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1.  Design of a novel cyclotide-based CXCR4 antagonist with anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 activity 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  2012;55(23):10729-10734.
Herein, we report for the first time the design and synthesis of a novel cyclotide able to efficiently inhibit HIV-1 viral replication by selectively targeting cytokine receptor CXCR4. This was accomplished by grafting a series of topologically modified CVX15 based peptides onto the loop 6 of cyclotide MCoTI-I. The most active compound produced in this study was a potent CXCR4 antagonist (EC50 ≈ 20 nM) and an efficient HIV-1 cell-entry blocker (EC50 ≈ 2 nM). This cyclotide also showed high stability in human serum thereby providing a promising lead compound for the design of a novel type of peptide-based anti-cancer and anti-HIV-1 therapeutics.
doi:10.1021/jm301468k
PMCID: PMC3521869  PMID: 23151033
6.  LEDGINs inhibit late stage HIV-1 replication by modulating integrase multimerization in the virions 
Retrovirology  2013;10:57.
Background
LEDGINs are novel allosteric HIV integrase (IN) inhibitors that target the lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF)/p75 binding pocket of IN. They block HIV-1 integration by abrogating the interaction between LEDGF/p75 and IN as well as by allosterically inhibiting the catalytic activity of IN.
Results
Here we demonstrate that LEDGINs reduce the replication capacity of HIV particles produced in their presence. We systematically studied the molecular basis of this late effect of LEDGINs and demonstrate that HIV virions produced in their presence display a severe replication defect. Both the late effect and the previously described, early effect on integration contribute to LEDGIN antiviral activity as shown by time-of-addition, qPCR and infectivity assays. The late effect phenotype requires binding of LEDGINs to integrase without influencing proteolytic cleavage or production of viral particles. LEDGINs augment IN multimerization during virion assembly or in the released viral particles and severely hamper the infectivity of progeny virions. About 70% of the particles produced in LEDGIN-treated cells do not form a core or display aberrant empty cores with a mislocalized electron-dense ribonucleoprotein. The LEDGIN-treated virus displays defective reverse transcription and nuclear import steps in the target cells. The LEDGIN effect is possibly exerted at the level of the Pol precursor polyprotein.
Conclusion
Our results suggest that LEDGINs modulate IN multimerization in progeny virions and impair the formation of regular cores during the maturation step, resulting in a decreased infectivity of the viral particles in the target cells. LEDGINs thus profile as unique antivirals with combined early (integration) and late (IN assembly) effects on the HIV replication cycle.
doi:10.1186/1742-4690-10-57
PMCID: PMC3671127  PMID: 23721378
Antivirals; HIV replication; Integrase; Integrase multimerization; LEDGINs
7.  The Stress Oncoprotein LEDGF/p75 Interacts with the Methyl CpG Binding Protein MeCP2 and Influences its Transcriptional Activity 
Molecular Cancer Research  2012;10(3):378-391.
The lens epithelium derived growth factor p75 (LEDGF/p75) is a transcription co-activator that promotes resistance to oxidative stress- and chemotherapy-induced cell death. LEDGF/p75 is also known as the dense fine speckles autoantigen of 70 kD (DFS70), and has been implicated in cancer, HIV-AIDS, autoimmunity, and inflammation. To gain insights into mechanisms by which LEDGF/p75 protects cancer cells against stress, we initiated an analysis of its interactions with other transcription factors and the influence of these interactions on stress gene activation. We report here that both LEDGF/p75 and its short splice variant LEDGF/p52 interact with MeCP2, a methylation-associated transcriptional modulator, in vitro and in various human cancer cells. These interactions were established by several complementary approaches: transcription factor protein arrays, pull down and AlphaScreen® assays, co-immunoprecipitation, and nuclear co-localization by confocal microscopy. MeCP2 was found to interact with the N-terminal region shared by LEDGF/p75 and p52, particularly with the PWWP-CR1 domain. Like LEDGF/p75, MeCP2 bound to and transactivated the Hsp27 promoter (Hsp27pr). LEDGF/p75 modestly enhanced MeCP2-induced Hsp27pr transactivation in U2OS cells, while this effect was more pronounced in PC3 cells. LEDGF/p52 repressed Hsp27pr activity in U2OS cells. Interestingly, siRNA-induced silencing of LEDGF/p75 in U2OS cells dramatically elevated MeCP2-mediated Hsp27pr transactivation, whereas this effect was less pronounced in PC3 cells depleted of LEDGF/p75. These results suggest that the LEDGF/p75-MeCP2 interaction differentially influences Hsp27pr activation depending on the cellular and molecular context. These findings are of significance in understanding the contribution of this interaction to the activation of stress survival genes.
doi:10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-11-0314
PMCID: PMC3312617  PMID: 22275515
LEDGF/p75; MeCP2; protein-protein interactions; PWWP domain; transcription
8.  Transient Expression of an LEDGF/p75 Chimera Retargets Lentivector Integration and Functionally Rescues in a Model for X-CGD 
Retrovirus-based vectors are commonly used as delivery vehicles to correct genetic diseases because of their ability to integrate new sequences stably. However, adverse events in which vector integration activates proto-oncogenes, leading to clonal expansion and leukemogenesis hamper their application. The host cell-encoded lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75) binds lentiviral integrase and targets integration to active transcription units. We demonstrated earlier that replacing the LEDGF/p75 chromatin interaction domain with an alternative DNA-binding protein could retarget integration. Here, we show that transient expression of the chimeric protein using mRNA electroporation efficiently redirects lentiviral vector (LV) integration in wild-type (WT) cells. We then employed this technology in a model for X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (X-CGD) using myelomonocytic PLB-985 gp91−/− cells. Following electroporation with mRNA encoding the LEDGF-chimera, the cells were treated with a therapeutic lentivector encoding gp91phox. Integration site analysis revealed retargeted integration away from genes and towards heterochromatin-binding protein 1β (CBX1)-binding sites, in regions enriched in marks associated with gene silencing. Nevertheless, gp91phox expression was stable for at least 6 months after electroporation and NADPH-oxidase activity was restored to normal levels as determined by superoxide production. Together, these data provide proof-of-principle that transient expression of engineered LEDGF-chimera can retarget lentivector integration and rescues the disease phenotype in a cell model, opening perspectives for safer gene therapy.
doi:10.1038/mtna.2013.4
PMCID: PMC3615818  PMID: 23462964
gene therapy; LEDGF/p75; lentiviral vector; retargeted integration
9.  Small-Molecule Inhibitors of the LEDGF/p75 Binding Site of Integrase Block HIV Replication and Modulate Integrase Multimerization 
Targeting the HIV integrase (HIV IN) is a clinically validated approach for designing novel anti-HIV therapies. We have previously described the discovery of a novel class of integration inhibitors, 2-(quinolin-3-yl)acetic acid derivatives, blocking HIV replication at a low micromolar concentration through binding in the LEDGF/p75 binding pocket of HIV integrase, hence referred to as LEDGINs. Here we report the detailed characterization of their mode of action. The design of novel and more potent analogues with nanomolar activity enabled full virological evaluation and a profound mechanistic study. As allosteric inhibitors, LEDGINs bind to the LEDGF/p75 binding pocket in integrase, thereby blocking the interaction with LEDGF/p75 and interfering indirectly with the catalytic activity of integrase. Detailed mechanism-of-action studies reveal that the allosteric mode of inhibition is likely caused by an effect on HIV-1 integrase oligomerization. The multimodal inhibition by LEDGINs results in a block in HIV integration and in a replication deficiency of progeny virus. The allosteric nature of LEDGINs leads to synergy in combination with the clinically approved active site HIV IN strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) raltegravir, and cross-resistance profiling proves the distinct mode of action of LEDGINs and INSTIs. The allosteric nature of inhibition and compatibility with INSTIs underline an interest in further (clinical) development of LEDGINs.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00717-12
PMCID: PMC3421592  PMID: 22664975
10.  HRP-2 determines HIV-1 integration site selection in LEDGF/p75 depleted cells 
Retrovirology  2012;9:84.
Background
Lens epithelium–derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75) is a cellular co-factor of HIV-1 integrase (IN) that tethers the viral pre-integration complex to the host cell chromatin and determines the genome wide integration site distribution pattern of HIV-1. Recently, we demonstrated that HIV-1 replication was reduced in LEDGF/p75 knockout (KO) cells. LEDGF/p75 KO significantly altered the integration site preference of HIV-1, but the pattern remained distinct from a computationally generated matched random control set (MRC), suggesting the presence of an alternative tethering factor. We previously identified Hepatoma-derived growth factor related protein 2 (HRP-2) as a factor mediating LEDGF/p75-independent HIV-1 replication. However, the role of HRP-2 in HIV-1 integration site selection was not addressed.
Findings
We studied the HIV-1 integration site distribution in the presence and absence of LEDGF/p75 and/or HRP-2, and in LEDGF/p75-depleted cells that overexpress HRP-2. We show that HRP-2 functions as a co-factor of HIV-1 IN in LEDGF/p75-depleted cells. Endogenous HRP-2 only weakly supported HIV-1 replication in LEDGF/p75 depleted cells. However, HRP-2 overexpression rescued HIV-1 replication and restored integration in RefSeq genes to wild-type levels. Additional HRP-2 KD in LEDGF/p75-depleted cells reduces integration frequency in transcription units and shifts the integration distribution towards random.
Conclusions
We demonstrate that HRP-2 overexpression can compensate for the absence of LEDGF/p75 and indicate that the residual bias in integration targeting observed in the absence of LEDGF/p75 can be ascribed to HRP-2. Knockdown of HRP-2 upon LEDGF/p75 depletion results in a more random HIV-1 integration pattern. These data therefore reinforce the understanding that LEDGF/p75 is the dominant HIV-1 IN co-factor.
doi:10.1186/1742-4690-9-84
PMCID: PMC3485173  PMID: 23046603
LEDGF/p75; HRP-2; HIV-1; Targeting; Integration site analysis
11.  A Symmetric Region of the HIV-1 Integrase Dimerization Interface Is Essential for Viral Replication 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(9):e45177.
HIV-1 integrase (IN) is an important target for contemporary antiretroviral drug design research. Historically, efforts at inactivating the enzyme have focused upon blocking its active site. However, it has become apparent that new classes of allosteric inhibitors will be necessary to advance the antiretroviral field in light of the emergence of viral strains resistant to contemporary clinically used IN drugs. In this study we have characterized the importance of a close network of IN residues, distant from the active site, as important for the obligatory multimerization of the enzyme and viral replication as a whole. Specifically, we have determined that the configuration of six residues within a highly symmetrical region at the IN dimerization interface, composed of a four-tiered aromatic interaction flanked by two salt bridges, significantly contributes to proper HIV-1 replication. Additionally, we have utilized a quantitative luminescence assay to examine IN oligomerization and have determined that there is a very low tolerance for amino acid substitutions along this region. Even conservative residue substitutions negatively impacted IN multimerization, resulting in an inactive viral enzyme and a non-replicative virus. We have shown that there is a very low tolerance for amino acid variation at the symmetrical dimeric interface region characterized in this study, and therefore drugs designed to target the amino acid network detailed here could be expected to yield a significantly reduced number of drug-resistant escape mutations compared to contemporary clinically-evaluated antiretrovirals.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0045177
PMCID: PMC3445459  PMID: 23028829
12.  Association of Polymorphisms in the LEDGF/p75 Gene (PSIP1) with Susceptibility to HIV-1 Infection and Disease Progression 
AIDS (London, England)  2011;25(14):1711-1719.
Objective
LEDGF/p75, encoded by the PSIP1 gene, interacts with HIV-1 integrase and targets HIV-1 integration into active genes. We investigated the influence of polymorphisms in PSIP1 on HIV-1 acquisition and disease progression in black South Africans.
Methods
Integrase binding domain (IBD) of LEDGF/p75 was sequenced in 126 participants. Four haplotype tagging SNPs, SNP1-SNP4 and one exonic SNP, SNP5 were genotyped in 195 HIV-1 seronegative, 52 primary and 403 chronically infected individuals using TaqMan assays. LEDGF/p75 expression was quantified by real-time RT-PCR. The impact of Q472L mutation on the interaction with HIV-1 IN was measured by AlphaScreen.
Results
rs2277191A was more frequent among seropositives (p=0.06, Fisher's exact test), and among individuals followed longitudinally trended towards association with higher likelihood of HIV-1 acquisition (RH=2.21, p=0.08; Cox model) and it was also associated with rapid disease progression (RH=5.98, p=0.04; Cox model). rs12339417C was associated with slower decline of CD4+ T cell (p=0.02) and lower levels of LEDGF/p75 (p<0.01). Seroconverters had higher preinfection levels of LEDGF/p75 (p<0.01) but levels decreased after HIV infection (p=0.02).
Conclusions
Genetic variants of PSIP1 may affect HIV-1 outcomes. Further studies are needed to confirm the effect of genetic variation of PSIP1 on HIV-1 pathogenesis in different cohorts.
doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e328349c693
PMCID: PMC3233670  PMID: 21681054
13.  Cellular Cofactors of Lentiviral Integrase: From Target Validation to Drug Discovery 
To accomplish their life cycle, lentiviruses make use of host proteins, the so-called cellular cofactors. Interactions between host cell and viral proteins during early stages of lentiviral infection provide attractive new antiviral targets. The insertion of lentiviral cDNA in a host cell chromosome is a step of no return in the replication cycle, after which the host cell becomes a permanent carrier of the viral genome and a producer of lentiviral progeny. Integration is carried out by integrase (IN), an enzyme playing also an important role during nuclear import. Plenty of cellular cofactors of HIV-1 IN have been proposed. To date, the lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75) is the best studied cofactor of HIV-1 IN. Moreover, small molecules that block the LEDGF/p75-IN interaction have recently been developed for the treatment of HIV infection. The nuclear import factor transportin-SR2 (TRN-SR2) has been proposed as another interactor of HIV IN-mediating nuclear import of the virus. Using both proteins as examples, we will describe approaches to be taken to identify and validate novel cofactors as new antiviral targets. Finally, we will highlight recent advances in the design and the development of small-molecule inhibitors binding to the LEDGF/p75-binding pocket in IN (LEDGINs).
doi:10.1155/2012/863405
PMCID: PMC3420096  PMID: 22928108
14.  Bioluminescence imaging of therapy response does not correlate with FDG-PET response in a mouse model of Burkitt lymphoma 
Since the development and evaluation of novel anti-cancer therapies require molecular insight in the disease state, both FDG-PET and BLI imaging were evaluated in a Burkitt B-cell lymphoma xenograft model treated with cyclophosphamide or temsirolimus. Daudi xenograft mice were treated with either cyclophosphamide or temsirolimus and imaged with BLI and FDG-PET on d0 (before treatment), d2, d4, d7, d9 and d14 following the start of therapy. Besides tumor volume changes, therapy response was assessed with immunohistochemical analysis (apoptosis). BLI revealed a flare following both therapeutics that was significantly higher when compared to control tumors. FDG-PET decreased immediatelly, long before the tumor reduced in size. Late after therapy, BLI signal intensities decreased significantly compared to baseline subsequent to tumor size reduction while apoptosis was immediately induced following both treatment regimen. Unlike FDG, BLI was not able to reflect reduced levels of viable cells and was not able to predict tumor size response and apoptosis response.
PMCID: PMC3477743  PMID: 23133822
Bioluminescence imaging; therapy response; FDG-PET
15.  Pathway Specific Gene Expression Profiling Reveals Oxidative Stress Genes Potentially Regulated by Transcription Co-Activator LEDGF/p75 in Prostate Cancer Cells 
The Prostate  2011;72(6):597-611.
BACKGROUND
Lens epithelium-derived growth factor p75 (LEDGF/p75) is a stress survival transcription co-activator and autoantigen that is overexpressed in tumors, including prostate cancer (PCa). This oncoprotein promotes resistance to cell death induced by oxidative stress and chemotherapy by mechanisms that remain unclear. To get insights into these mechanisms we identified candidate target stress genes of LEDGF/p75 using pathway-specific gene expression profiling in PCa cells.
METHODS
A “Human oxidative stress and antioxidant defense” qPCR array was used to identify genes exhibiting significant expression changes in response to knockdown or overexpression of LEDGF/p75 in PC-3 cells. Validation of array results was performed by additional qPCR and immunoblotting.
RESULTS
Cytoglobin (CYGB), Phosphoinositide-binding protein PIP3-E/IPCEF-1, superoxidase dismutase 3 (SOD3), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and albumin (ALB) exhibited significant transcript down- and up-regulation in response to LEDGF/p75 knockdown and overexpression, respectively. CYGB gene was selected for further validation based on its emerging role as a stress oncoprotein in human malignancies. In light of previous reports indicating that LEDGF/p75 regulates peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6), and that PRDXs exhibit differential expression in PCa, we also examined the relationship between these proteins in PCa cells. Our validation data revealed that changes in LEDGF/p75 transcript and protein expression in PCa cells closely paralleled those of CYGB, but not those of the PRDXs.
CONCLUSIONS
Our study identifies CYGB and other genes as stress genes potentially regulated by LEDGF/p75 in PCa cells, and provides a rationale for investigating their role in PCa and in promoting resistance to chemotherapy- and oxidative stress-induced cell death.
doi:10.1002/pros.21463
PMCID: PMC3227744  PMID: 21796653
LEDGF/p75; prostate cancer; oxidative stress; gene profiling; peroxiredoxin; cytoglobin
16.  LEDGF/p75-Independent HIV-1 Replication Demonstrates a Role for HRP-2 and Remains Sensitive to Inhibition by LEDGINs 
PLoS Pathogens  2012;8(3):e1002558.
Lens epithelium–derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75) is a cellular cofactor of HIV-1 integrase (IN) that interacts with IN through its IN binding domain (IBD) and tethers the viral pre-integration complex to the host cell chromatin. Here we report the generation of a human somatic LEDGF/p75 knockout cell line that allows the study of spreading HIV-1 infection in the absence of LEDGF/p75. By homologous recombination the exons encoding the LEDGF/p75 IBD (exons 11 to 14) were knocked out. In the absence of LEDGF/p75 replication of laboratory HIV-1 strains was severely delayed while clinical HIV-1 isolates were replication-defective. The residual replication was predominantly mediated by the Hepatoma-derived growth factor related protein 2 (HRP-2), the only cellular protein besides LEDGF/p75 that contains an IBD. Importantly, the recently described IN-LEDGF/p75 inhibitors (LEDGINs) remained active even in the absence of LEDGF/p75 by blocking the interaction with the IBD of HRP-2. These results further support the potential of LEDGINs as allosteric integrase inhibitors.
Author Summary
Like other viruses, HIV has a limited genome and needs to exploit the machinery of the host cell to complete its replication cycle. The elucidation of virus-host interactions not only sheds light on pathogenesis but also provides opportunities in a limited number of cases to develop novel antiviral drugs. A prototypical example is the interaction between the cellular protein LEDGF/p75 and HIV-1 integrase (IN). Here we generated a human somatic LEDGF/p75 knockout cell line to demonstrate that HIV-1 replication is highly dependent on its cofactor. We show that the residual replication of laboratory strains is predominantly mediated by a LEDGF/p75-related protein, HRP-2. Interestingly, the recently developed HIV-1 IN inhibitors that target the LEDGF/p75-IN interaction interface, LEDGINs, remain active even in the absence of LEDGF/p75. We demonstrate that LEDGINs efficiently block the interaction between IN and HRP-2. In case HIV-1 would be able to bypass LEDGF/p75-dependent replication using HRP-2 as an alternative tether, LEDGINs would remain fully active.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002558
PMCID: PMC3291655  PMID: 22396646
17.  miR669a and miR669q prevent skeletal muscle differentiation in postnatal cardiac progenitors 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2011;193(7):1197-1212.
miR669a and miR669q inhibit postnatal cardiac progenitor differentiation by directly targeting the 3′UTR of MyoD.
Postnatal heart stem and progenitor cells are a potential therapeutic tool for cardiomyopathies, but little is known about the mechanisms that control cardiac differentiation. Recent work has highlighted an important role for microribonucleic acids (miRNAs) as regulators of cardiac and skeletal myogenesis. In this paper, we isolated cardiac progenitors from neonatal β-sarcoglycan (Sgcb)–null mouse hearts affected by dilated cardiomyopathy. Unexpectedly, Sgcb-null cardiac progenitors spontaneously differentiated into skeletal muscle fibers both in vitro and when transplanted into regenerating muscles or infarcted hearts. Differentiation potential correlated with the absence of expression of a novel miRNA, miR669q, and with down-regulation of miR669a. Other miRNAs are known to promote myogenesis, but only miR669a and miR669q act upstream of myogenic regulatory factors to prevent myogenesis by directly targeting the MyoD 3′ untranslated region. This finding reveals an added level of complexity in the mechanism of the fate choice of mesoderm progenitors and suggests that using endogenous cardiac stem cells therapeutically will require specially tailored procedures for certain genetic diseases.
doi:10.1083/jcb.201011099
PMCID: PMC3216340  PMID: 21708977
18.  Rapid, Simple, and Versatile Manufacturing of Recombinant Adeno-Associated Viral Vectors at Scale 
Human Gene Therapy  2010;21(10):1259-1271.
Lock et al. describe a scaled recombinant AAV production method suitable for large animal studies; this method is based upon polyethylenimine transfection and supernatant harvest. According to the authors, the method is high-yielding, versatile for the production of vectors with different serotypes and transgenes and simple enough that it may be performed in most laboratories with a minimum of specialized techniques and equipment.
Abstract
Adeno-associated viral (AAV) manufacturing at scale continues to hinder the application of AAV technology to gene therapy studies. Although scalable systems based on AAV–adenovirus, AAV–herpesvirus, and AAV–baculovirus hybrids hold promise for clinical applications, they require time-consuming generation of reagents and are not highly suited to intermediate-scale preclinical studies in large animals, in which several combinations of serotype and genome may need to be tested. We observed that during production of many AAV serotypes, large amounts of vector are found in the culture supernatant, a relatively pure source of vector in comparison with cell-derived material. Here we describe a high-yielding, recombinant AAV production process based on polyethylenimine (PEI)-mediated transfection of HEK293 cells and iodixanol gradient centrifugation of concentrated culture supernatant. The entire process can be completed in 1 week and the steps involved are universal for a number of different AAV serotypes. Process conditions have been optimized such that final purified yields are routinely greater than 1 × 1014 genome copies per run, with capsid protein purity exceeding 90%. Initial experiments with vectors produced by the new process demonstrate equivalent or better transduction both in vitro and in vivo when compared with small-scale, CsCl gradient-purified vectors. In addition, the iodixanol gradient purification process described effectively separates infectious particles from empty capsids, a desirable property for reducing toxicity and unwanted immune responses during preclinical studies.
doi:10.1089/hum.2010.055
PMCID: PMC2957274  PMID: 20497038
19.  Interplay between HIV Entry and Transportin-SR2 Dependency 
Retrovirology  2011;8:7.
Background
Transportin-SR2 (TRN-SR2, TNPO3, transportin 3) was previously identified as an interaction partner of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase and functions as a nuclear import factor of HIV-1. A possible role of capsid in transportin-SR2-mediated nuclear import was recently suggested by the findings that a chimeric HIV virus, carrying the murine leukemia virus (MLV) capsid and matrix proteins, displayed a transportin-SR2 independent phenotype, and that the HIV-1 N74D capsid mutant proved insensitive to transportin-SR2 knockdown.
Results
Our present analysis of viral specificity reveals that TRN-SR2 is not used to the same extent by all lentiviruses. The DNA flap does not determine the TRN-SR2 requirement of HIV-1. We corroborate the TRN-SR2 independent phenotype of the chimeric HIV virus carrying the MLV capsid and matrix proteins. We reanalyzed the HIV-1 N74D capsid mutant in cells transiently or stably depleted of transportin-SR2 and confirm that the N74D capsid mutant is independent of TRN-SR2 when pseudotyped with the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G). Remarkably, although somewhat less dependent on TRN-SR2 than wild type virus, the N74D capsid mutant carrying the wild type HIV-1 envelope required TRN-SR2 for efficient replication. By pseudotyping with envelopes that mediate pH-independent viral uptake including HIV-1, measles virus and amphotropic MLV envelopes, we demonstrate that HIV-1 N74D capsid mutant viruses retain partial dependency on TRN-SR2. However, this dependency on TRN-SR2 is lost when the HIV N74D capsid mutant is pseudotyped with envelopes mediating pH-dependent endocytosis, such as the VSV-G and Ebola virus envelopes.
Conclusion
Here we discover a link between the viral entry of HIV and its interaction with TRN-SR2. Our data confirm the importance of TRN-SR2 in HIV-1 replication and argue for careful interpretation of experiments performed with VSV-G pseudotyped viruses in studies on early steps of HIV replication including the role of capsid therein.
doi:10.1186/1742-4690-8-7
PMCID: PMC3041740  PMID: 21276267
20.  The transcriptional co-activator LEDGF/p75 displays a dynamic scan-and-lock mechanism for chromatin tethering 
Nucleic Acids Research  2010;39(4):1310-1325.
Nearly all cellular and disease related functions of the transcriptional co-activator lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75) involve tethering of interaction partners to chromatin via its conserved integrase binding domain (IBD), but little is known about the mechanism of in vivo chromatin binding and tethering. In this work we studied LEDGF/p75 in real-time in living HeLa cells combining different quantitative fluorescence techniques: spot fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (sFRAP) and half-nucleus fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (hnFRAP), continuous photobleaching, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and an improved FCS method to study diffusion dependence of chromatin binding, tunable focus FCS. LEDGF/p75 moves about in nuclei of living cells in a chromatin hopping/scanning mode typical for transcription factors. The PWWP domain of LEDGF/p75 is necessary, but not sufficient for in vivo chromatin binding. After interaction with HIV-1 integrase via its IBD, a general protein–protein interaction motif, kinetics of LEDGF/p75 shift to 75-fold larger affinity for chromatin. The PWWP is crucial for locking the complex on chromatin. We propose a scan-and-lock model for LEDGF/p75, unifying paradoxical notions of transcriptional co-activation and lentiviral integration targeting.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkq933
PMCID: PMC3045605  PMID: 20974633
21.  Naturally occurring singleton residues in AAV capsid impact vector performance and illustrate structural constraints 
Gene therapy  2009;16(12):1416-1428.
Summary
Vectors based on the adeno-associated virus are attractive and versatile vehicles for in vivo gene transfer. The virus capsid is the primary interface with the cell that defines many pharmacological, immunological and molecular properties. Determinants of these interactions are often restricted to a limited number of capsid amino acids. In this study, a portfolio of novel AAV vectors was developed following a structure-function analysis of naturally occurring AAV capsid isolates. Singletons, which are particular residues on the AAV capsid that were variable in otherwise conserved amino acid positions were found to impact on vector's ability to be manufactured or to transduce. Data for those residues that mapped to monomer-monomer interface regions on the particle structure suggested a role in particle assembly. The change of singleton residues to the conserved amino acid resulted in the rescue of many isolates that were defective upon initial isolation. This led to the development of an AAV vector portfolio that encompasses 6 different clades and 3 other distinct AAV niches. Evaluation of the in vivo gene transfer efficiency of this portfolio following intravenous and intramuscular administration highlighted a clade-specific tropism. These studies further the design and selection of AAV capsids for gene therapy applications.
doi:10.1038/gt.2009.101
PMCID: PMC2795093  PMID: 19727141
gene transfer; gene therapy; adeno-associated viruses; AAV; vector; capsid; muscle; liver
22.  High-resolution profiling of the LEDGF/p75 chromatin interaction in the ENCODE region 
Nucleic Acids Research  2010;38(18):6135-6147.
Lens epithelium-derived growth factor/p75 (LEDGF/p75) is a transcriptional coactivator involved in stress response, autoimmune disease, cancer and HIV replication. A fusion between the nuclear pore protein NUP98 and LEDGF/p75 has been found in human acute and chronic myeloid leukemia and association of LEDGF/p75 with mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL)/menin is critical for leukemic transformation. During lentiviral replication, LEDGF/p75 tethers the pre-integration complex to the host chromatin resulting in a bias of integration into active transcription units (TUs). The consensus function of LEDGF/p75 is tethering of cargos to chromatin. In this regard, we determined the LEDGF/p75 chromatin binding profile. To this purpose, we used DamID technology and focused on the highly annotated ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) regions. LEDGF/p75 primarily binds downstream of the transcription start site of active TUs in agreement with the enrichment of HIV-1 integration sites at these locations. We show that LEDGF/p75 binding is not restricted to stress response elements in the genome, and correlation analysis with more than 200 genomic features revealed an association with active chromatin markers, such as H3 and H4 acetylation, H3K4 monomethylation and RNA polymerase II binding. Interestingly, some associations did not correlate with HIV-1 integration indicating that not all LEDGF/p75 complexes on the chromosome are amenable to HIV-1 integration.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkq410
PMCID: PMC2952859  PMID: 20484370
23.  Immunohistochemical detection of transgene expression in the brain using small epitope tags 
BMC Biotechnology  2010;10:16.
Background
In vivo overexpression of proteins is a powerful approach to study their biological function, generate disease models or evaluate gene therapy approaches. In order to investigate an exogenously expressed protein, specific and sensitive detection is essential. Unfortunately, antibodies that allow histological detection of the protein of interest are not always readily available. The use of an epitope tag fused to the protein can circumvent this problem as well as provide the possibility to discriminate endogenous from overexpressed proteins. In order to minimize impact on the bioactivity and biodistribution of the overexpressed protein, preference is given to small tags.
Results
In the present study, we evaluated several small epitope tags together with corresponding anti-tag antibodies for the detection of overexpressed proteins in rat brain, using eGFP as a reference. We generated several lentiviral vectors encoding eGFP with different N-terminally fused small epitope tags (AU1, flag, 3flag, HA, myc and V5). After confirmation of their functionality in cell culture, we injected these lentiviral vectors stereotactically into the striatum of rats and prepared paraformaldehyde fixed floating sections for immunohistochemical analysis. Using multiple antibodies and antibody dilutions per epitope tag, we extensively assessed the efficiency of several anti-tag antibodies for chromogenic immunohistochemical detection of the epitope tagged eGFPs by determining the proportion of immunoreactivity detected by anti-tag antibodies compared to anti-GFP antibody. Using fluorescence immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy, we also quantified the proportion of eGFP-positive cells detected by anti-tag antibodies. Our results show that all the examined small epitope tags could be detected by anti-tag antibodies both in cell extracts as well as in vivo, although to varying degrees depending on the tag and antibody used. Using the presented protocol, V5/anti-V5 and HA/HA11 tag/antibody combinations provided the most sensitive detection in brain tissue. We confirmed the applicability of these optimized in vivo tag detection conditions for a difficult to detect protein, firefly luciferase (fLuc), using lentiviral vector constructs expressing V5 tagged and 3flag tagged fLuc protein.
Conclusions
We show here that several small epitope tags are useful for immunohistochemical detection of exogenous proteins in vivo. Our study also provides a generic methodology which is broadly applicable for the detection of overexpressed transgenes in mammalian brain tissue.
doi:10.1186/1472-6750-10-16
PMCID: PMC2831034  PMID: 20167102
24.  Alternative Splicing and Caspase-Mediated Cleavage Generate Antagonistic Variants of the Stress Oncoprotein LEDGF/p75 
Molecular cancer research : MCR  2008;6(8):1293-1307.
There is increasing evidence that an augmented state of cellular oxidative stress modulates the expression of stress genes implicated in diseases associated with health disparities such as certain cancers and diabetes. Lens epithelium–derived growth factor p75 (LEDGF/p75), also known as DFS70 autoantigen, is emerging as a survival oncoprotein that promotes resistance to oxidative stress–induced cell death and chemotherapy. We previously showed that LEDGF/p75 is targeted by autoantibodies in prostate cancer patients and is overexpressed in prostate tumors, and that its stress survival activity is abrogated during apoptosis. LEDGF/p75 has a COOH-terminally truncated splice variant, p52, whose role in stress survival and apoptosis has not been thoroughly investigated. We observed unbalanced expression of these proteins in a panel of tumor cell lines, with LEDGF/p75 generally expressed at higher levels. During apoptosis, caspase-3 cleaved p52 to generate a p38 fragment that lacked the NH2-terminal PWWP domain and failed to transactivate the Hsp27 promoter in reporter assays. However, p38 retained chromatin association properties and repressed the transactivation potential of LEDGF/p75. Overexpression of p52 or its variants with truncated PWWP domains in several tumor cell lines induced apoptosis, an activity that was linked to the presence of an intron-derived COOH-terminal sequence. These results implicate the PWWP domain of p52 in transcription function but not in chromatin association and proapoptotic activities. Consistent with their unbalanced expression in tumor cells, LEDGF/p75 and p52 seem to play antagonistic roles in the cellular stress response and could serve as targets for novel antitumor therapies.
doi:10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-08-0125
PMCID: PMC2790462  PMID: 18708362
25.  Preclinical Evaluation of 1H-Benzylindole Derivatives as Novel Human Immunodeficiency Virus Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors ▿  
We have identified 1H-benzylindole analogues as a novel series of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) integrase inhibitors with antiretroviral activities against different strains of HIV type 1 (HIV-1), HIV-2, and simian immunodeficiency virus strain MAC251 [SIV(MAC251)]. Molecular modeling and structure-activity relationship-based optimization resulted in the identification of CHI/1043 as the most potent congener. CHI/1043 inhibited the replication of HIV-1(IIIB) in MT-4 cells at a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 0.60 μM, 70-fold below its cytotoxic concentration. Equal activities against HIV-1(NL4.3), HIV-2(ROD), HIV-2(EHO), and SIV(MAC251) were observed. CHI/1043 was equally active against virus strains resistant against inhibitors of reverse transcriptase or protease. Replication of both X4 and R5 strains in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was sensitive to the inhibitory effect of CHI/1043 (EC50, 0.30 to 0.38 μM). CHI/1043 inhibited integrase strand transfer activity in oligonucleotide-based enzymatic assays at low micromolar concentrations. Time-of-addition experiments confirmed CHI/1043 to interfere with the viral replication cycle at the time of retroviral integration. Quantitative Alu PCR corroborated that the anti-HIV activity is based upon the inhibition of proviral DNA integration. An HIV-1 strain selected for 70 passages in the presence of CHI/1043 was evaluated genotypically and phenotypically. The mutations T66I and Q146K were present in integrase. Cross-resistance to other integrase strand transfer inhibitors, such as L-708,906, the naphthyridine analogue L-870,810, and the clinical drugs GS/9137 and MK-0518, was observed. In adsorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity studies, antiviral activity was strongly reduced by protein binding, and metabolization in human liver microsomes was observed. Transport studies with Caco cells suggest a low oral bioavailability.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00210-08
PMCID: PMC2493095  PMID: 18541726

Results 1-25 (36)