joints of the chest wall or the cervical and thoracic part of the spine. The diagnostic approaches and treatment options for this group of patients are scarce and formal clinical studies addressing the effect of various treatments are lacking.
Methods/Design
We present an ongoing trial on the potential usefulness of chiropractic diagnosis and treatment in patients dismissed from an acute chest pain clinic without a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. The aims are to determine the proportion of patients in whom chest pain may be of musculoskeletal rather than cardiac origin and to investigate the decision process of a chiropractor in diagnosing these patients; further, to examine whether chiropractic treatment can reduce pain and improve physical function when compared to advice directed towards promoting self-management, and, finally, to estimate the cost-effectiveness of these procedures. This study will include 300 patients discharged from a university hospital acute chest pain clinic without a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome or any other obvious cardiac or non-cardiac disease. After completion of the clinic's standard cardiovascular diagnostic procedures, trial patients will be examined according to a standardized protocol including a) a self-report questionnaire; b) a semi-structured interview; c) a general health examination; and d) a specific manual examination of the muscles and joints of the neck, thoracic spine, and thorax in order to determine whether the pain is likely to be of musculoskeletal origin. To describe the patients status with regards to ischemic heart disease, and to compare and indirectly validate the musculoskeletal diagnosis, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy is performed in all patients 2–4 weeks following discharge. Descriptive statistics including parametric and non-parametric methods will be applied in order to compare patients with and without musculoskeletal chest pain in relation to their scintigraphic findings. The decision making process of the chiropractor will be elucidated and reconstructed using the CART method. Out of the 300 patients 120 intended patients with suspected musculoskeletal chest pain will be randomized into one of two groups: a) a course of chiropractic treatment (therapy group) of up to ten treatment sessions focusing on high velocity, low amplitude manipulation of the cervical and thoracic spine, mobilisation, and soft tissue techniques. b) Advice promoting self-management and individual instructions focusing on posture and muscle stretch (advice group). Outcome measures are pain, physical function, overall health, self-perceived treatment effect, and cost-effectiveness.
Discussion
This study may potentially demonstrate that a chiropractor is able to identify a subset of patients suffering from chest pain predominantly of musculoskeletal origin among patients discharged from an acute chest pain clinic with no apparent cardiac condition. Furthermore knowledge about the benefits of manual treatment of patients with musculoskeletal chest pain will inform clinical decision and policy development in relation to clinical practice.
Trial registration
NCT00462241 and NCT00373828
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-9-40
PMCID: PMC2315652  PMID: 18377636

Results 1-6 (6)