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American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (1)
PLoS ONE (1)
Chu, Leung-Wing (2)
Chan, Ying-Shing (1)
Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung (1)
Cheung, Raymond T. F. (1)
Gao, Junling (1)
Hayasaka, Satoru (1)
Lee, Tatia M. C. (1)
Mak, Henry K. F. (1)
Mak, Henry Ka-Fung (1)
Zhang, Linda (1)
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Current neuroimaging techniques in Alzheimer's disease and applications in animal models
Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung
Mak, Henry Ka-Fung
American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
With Alzheimer’s disease (AD) quickly becoming the most costly disease to society, and with no disease-modifying treatment currently, prevention and early detection have become key points in AD research. Important features within this research focus on understanding disease pathology, as well as finding biomarkers that can act as early indicators and trackers of disease progression or potential treatment. With the advances in neuroimaging technology and the development of new imaging techniques, the search for cheap, noninvasive, sensitive biomarkers becomes more accessible. Modern neuroimaging techniques are able to cover most aspects of disease pathology, including visualization of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, cortical atrophy, neuronal loss, vascular damage, and changes in brain biochemistry. These methods can provide complementary information, resulting in an overall picture of AD. Additionally, applying neuroimaging to animal models of AD could bring about greater understanding in disease etiology and experimental treatments whilst remaining in vivo. In this review, we present the current neuroimaging techniques used in AD research in both their human and animal applications, and discuss how this fits in to the overall goal of understanding AD.
Alzheimer’s disease; animal models; ASL; biomarkers; MRI; MRS; neuroimaging; PET
The Relevance of Short-Range Fibers to Cognitive Efficiency and Brain Activation in Aging and Dementia
Cheung, Raymond T. F.
Mak, Henry K. F.
Lee, Tatia M. C.
The integrity of structural connectivity in a functional brain network supports the efficiency of neural processing within relevant brain regions. This study aimed to quantitatively investigate the short- and long-range fibers, and their differential roles in the lower cognitive efficiency in aging and dementia. Three groups of healthy young, healthy older adults and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) participated in this combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study on prospective memory (PM). Short- and long-range fiber tracts within the PM task engaged brain networks were generated. The correlation between the fMRI signal change, PM performance and the DTI characters were calculated. FMRI results showed that the PM-specific frontal activations in three groups were distributed hierarchically along the rostrocaudal axis in the frontal lobe. In an overall PM condition generally activated brain network among the three groups, tractography was used to generate the short-range fibers, and they were found impaired in both healthy older adults and AD patients. However, the long-range fiber tracts were only impaired in AD. Additionally, the mean diffusivity (MD) of short-range but not long-range fibers was positively correlated with fMRI signal change and negatively correlated with the efficiency of PM performance. This study suggests that the disintegrity of short-range fibers may contribute more to the lower cognitive efficiency and higher compensatory brain activation in healthy older adults and more in AD patients.
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