The lens epithelium derived growth factor p75 (LEDGF/p75) is a transcription co-activator that promotes resistance to oxidative stress- and chemotherapy-induced cell death. LEDGF/p75 is also known as the dense fine speckles autoantigen of 70 kD (DFS70), and has been implicated in cancer, HIV-AIDS, autoimmunity, and inflammation. To gain insights into mechanisms by which LEDGF/p75 protects cancer cells against stress, we initiated an analysis of its interactions with other transcription factors and the influence of these interactions on stress gene activation. We report here that both LEDGF/p75 and its short splice variant LEDGF/p52 interact with MeCP2, a methylation-associated transcriptional modulator, in vitro and in various human cancer cells. These interactions were established by several complementary approaches: transcription factor protein arrays, pull down and AlphaScreen® assays, co-immunoprecipitation, and nuclear co-localization by confocal microscopy. MeCP2 was found to interact with the N-terminal region shared by LEDGF/p75 and p52, particularly with the PWWP-CR1 domain. Like LEDGF/p75, MeCP2 bound to and transactivated the Hsp27 promoter (Hsp27pr). LEDGF/p75 modestly enhanced MeCP2-induced Hsp27pr transactivation in U2OS cells, while this effect was more pronounced in PC3 cells. LEDGF/p52 repressed Hsp27pr activity in U2OS cells. Interestingly, siRNA-induced silencing of LEDGF/p75 in U2OS cells dramatically elevated MeCP2-mediated Hsp27pr transactivation, whereas this effect was less pronounced in PC3 cells depleted of LEDGF/p75. These results suggest that the LEDGF/p75-MeCP2 interaction differentially influences Hsp27pr activation depending on the cellular and molecular context. These findings are of significance in understanding the contribution of this interaction to the activation of stress survival genes.
LEDGF/p75; MeCP2; protein-protein interactions; PWWP domain; transcription
Targeting the HIV integrase (HIV IN) is a clinically validated approach for designing novel anti-HIV therapies. We have previously described the discovery of a novel class of integration inhibitors, 2-(quinolin-3-yl)acetic acid derivatives, blocking HIV replication at a low micromolar concentration through binding in the LEDGF/p75 binding pocket of HIV integrase, hence referred to as LEDGINs. Here we report the detailed characterization of their mode of action. The design of novel and more potent analogues with nanomolar activity enabled full virological evaluation and a profound mechanistic study. As allosteric inhibitors, LEDGINs bind to the LEDGF/p75 binding pocket in integrase, thereby blocking the interaction with LEDGF/p75 and interfering indirectly with the catalytic activity of integrase. Detailed mechanism-of-action studies reveal that the allosteric mode of inhibition is likely caused by an effect on HIV-1 integrase oligomerization. The multimodal inhibition by LEDGINs results in a block in HIV integration and in a replication deficiency of progeny virus. The allosteric nature of LEDGINs leads to synergy in combination with the clinically approved active site HIV IN strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) raltegravir, and cross-resistance profiling proves the distinct mode of action of LEDGINs and INSTIs. The allosteric nature of inhibition and compatibility with INSTIs underline an interest in further (clinical) development of LEDGINs.
Lens epithelium–derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75) is a cellular co-factor of HIV-1 integrase (IN) that tethers the viral pre-integration complex to the host cell chromatin and determines the genome wide integration site distribution pattern of HIV-1. Recently, we demonstrated that HIV-1 replication was reduced in LEDGF/p75 knockout (KO) cells. LEDGF/p75 KO significantly altered the integration site preference of HIV-1, but the pattern remained distinct from a computationally generated matched random control set (MRC), suggesting the presence of an alternative tethering factor. We previously identified Hepatoma-derived growth factor related protein 2 (HRP-2) as a factor mediating LEDGF/p75-independent HIV-1 replication. However, the role of HRP-2 in HIV-1 integration site selection was not addressed.
We studied the HIV-1 integration site distribution in the presence and absence of LEDGF/p75 and/or HRP-2, and in LEDGF/p75-depleted cells that overexpress HRP-2. We show that HRP-2 functions as a co-factor of HIV-1 IN in LEDGF/p75-depleted cells. Endogenous HRP-2 only weakly supported HIV-1 replication in LEDGF/p75 depleted cells. However, HRP-2 overexpression rescued HIV-1 replication and restored integration in RefSeq genes to wild-type levels. Additional HRP-2 KD in LEDGF/p75-depleted cells reduces integration frequency in transcription units and shifts the integration distribution towards random.
We demonstrate that HRP-2 overexpression can compensate for the absence of LEDGF/p75 and indicate that the residual bias in integration targeting observed in the absence of LEDGF/p75 can be ascribed to HRP-2. Knockdown of HRP-2 upon LEDGF/p75 depletion results in a more random HIV-1 integration pattern. These data therefore reinforce the understanding that LEDGF/p75 is the dominant HIV-1 IN co-factor.
LEDGF/p75; HRP-2; HIV-1; Targeting; Integration site analysis
HIV-1 integrase (IN) is an important target for contemporary antiretroviral drug design research. Historically, efforts at inactivating the enzyme have focused upon blocking its active site. However, it has become apparent that new classes of allosteric inhibitors will be necessary to advance the antiretroviral field in light of the emergence of viral strains resistant to contemporary clinically used IN drugs. In this study we have characterized the importance of a close network of IN residues, distant from the active site, as important for the obligatory multimerization of the enzyme and viral replication as a whole. Specifically, we have determined that the configuration of six residues within a highly symmetrical region at the IN dimerization interface, composed of a four-tiered aromatic interaction flanked by two salt bridges, significantly contributes to proper HIV-1 replication. Additionally, we have utilized a quantitative luminescence assay to examine IN oligomerization and have determined that there is a very low tolerance for amino acid substitutions along this region. Even conservative residue substitutions negatively impacted IN multimerization, resulting in an inactive viral enzyme and a non-replicative virus. We have shown that there is a very low tolerance for amino acid variation at the symmetrical dimeric interface region characterized in this study, and therefore drugs designed to target the amino acid network detailed here could be expected to yield a significantly reduced number of drug-resistant escape mutations compared to contemporary clinically-evaluated antiretrovirals.
LEDGF/p75, encoded by the PSIP1 gene, interacts with HIV-1 integrase and targets HIV-1 integration into active genes. We investigated the influence of polymorphisms in PSIP1 on HIV-1 acquisition and disease progression in black South Africans.
Integrase binding domain (IBD) of LEDGF/p75 was sequenced in 126 participants. Four haplotype tagging SNPs, SNP1-SNP4 and one exonic SNP, SNP5 were genotyped in 195 HIV-1 seronegative, 52 primary and 403 chronically infected individuals using TaqMan assays. LEDGF/p75 expression was quantified by real-time RT-PCR. The impact of Q472L mutation on the interaction with HIV-1 IN was measured by AlphaScreen.
rs2277191A was more frequent among seropositives (p=0.06, Fisher's exact test), and among individuals followed longitudinally trended towards association with higher likelihood of HIV-1 acquisition (RH=2.21, p=0.08; Cox model) and it was also associated with rapid disease progression (RH=5.98, p=0.04; Cox model). rs12339417C was associated with slower decline of CD4+ T cell (p=0.02) and lower levels of LEDGF/p75 (p<0.01). Seroconverters had higher preinfection levels of LEDGF/p75 (p<0.01) but levels decreased after HIV infection (p=0.02).
Genetic variants of PSIP1 may affect HIV-1 outcomes. Further studies are needed to confirm the effect of genetic variation of PSIP1 on HIV-1 pathogenesis in different cohorts.
To accomplish their life cycle, lentiviruses make use of host proteins, the so-called cellular cofactors. Interactions between host cell and viral proteins during early stages of lentiviral infection provide attractive new antiviral targets. The insertion of lentiviral cDNA in a host cell chromosome is a step of no return in the replication cycle, after which the host cell becomes a permanent carrier of the viral genome and a producer of lentiviral progeny. Integration is carried out by integrase (IN), an enzyme playing also an important role during nuclear import. Plenty of cellular cofactors of HIV-1 IN have been proposed. To date, the lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75) is the best studied cofactor of HIV-1 IN. Moreover, small molecules that block the LEDGF/p75-IN interaction have recently been developed for the treatment of HIV infection. The nuclear import factor transportin-SR2 (TRN-SR2) has been proposed as another interactor of HIV IN-mediating nuclear import of the virus. Using both proteins as examples, we will describe approaches to be taken to identify and validate novel cofactors as new antiviral targets. Finally, we will highlight recent advances in the design and the development of small-molecule inhibitors binding to the LEDGF/p75-binding pocket in IN (LEDGINs).
Since the development and evaluation of novel anti-cancer therapies require molecular insight in the disease state, both FDG-PET and BLI imaging were evaluated in a Burkitt B-cell lymphoma xenograft model treated with cyclophosphamide or temsirolimus. Daudi xenograft mice were treated with either cyclophosphamide or temsirolimus and imaged with BLI and FDG-PET on d0 (before treatment), d2, d4, d7, d9 and d14 following the start of therapy. Besides tumor volume changes, therapy response was assessed with immunohistochemical analysis (apoptosis). BLI revealed a flare following both therapeutics that was significantly higher when compared to control tumors. FDG-PET decreased immediatelly, long before the tumor reduced in size. Late after therapy, BLI signal intensities decreased significantly compared to baseline subsequent to tumor size reduction while apoptosis was immediately induced following both treatment regimen. Unlike FDG, BLI was not able to reflect reduced levels of viable cells and was not able to predict tumor size response and apoptosis response.
Bioluminescence imaging; therapy response; FDG-PET
Lens epithelium-derived growth factor p75 (LEDGF/p75) is a stress survival transcription co-activator and autoantigen that is overexpressed in tumors, including prostate cancer (PCa). This oncoprotein promotes resistance to cell death induced by oxidative stress and chemotherapy by mechanisms that remain unclear. To get insights into these mechanisms we identified candidate target stress genes of LEDGF/p75 using pathway-specific gene expression profiling in PCa cells.
A “Human oxidative stress and antioxidant defense” qPCR array was used to identify genes exhibiting significant expression changes in response to knockdown or overexpression of LEDGF/p75 in PC-3 cells. Validation of array results was performed by additional qPCR and immunoblotting.
Cytoglobin (CYGB), Phosphoinositide-binding protein PIP3-E/IPCEF-1, superoxidase dismutase 3 (SOD3), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and albumin (ALB) exhibited significant transcript down- and up-regulation in response to LEDGF/p75 knockdown and overexpression, respectively. CYGB gene was selected for further validation based on its emerging role as a stress oncoprotein in human malignancies. In light of previous reports indicating that LEDGF/p75 regulates peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6), and that PRDXs exhibit differential expression in PCa, we also examined the relationship between these proteins in PCa cells. Our validation data revealed that changes in LEDGF/p75 transcript and protein expression in PCa cells closely paralleled those of CYGB, but not those of the PRDXs.
Our study identifies CYGB and other genes as stress genes potentially regulated by LEDGF/p75 in PCa cells, and provides a rationale for investigating their role in PCa and in promoting resistance to chemotherapy- and oxidative stress-induced cell death.
LEDGF/p75; prostate cancer; oxidative stress; gene profiling; peroxiredoxin; cytoglobin
Lens epithelium–derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75) is a cellular cofactor of HIV-1 integrase (IN) that interacts with IN through its IN binding domain (IBD) and tethers the viral pre-integration complex to the host cell chromatin. Here we report the generation of a human somatic LEDGF/p75 knockout cell line that allows the study of spreading HIV-1 infection in the absence of LEDGF/p75. By homologous recombination the exons encoding the LEDGF/p75 IBD (exons 11 to 14) were knocked out. In the absence of LEDGF/p75 replication of laboratory HIV-1 strains was severely delayed while clinical HIV-1 isolates were replication-defective. The residual replication was predominantly mediated by the Hepatoma-derived growth factor related protein 2 (HRP-2), the only cellular protein besides LEDGF/p75 that contains an IBD. Importantly, the recently described IN-LEDGF/p75 inhibitors (LEDGINs) remained active even in the absence of LEDGF/p75 by blocking the interaction with the IBD of HRP-2. These results further support the potential of LEDGINs as allosteric integrase inhibitors.
Like other viruses, HIV has a limited genome and needs to exploit the machinery of the host cell to complete its replication cycle. The elucidation of virus-host interactions not only sheds light on pathogenesis but also provides opportunities in a limited number of cases to develop novel antiviral drugs. A prototypical example is the interaction between the cellular protein LEDGF/p75 and HIV-1 integrase (IN). Here we generated a human somatic LEDGF/p75 knockout cell line to demonstrate that HIV-1 replication is highly dependent on its cofactor. We show that the residual replication of laboratory strains is predominantly mediated by a LEDGF/p75-related protein, HRP-2. Interestingly, the recently developed HIV-1 IN inhibitors that target the LEDGF/p75-IN interaction interface, LEDGINs, remain active even in the absence of LEDGF/p75. We demonstrate that LEDGINs efficiently block the interaction between IN and HRP-2. In case HIV-1 would be able to bypass LEDGF/p75-dependent replication using HRP-2 as an alternative tether, LEDGINs would remain fully active.
miR669a and miR669q inhibit postnatal cardiac progenitor differentiation by directly targeting the 3′UTR of MyoD.
Postnatal heart stem and progenitor cells are a potential therapeutic tool for cardiomyopathies, but little is known about the mechanisms that control cardiac differentiation. Recent work has highlighted an important role for microribonucleic acids (miRNAs) as regulators of cardiac and skeletal myogenesis. In this paper, we isolated cardiac progenitors from neonatal β-sarcoglycan (Sgcb)–null mouse hearts affected by dilated cardiomyopathy. Unexpectedly, Sgcb-null cardiac progenitors spontaneously differentiated into skeletal muscle fibers both in vitro and when transplanted into regenerating muscles or infarcted hearts. Differentiation potential correlated with the absence of expression of a novel miRNA, miR669q, and with down-regulation of miR669a. Other miRNAs are known to promote myogenesis, but only miR669a and miR669q act upstream of myogenic regulatory factors to prevent myogenesis by directly targeting the MyoD 3′ untranslated region. This finding reveals an added level of complexity in the mechanism of the fate choice of mesoderm progenitors and suggests that using endogenous cardiac stem cells therapeutically will require specially tailored procedures for certain genetic diseases.
Lock et al. describe a scaled recombinant AAV production method suitable for large animal studies; this method is based upon polyethylenimine transfection and supernatant harvest. According to the authors, the method is high-yielding, versatile for the production of vectors with different serotypes and transgenes and simple enough that it may be performed in most laboratories with a minimum of specialized techniques and equipment.
Adeno-associated viral (AAV) manufacturing at scale continues to hinder the application of AAV technology to gene therapy studies. Although scalable systems based on AAV–adenovirus, AAV–herpesvirus, and AAV–baculovirus hybrids hold promise for clinical applications, they require time-consuming generation of reagents and are not highly suited to intermediate-scale preclinical studies in large animals, in which several combinations of serotype and genome may need to be tested. We observed that during production of many AAV serotypes, large amounts of vector are found in the culture supernatant, a relatively pure source of vector in comparison with cell-derived material. Here we describe a high-yielding, recombinant AAV production process based on polyethylenimine (PEI)-mediated transfection of HEK293 cells and iodixanol gradient centrifugation of concentrated culture supernatant. The entire process can be completed in 1 week and the steps involved are universal for a number of different AAV serotypes. Process conditions have been optimized such that final purified yields are routinely greater than 1 × 1014 genome copies per run, with capsid protein purity exceeding 90%. Initial experiments with vectors produced by the new process demonstrate equivalent or better transduction both in vitro and in vivo when compared with small-scale, CsCl gradient-purified vectors. In addition, the iodixanol gradient purification process described effectively separates infectious particles from empty capsids, a desirable property for reducing toxicity and unwanted immune responses during preclinical studies.
Transportin-SR2 (TRN-SR2, TNPO3, transportin 3) was previously identified as an interaction partner of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase and functions as a nuclear import factor of HIV-1. A possible role of capsid in transportin-SR2-mediated nuclear import was recently suggested by the findings that a chimeric HIV virus, carrying the murine leukemia virus (MLV) capsid and matrix proteins, displayed a transportin-SR2 independent phenotype, and that the HIV-1 N74D capsid mutant proved insensitive to transportin-SR2 knockdown.
Our present analysis of viral specificity reveals that TRN-SR2 is not used to the same extent by all lentiviruses. The DNA flap does not determine the TRN-SR2 requirement of HIV-1. We corroborate the TRN-SR2 independent phenotype of the chimeric HIV virus carrying the MLV capsid and matrix proteins. We reanalyzed the HIV-1 N74D capsid mutant in cells transiently or stably depleted of transportin-SR2 and confirm that the N74D capsid mutant is independent of TRN-SR2 when pseudotyped with the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G). Remarkably, although somewhat less dependent on TRN-SR2 than wild type virus, the N74D capsid mutant carrying the wild type HIV-1 envelope required TRN-SR2 for efficient replication. By pseudotyping with envelopes that mediate pH-independent viral uptake including HIV-1, measles virus and amphotropic MLV envelopes, we demonstrate that HIV-1 N74D capsid mutant viruses retain partial dependency on TRN-SR2. However, this dependency on TRN-SR2 is lost when the HIV N74D capsid mutant is pseudotyped with envelopes mediating pH-dependent endocytosis, such as the VSV-G and Ebola virus envelopes.
Here we discover a link between the viral entry of HIV and its interaction with TRN-SR2. Our data confirm the importance of TRN-SR2 in HIV-1 replication and argue for careful interpretation of experiments performed with VSV-G pseudotyped viruses in studies on early steps of HIV replication including the role of capsid therein.
Nearly all cellular and disease related functions of the transcriptional co-activator lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75) involve tethering of interaction partners to chromatin via its conserved integrase binding domain (IBD), but little is known about the mechanism of in vivo chromatin binding and tethering. In this work we studied LEDGF/p75 in real-time in living HeLa cells combining different quantitative fluorescence techniques: spot fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (sFRAP) and half-nucleus fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (hnFRAP), continuous photobleaching, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and an improved FCS method to study diffusion dependence of chromatin binding, tunable focus FCS. LEDGF/p75 moves about in nuclei of living cells in a chromatin hopping/scanning mode typical for transcription factors. The PWWP domain of LEDGF/p75 is necessary, but not sufficient for in vivo chromatin binding. After interaction with HIV-1 integrase via its IBD, a general protein–protein interaction motif, kinetics of LEDGF/p75 shift to 75-fold larger affinity for chromatin. The PWWP is crucial for locking the complex on chromatin. We propose a scan-and-lock model for LEDGF/p75, unifying paradoxical notions of transcriptional co-activation and lentiviral integration targeting.
Vectors based on the adeno-associated virus are attractive and versatile vehicles for in vivo gene transfer. The virus capsid is the primary interface with the cell that defines many pharmacological, immunological and molecular properties. Determinants of these interactions are often restricted to a limited number of capsid amino acids. In this study, a portfolio of novel AAV vectors was developed following a structure-function analysis of naturally occurring AAV capsid isolates. Singletons, which are particular residues on the AAV capsid that were variable in otherwise conserved amino acid positions were found to impact on vector's ability to be manufactured or to transduce. Data for those residues that mapped to monomer-monomer interface regions on the particle structure suggested a role in particle assembly. The change of singleton residues to the conserved amino acid resulted in the rescue of many isolates that were defective upon initial isolation. This led to the development of an AAV vector portfolio that encompasses 6 different clades and 3 other distinct AAV niches. Evaluation of the in vivo gene transfer efficiency of this portfolio following intravenous and intramuscular administration highlighted a clade-specific tropism. These studies further the design and selection of AAV capsids for gene therapy applications.
gene transfer; gene therapy; adeno-associated viruses; AAV; vector; capsid; muscle; liver
Lens epithelium-derived growth factor/p75 (LEDGF/p75) is a transcriptional coactivator involved in stress response, autoimmune disease, cancer and HIV replication. A fusion between the nuclear pore protein NUP98 and LEDGF/p75 has been found in human acute and chronic myeloid leukemia and association of LEDGF/p75 with mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL)/menin is critical for leukemic transformation. During lentiviral replication, LEDGF/p75 tethers the pre-integration complex to the host chromatin resulting in a bias of integration into active transcription units (TUs). The consensus function of LEDGF/p75 is tethering of cargos to chromatin. In this regard, we determined the LEDGF/p75 chromatin binding profile. To this purpose, we used DamID technology and focused on the highly annotated ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) regions. LEDGF/p75 primarily binds downstream of the transcription start site of active TUs in agreement with the enrichment of HIV-1 integration sites at these locations. We show that LEDGF/p75 binding is not restricted to stress response elements in the genome, and correlation analysis with more than 200 genomic features revealed an association with active chromatin markers, such as H3 and H4 acetylation, H3K4 monomethylation and RNA polymerase II binding. Interestingly, some associations did not correlate with HIV-1 integration indicating that not all LEDGF/p75 complexes on the chromosome are amenable to HIV-1 integration.
In vivo overexpression of proteins is a powerful approach to study their biological function, generate disease models or evaluate gene therapy approaches. In order to investigate an exogenously expressed protein, specific and sensitive detection is essential. Unfortunately, antibodies that allow histological detection of the protein of interest are not always readily available. The use of an epitope tag fused to the protein can circumvent this problem as well as provide the possibility to discriminate endogenous from overexpressed proteins. In order to minimize impact on the bioactivity and biodistribution of the overexpressed protein, preference is given to small tags.
In the present study, we evaluated several small epitope tags together with corresponding anti-tag antibodies for the detection of overexpressed proteins in rat brain, using eGFP as a reference. We generated several lentiviral vectors encoding eGFP with different N-terminally fused small epitope tags (AU1, flag, 3flag, HA, myc and V5). After confirmation of their functionality in cell culture, we injected these lentiviral vectors stereotactically into the striatum of rats and prepared paraformaldehyde fixed floating sections for immunohistochemical analysis. Using multiple antibodies and antibody dilutions per epitope tag, we extensively assessed the efficiency of several anti-tag antibodies for chromogenic immunohistochemical detection of the epitope tagged eGFPs by determining the proportion of immunoreactivity detected by anti-tag antibodies compared to anti-GFP antibody. Using fluorescence immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy, we also quantified the proportion of eGFP-positive cells detected by anti-tag antibodies. Our results show that all the examined small epitope tags could be detected by anti-tag antibodies both in cell extracts as well as in vivo, although to varying degrees depending on the tag and antibody used. Using the presented protocol, V5/anti-V5 and HA/HA11 tag/antibody combinations provided the most sensitive detection in brain tissue. We confirmed the applicability of these optimized in vivo tag detection conditions for a difficult to detect protein, firefly luciferase (fLuc), using lentiviral vector constructs expressing V5 tagged and 3flag tagged fLuc protein.
We show here that several small epitope tags are useful for immunohistochemical detection of exogenous proteins in vivo. Our study also provides a generic methodology which is broadly applicable for the detection of overexpressed transgenes in mammalian brain tissue.
There is increasing evidence that an augmented state of cellular oxidative stress modulates the expression of stress genes implicated in diseases associated with health disparities such as certain cancers and diabetes. Lens epithelium–derived growth factor p75 (LEDGF/p75), also known as DFS70 autoantigen, is emerging as a survival oncoprotein that promotes resistance to oxidative stress–induced cell death and chemotherapy. We previously showed that LEDGF/p75 is targeted by autoantibodies in prostate cancer patients and is overexpressed in prostate tumors, and that its stress survival activity is abrogated during apoptosis. LEDGF/p75 has a COOH-terminally truncated splice variant, p52, whose role in stress survival and apoptosis has not been thoroughly investigated. We observed unbalanced expression of these proteins in a panel of tumor cell lines, with LEDGF/p75 generally expressed at higher levels. During apoptosis, caspase-3 cleaved p52 to generate a p38 fragment that lacked the NH2-terminal PWWP domain and failed to transactivate the Hsp27 promoter in reporter assays. However, p38 retained chromatin association properties and repressed the transactivation potential of LEDGF/p75. Overexpression of p52 or its variants with truncated PWWP domains in several tumor cell lines induced apoptosis, an activity that was linked to the presence of an intron-derived COOH-terminal sequence. These results implicate the PWWP domain of p52 in transcription function but not in chromatin association and proapoptotic activities. Consistent with their unbalanced expression in tumor cells, LEDGF/p75 and p52 seem to play antagonistic roles in the cellular stress response and could serve as targets for novel antitumor therapies.
We have identified 1H-benzylindole analogues as a novel series of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) integrase inhibitors with antiretroviral activities against different strains of HIV type 1 (HIV-1), HIV-2, and simian immunodeficiency virus strain MAC251 [SIV(MAC251)]. Molecular modeling and structure-activity relationship-based optimization resulted in the identification of CHI/1043 as the most potent congener. CHI/1043 inhibited the replication of HIV-1(IIIB) in MT-4 cells at a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 0.60 μM, 70-fold below its cytotoxic concentration. Equal activities against HIV-1(NL4.3), HIV-2(ROD), HIV-2(EHO), and SIV(MAC251) were observed. CHI/1043 was equally active against virus strains resistant against inhibitors of reverse transcriptase or protease. Replication of both X4 and R5 strains in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was sensitive to the inhibitory effect of CHI/1043 (EC50, 0.30 to 0.38 μM). CHI/1043 inhibited integrase strand transfer activity in oligonucleotide-based enzymatic assays at low micromolar concentrations. Time-of-addition experiments confirmed CHI/1043 to interfere with the viral replication cycle at the time of retroviral integration. Quantitative Alu PCR corroborated that the anti-HIV activity is based upon the inhibition of proviral DNA integration. An HIV-1 strain selected for 70 passages in the presence of CHI/1043 was evaluated genotypically and phenotypically. The mutations T66I and Q146K were present in integrase. Cross-resistance to other integrase strand transfer inhibitors, such as L-708,906, the naphthyridine analogue L-870,810, and the clinical drugs GS/9137 and MK-0518, was observed. In adsorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity studies, antiviral activity was strongly reduced by protein binding, and metabolization in human liver microsomes was observed. Transport studies with Caco cells suggest a low oral bioavailability.
To gain further insight into the understanding of the antiviral resistance patterns and mechanisms of the integrase strand transfer inhibitor L-870,810, the prototypical naphthyridine analogue, we passaged the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strain HIV-1(IIIB) in cell culture in the presence of increasing concentrations of L-870,810 (IIIB/L-870,810). The mutations L74M, E92Q, and S230N were successively selected in the integrase. The L74M and E92Q mutations have both been associated in the past with resistance against the diketo acid (DKA) analogues L-708,906 and S-1360 and the clinical trial drugs MK-0518 and GS-9137. After 20, 40, and 60 passages in the presence of L-870,810, IIIB/L-870,810 displayed 22-, 34-, and 110-fold reduced susceptibility to L-870,810, respectively. Phenotypic cross-resistance against the DKA analogue CHI-1043 and MK-0518 was modest but that against GS-9137 was pronounced. Recombination of the mutant integrase genes into the wild-type background reproduced the resistance profile of the resistant IIIB/L-870,810 strains. In addition, resistance against L-870,810 was accompanied by reduced viral replication kinetics and reduced enzymatic activity of integrase. In conclusion, the accumulation of L74M, E92Q, and S230N mutations in the integrase causes resistance to the naphthyridine L-870,810 and cross-resistance to GS-9137. These data may have implications for cross-resistance of different integrase inhibitors in the clinic.
We initially identified lens epithelium-derived growth factor/p75 (LEDGF/p75) as a binding partner of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase. To investigate the role of LEDGF/p75 in HIV replication and its potential as a new antiviral target, we stably overexpressed two different fragments containing the integrase binding domain (IBD) of LEDGF/p75 fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP). HIV-1 replication was severely inhibited by overexpression of the eGFP-IBD fusion proteins, while no inhibition was observed in cell lines overexpressing the interaction-deficient D366A mutant. Quantitative PCR pinpointed the block to the integration step, whereas nuclear import was not affected. Competition of the IBD fusion proteins with endogenous LEDGF/p75 for binding to integrase led to a potent defect in HIV-1 replication in both HeLaP4- and MT-4-derived cell lines. A previously described diketo acid-resistant HIV-1 strain remained fully susceptible to inhibition, suggesting that this strategy will also work in patients who harbor strains resistant to the current experimental integrase inhibitors. These data support LEDGF/p75 as an important cofactor for HIV replication and provide proof of concept for the LEDGF/p75-integrase interaction as a novel target for treating HIV-1 infection.
Retroviruses by definition insert their viral genome into the host cell chromosome. Although the key player of retroviral integration is viral integrase, a role for cellular cofactors has been proposed. Lentiviral integrases use the cellular protein LEDGF/p75 to tether the preintegration complex to the chromosome, although the existence of alternative host proteins substituting for the function of LEDGF/p75 in integration has been proposed. Truncation mutants of LEDGF/p75 lacking the chromosome attachment site strongly inhibit HIV replication by competition for the interaction with integrase. In an attempt to select HIV strains that can overcome the inhibition, we now have used T-cell lines that stably express a C-terminal fragment of LEDGF/p75. Despite resistance development, the affinity of integrase for LEDGF/p75 is reduced and replication kinetics in human primary T cells is impaired. Detection of the integrase mutations A128T and E170G at key positions in the LEDGF/p75–integrase interface provides in vivo evidence for previously reported crystallographic data. Moreover, the complementary inhibition by LEDGF/p75 knockdown and mutagenesis at the integrase–LEDGF/p75 interface points to the incapability of HIV to circumvent LEDGF/p75 function during proviral integration. Altogether, the data provide a striking example of the power of viral molecular evolution. The results underline the importance of the LEDGF/p75 HIV-1 interplay as target for innovative antiviral therapy. Moreover, the role of LEDGF/p75 in targeting integration will stimulate research on strategies to direct gene therapy vectors into safe landing sites.
Viruses have a limited genome and therefore exploit the cellular machinery of infected host cells to complete the replication cycle. Today there is a growing interest to unravel these virus–host interactions. Lentiviral integrases use the cellular protein LEDGF/p75 to tether the preintegration complex to the chromosome, although the existence of alternative host proteins substituting for the function of LEDGF/p75 has been proposed. Here, we used virus evolution to investigate the role and importance of LEDGF/p75 in HIV integration and replication. We selected a virus that is resistant against overexpression of the integrase binding domain of LEDGF/p75. This virus displays a reduced affinity for its own cofactor but still depends on the cofactor for replication. We demonstrate the unique and essential role of LEDGF/p75 in HIV replication and support the LEDGF/p75 HIV-1 interplay as target for innovative antiviral therapy. Moreover, elucidation of the role of LEDGF/p75 in targeting integration will stimulate research on strategies to direct gene therapy vectors into safe landing sites.
Lentiviral vectors are efficient vehicles for stable gene transfer in dividing and non-dividing cells. Several improvements in vector design to increase biosafety and transgene expression, have led to the approval of these vectors for use in clinical studies. Methods are required to analyze the quality of lentiviral vector production, the efficiency of gene transfer and the extent of therapeutic gene expression.
We compared lentiviral vector titration methods that measure pg p24/ml, RNA equivalents/ml, transducing units (TU/ml) or mRNA equivalents. The amount of genomic RNA in vector particles proves to be reliable to assess the production quality of vectors encoding non-fluorescent proteins. However, the RNA and p24 titers of concentrated vectors are rather poor in predicting transduction efficiency, due to the high variability of vector production based on transient transfection. Moreover, we demonstrate that transgenic mRNA levels correlate well with TU and can be used for functional titration of non-fluorescent transgenes.
The different titration methods have specific advantages and disadvantages. Depending on the experimental set-up one titration method should be preferred over the others.
After identifying the interaction between the transcriptional coactivator lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75) and the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase (IN), we have now investigated the role of LEDGF/p75 during HIV replication. Transient small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of LEDGF/p75 in HeLaP4 cells resulted in a three- to fivefold inhibition of HIV-1 (strain NL4.3) replication. Quantitative PCR was used to pinpoint the replication block to the integration step. Next, polyclonal and monoclonal HeLaP4-derived cell lines were selected with a stable knockdown of LEDGF/p75 mediated by a lentiviral vector (lentivector) encoding a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting this protein. Cell lines stably transduced with a lentivector encoding an unrelated hairpin or a double-mismatch hairpin served as controls. Again, a two- to fourfold reduction of HIV-1 replication was observed. The extent of LEDGF/p75 knockdown closely correlated with the reduction of HIV-1 replication. After the back-complementation of LEDGF/p75 in the poly- and monoclonal knockdown cell lines using an shRNA-resistant expression plasmid, viral replication was restored to nearly wild-type levels. The Q168A mutation in integrase has been shown to interfere with the interaction with LEDGF/p75 without reducing the enzymatic activity. Transduction by HIV-1-derived lentivectors carrying the Q168A IN mutant was severely hampered, pointing again to a requirement for LEDGF/p75. Altogether, our data validate LEDGF/p75 as an important cellular cofactor for HIV integration and as a potential target for antiviral drug development.
The diketo acid L-708,906 has been reported to be a selective inhibitor of the strand transfer step of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integration process (D. Hazuda, P. Felock, M. Witmer, A. Wolfe, K. Stillmock, J. A. Grobler, A. Espeseth, L. Gabryelski, W. Schleif, C. Blau, and M. D. Miller, Science 287:646-650, 2000). We have now studied the development of antiviral resistance to L-708,906 by growing HIV-1 strains in the presence of increasing concentrations of the compound. The mutations T66I, L74M, and S230R emerged successively in the integrase gene. The virus with three mutations (T66I L74M S230R) was 10-fold less susceptible to L-708,906, while displaying the sensitivity of the wild-type virus to inhibitors of the RT or PRO or viral entry process. Chimeric HIV-1 strains containing the mutant integrase genes displayed the same resistance profile as the in vitro-selected strains, corroborating the impact of the reported mutations on the resistance phenotype. Phenotypic cross-resistance to S-1360, a diketo analogue in clinical trials, was observed for all strains. Interestingly, the diketo acid-resistant strain remained fully sensitive to V-165, a novel integrase inhibitor (C. Pannecouque, W. Pluymers, B. Van Maele, V. Tetz, P. Cherepanov, E. De Clercq, M. Witvrouw, and Z. Debyser, Curr. Biol. 12:1169-1177, 2002). Antiviral resistance was also studied at the level of recombinant integrase. Single mutations did not appear to impair specific enzymatic activity. However, 3′ processing and strand transfer activities of the recombinant integrases with two (T66I L74M) and three (T66I L74M S230R) mutations were notably lower than those of the wild-type integrase. Although the virus with three mutations was resistant to inhibition by diketo acids, the sensitivity of the corresponding enzyme to L-708,906 or S-1360 was reduced only two- to threefold. As to the replication kinetics of the selected strains, the replication fitness for all strains was lower than that of the wild-type HIV-1 strain.
Lentiviral vectors derived from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) show great promise as gene carriers for future gene therapy. Insertion of a fragment containing the central polypurine tract (cPPT) in HIV-1 vector constructs is known to enhance transduction efficiency drastically, reportedly by facilitating the nuclear import of HIV-1 cDNA through a central DNA flap. We have studied the impact of the cPPT on the kinetics of HIV-1 vector transduction by real-time PCR. The kinetics of total HIV-1 DNA, two-long-terminal-repeat (2-LTR) circles, and, by an Alu-PCR, integrated proviral DNA were monitored. About 6 to 12 h after transduction, the total HIV-1 DNA reached a maximum level, followed by a steep decrease. The 2-LTR circles peaked after 24 to 48 h and were diluted upon cell division. Integration of HIV-1 DNA was first detected at 12 h postinfection. When HIV-1 vectors that contained the cPPT were used, DNA synthesis was similar but a threefold higher amount of 2-LTR circles was detected, confirming the impact on nuclear import. Moreover, a 10-fold increase in the amount of integrated DNA was observed in the presence of the cPPT. Only in the absence of the cPPT was a saturation in 2-LTR circle formation seen at a high multiplicity of infection, suggesting a role for the cPPT in overcoming a barrier to the nuclear import of HIV-1 DNA. A major effect of the central DNA flap on the juxtaposition of both LTRs is unlikely, since transduction with HIV-1 vectors containing ectopic cPPT fragments resulted in increased amounts of 2-LTR circles as well as integrated DNA. Inhibitors of transduction by cPPT-containing HIV vectors were also studied by real-time PCR. The reverse transcriptase inhibitor azidothymidine (AZT) and the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor α-APA clearly inhibited viral DNA synthesis, whereas integrase inhibitors such as the diketo acid L-708,906 and the pyranodipyrimidine V-165 specifically inhibited integration.