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author:("Zheng, shijie")
1.  Urgent-Start Peritoneal Dialysis: A Chance for a New Beginning 
Peritoneal dialysis (PD) remains greatly underutilized in the United States despite the widespread preference of home modalities among nephrologists and patients. A hemodialysis-centric model of end-stage renal disease care has perpetuated for decades due to a complex set of factors, including late end-stage renal disease referrals and patients who present to the hospital requiring urgent renal replacement therapy. In such situations, PD rarely is a consideration and patients are dialyzed through a central venous catheter, a practice associated with high infection and mortality rates. Recently, the term urgent-start PD has gained momentum across the nephrology community and has begun to change this status quo. It allows for expedited placement of a PD catheter and initiation of PD therapy within days. Several published case reports, abstracts, and poster presentations at national meetings have documented the initial success of urgent-start PD programs. From a wide experiential base, we discuss the multifaceted issues related to urgent-start PD implementation, methods to overcome barriers to therapy, and the potential impact of this technique to change the existing dialysis paradigm.
doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2013.09.018
PMCID: PMC4124939  PMID: 24246221
Peritoneal dialysis; urgent peritoneal dialysis; urgent-start peritoneal dialysis; late end-stage renal disease (ESRD) referral; acute-start peritoneal dialysis; acute peritoneal dialysis
2.  Effects of Sodium Thiosulfate on Vascular Calcification in End-Stage Renal Disease: A Pilot Study of Feasibility, Safety and Efficacy 
American Journal of Nephrology  2011;33(2):131-138.
Background and Objectives
Vascular calcification is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis. The objective of this pilot study was to determine the feasibility, safety and efficacy of sodium thiosulfate (STS) in the progression of vascular calcification in hemodialysis patients.
Methods
Chronic hemodialysis patients underwent a battery of cardiovascular tests. Those with coronary artery calcium (Agatston scores >50) received intravenous STS after each dialysis for 5 months (n = 22) and the tests were repeated. Changes in MDCT-determined calcification were assessed as the mean annualized rate of change in 3 vascular beds (coronary, thoracic and carotid arteries) and in L1-L2 vertebral bone density.
Results
Although individual analyses showed coronary artery calcification progression in 14/22 subjects, there was no progression in the mean annualized rate of change of vascular calcification in the entire group. The L1-L2 vertebral bone density showed no changes. There were no correlations between rates of progression of vascular calcification and phosphorus, fetuin or C-reactive protein levels. Changes in coronary artery calcification scores correlated with those of the thoracic aorta.
Conclusion
STS treatment is feasible, appears safe and may decrease the rate of progression of vascular calcification in hemodialysis patients. A large, randomized, controlled trial is warranted.
doi:10.1159/000323550
PMCID: PMC3064860  PMID: 21242673
Hemodialysis; Sodium thiosulfate; Vascular calcification
3.  IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA AND IRON LOSSES AFTER RENAL TRANSPLANTATION 
Background
Iron deficiency contributes to anemia after transplantation. The magnitude of iron loss from blood loss in the peri-transplantation period has not been quantified.
Methods
We prospectively estimated phlebotomy and surgical losses over the first 12-weeks following transplantation in 39 consecutive renal transplant recipients on hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD), or chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Results
At transplant, ferritin levels were <200 ng/mL in 51% of patients, and iron saturation was ≤ 20% in 44%. CKD patients more commonly had ferritin levels <200 ng/mL than either HD or PD patients (100% vs. 21% vs. 67%, P < 0.0002, respectively). Blood loss was similar among HD, PD and CKD patients (833 ± 194 vs. 861 ± 324 vs. 755 ± 79 ml respectively, P= NS), and not different between deceased and living donor transplant recipients (881 ± 291 vs. 788 ± 162 ml, P= 0.33). Based on a baseline hemoglobin (Hgb) of 11.8 g/dL we estimated an additional 330 mg of additional iron was needed to normalize hemoglobin to 13 g/dL, and 605 mg to increase hemoglobin to 14 g/dL.
Conclusion
Blood and iron losses over the first 12 weeks post-transplant are substantial and may warrant early administration of intravenous iron.
doi:10.1111/j.1432-2277.2008.00814.x
PMCID: PMC2754723  PMID: 19076330
Anemia; Iron deficiency; Renal transplantation
4.  Relation of Serum Fetuin-A Levels to Coronary Artery Calcium in African-American Patients on Chronic Hemodialysis 
Vascular calcium deposition in end-stage renal disease occurs commonly, however its relationship to cardiovascular risk factors and fetuin-A levels in African-Americans is not known. Compliant African-American HD patients (n=17) agreed to undergo a 64-slice multidetector computed tomography for the assessment of coronary artery calcium score (CACS). The relationship between traditional cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., age, gender, dialysis vintage, history of diabetes, means of the previous 3 years of the weekly pre-dialysis blood pressure and hemoglobin, means of monthly values of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, uric acid and albumin, and means of quarterly measures of parathyroid hormone and lipids), and fetuin-A levels and CACS was explored by univariate analyses. Serum phosphorus levels over the previous 3 years were well controlled. The CACS range was 0-3,877 Agatston units (mean: 996; median :196). Among the tested variables, only fetuin-A was significantly and inversely associated with CACS (standardized β = -0.64 [95% confidence limits [CL]: -18.09, -3.62], p=0.006). There was no association between age and fetuin-A level (standardized β = -0.02 [95%CL: -0.10, 0.23]). In conclusion, African-American patients on long-term HD and with good phosphorus control exhibit a strong inverse correlation between fetuin-A levels and CACS which is independent of age.
doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2008.08.032
PMCID: PMC2631229  PMID: 19101228
Fetuin-A; Hemodialysis; Coronary artery calcium score; African-American

Results 1-4 (4)