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1.  Dental artifacts in the head and neck region: implications for Dixon-based attenuation correction in PET/MR 
EJNMMI Physics  2015;2:8.
In the absence of CT or traditional transmission sources in combined clinical positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) systems, MR images are used for MR-based attenuation correction (MR-AC). The susceptibility effects due to metal implants challenge MR-AC in the neck region of patients with dental implants. The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency and magnitude of subsequent PET image distortions following MR-AC.
A total of 148 PET/MR patients with clear visual signal voids on the attenuation map in the dental region were included in this study. Patients were injected with [18F]-FDG, [11C]-PiB, [18F]-FET, or [64Cu]-DOTATATE. The PET/MR data were acquired over a single-bed position of 25.8 cm covering the head and neck. MR-AC was based on either standard MR-ACDIXON or MR-ACINPAINTED where the susceptibility-induced signal voids were substituted with soft tissue information. Our inpainting algorithm delineates the outer contour of signal voids breaching the anatomical volume using the non-attenuation-corrected PET image and classifies the inner air regions based on an aligned template of likely dental artifact areas. The reconstructed PET images were evaluated visually and quantitatively using regions of interests in reference regions. The volume of the artifacts and the computed relative differences in mean and max standardized uptake value (SUV) between the two PET images are reported.
The MR-based volume of the susceptibility-induced signal voids on the MR-AC attenuation maps was between 1.6 and 520.8 mL. The corresponding/resulting bias of the reconstructed tracer distribution was localized mainly in the area of the signal void. The mean and maximum SUVs averaged across all patients increased after inpainting by 52% (± 11%) and 28% (± 11%), respectively, in the corrected region. SUV underestimation decreased with the distance to the signal void and correlated with the volume of the susceptibility artifact on the MR-AC attenuation map.
Metallic dental work may cause severe MR signal voids. The resulting PET/MR artifacts may exceed the actual volume of the dental fillings. The subsequent bias in PET is severe in regions in and near the signal voids and may affect the conspicuity of lesions in the mandibular region.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s40658-015-0112-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4546019  PMID: 26501810
PET/MRI; Attenuation correction; Metal artifacts; Quantification; Inpainting
3.  PET/MR in oncology: an introduction with focus on MR and future perspectives for hybrid imaging 
After more than 20 years of research, a fully integrated PET/MR scanner was launched in 2010 enabling simultaneous acquisition of PET and MR imaging. Currently, no clinical indication for combined PET/MR has been established, however the expectations are high. In this paper we will discuss some of the challenges inherent in this new technology, but focus on potential applications for simultaneous PET/MR in the field of oncology. Methods and tracers for use with the PET technology will be familiar to most readers of this journal; thus this paper aims to provide a short and basic introduction to a number of different MRI techniques, such as DWI-MR (diffusion weighted imaging MR), DCE-MR (dynamic contrast enhanced MR), MRS (MR spectroscopy) and MR for attenuation correction of PET. All MR techniques presented in this paper have shown promising results in the treatment of patients with solid tumors and could be applied together with PET increasing the amount of information about the tissues of interest. The potential clinical benefit of applying PET/MR in staging, radiotherapy planning and treatment evaluation in oncology, as well as the research perspectives for the use of PET/MR in the development of new tracers and drugs will be discussed.
PMCID: PMC3484424  PMID: 23145362
PET/MR; oncology; diagnosis; staging; therapy evaluation; radiotherapy planning; molecular imaging
4.  Community structure, trophic position and reproductive mode of soil and bark-living oribatid mites in an alpine grassland ecosystem 
Experimental & Applied Acarology  2010;52(3):221-237.
The community structure, stable isotope ratios (15N/14N, 13C/12C) and reproductive mode of oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) were investigated in four habitats (upper tree bark, lower tree bark, dry grassland soil, forest soil) at two sites in the Central Alps (Tyrol, Austria). We hypothesized that community structure and trophic position of oribatid mites of dry grassland soils and bark of trees are similar since these habitats have similar abiotic characteristics (open, dry) compared with forest soil. Further, we hypothesized that derived taxa of oribatid mites reproducing sexually dominate on the bark of trees since species in this habitat consume living resources such as lichens. In contrast to our hypothesis, the community structure of oribatid mites differed among grassland, forest and bark indicating the existence of niche differentiation in the respective oribatid mite species. In agreement with our hypothesis, sexually reproducing taxa of oribatid mites dominated on the bark of trees whereas parthenogenetic species were more frequent in soil. Several species of bark-living oribatid mites had stable isotope signatures that were similar to lichens indicating that they feed on lichens. However, nine species that frequently occurred on tree bark did not feed on lichens according to their stable isotope signatures. No oribatid mite species could be ascribed to moss feeding. We conclude that sexual reproduction served as preadaptation for oribatid mites allowing them to exploit new habitats and new resources on the bark of trees. Abiotic factors likely are of limited importance for bark-living oribatid mites since harsh abiotic conditions are assumed to favor parthenogenesis.
PMCID: PMC2951506  PMID: 20490626
Stable isotopes; Central Alps; Tree bark; Reproductive mode

Results 1-4 (4)