To comparatively analyze the human microRNA (miRNA) profiles between spontaneous decidualized menstrual endometrium and early pregnancy decidua by an in-depth sequencing of miRNAs. The specific miRNAs expressed at conception might be involved in pregnancy establishment and expression of let-7f-5p and let-7g-5p was experimentally up-regulated or inhibited to assess the effect on the expression of IGF2BP-1 and IGF2R in vitro, respectively. Samples of endometria and deciduas were obtained from 25 women who suffered from tubal or male factor subfertility and from 35 early pregnant women who underwent pregnancy termination at 6–8 weeks gestation were irrespectively collected and comparatively analyzed by miRNA sequencing and differential expression of known and novel miRNAs was analyzed using bioinformatics. The 2042 miRNA expression was analyzed in the study and the differential expression of six miRNAs was validated by qRT-PCR. The expression of four miRNAs in decidua samples was down-regulated (miR-34c, miR-92a, miR-181a-5p, and miR-191), whereas the expression of miR-10a-5p and let-7f-5p was significantly up-regulated. The expression of IGF2BP-1 and IGF2R declined and increased with overexpression and inhibition of let-7f-5p and let-7g-5p, respectively. Changes in the expression of particular miRNAs might play a role in the physiology of decidualization following successful embryo implantation, ultimately resulting in continuous decidualization.
Mucinous cystic lesions of the retroperitoneum can be either neoplastic or non-neoplastic. It is very important to make a correct diagnosis, or at least, an accurate classification, to proceed with an optimal treatment strategy. In spite of advantage of ultrasound and X-ray image examinations, it is still a challenge to make differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal mucinous cyst from gangliocytoma because both tumors have similar density under the image assessment. In this article, we reported an asymptomatic 8-year-old boy with multiple bronchogenic cysts in both lung and adrenal area on the left side, the latter was considered to be a gangliocytoma preoperatively by ultrasound and computed tomography, but confirmed as bronchogenic cyst by histopathology post laparoscopic resection. The differential diagnosis, imaging features and treatment of bronchogenic cyst are discussed and the relative literatures are reviewed.
Retroperitoneal mass; mucinous cyst; bronchogenic cyst; child
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea are notorious plant pathogenic fungi with an extensive host range including Brassica crops. Glucosinolates (GSLs) are an important group of secondary metabolites characteristic of the Brassicales order, whose degradation products are proving to be increasingly important in plant protection. Enhancing the defense effect of GSL and their associated degradation products is an attractive strategy to strengthen the resistance of plants by transgenic approaches. We generated the lines of Brassica napus with three biosynthesis genes involved in GSL metabolic pathway (BnMAM1, BnCYP83A1 and BnUGT74B1), respectively. We then measured the foliar GSLs of each transgenic lines and inoculated them with S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea. Compared with the wild type control, over-expressing BnUGT74B1 in B. napus increased the aliphatic and indolic GSL levels by 1.7 and 1.5 folds in leaves respectively; while over-expressing BnMAM1 or BnCYP83A1 resulted in an approximate 1.5-fold higher only in the aliphatic GSL level in leaves. The results of plant inoculation demonstrated that BnUGT74B1-overexpressing lines showed less severe disease symptoms and tissue damage compared with the wild type control, but BnMAM1 or BnCYP83A1-overexpressing lines showed no significant difference in comparison to the controls. These results suggest that the resistance to S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea in B. napus could be enhanced through tailoring the GSL profiles by transgenic approaches or molecular breeding, which provides useful information to assist plant breeders to design improved breeding strategies.
Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is associated with adverse neonatal survival and is estimated to impact between 0.4 and 5% of pregnancies worldwide. Here we show that maternal cholestasis (due to Abcb11 deficiency) produces neonatal death among all offspring within 24 h of birth due to atelectasis-producing pulmonary hypoxia, which recapitulates the neonatal respiratory distress of human ICP. Neonates of Abcb11-deficient mothers have elevated pulmonary bile acids and altered pulmonary surfactant structure. Maternal absence of Nr1i2 superimposed on Abcb11 deficiency strongly reduces maternal serum bile acid concentrations and increases neonatal survival. We identify pulmonary bile acids as a key factor in the disruption of the structure of pulmonary surfactant in neonates of ICP. These findings have important implications for neonatal respiratory failure, especially when maternal bile acids are elevated during pregnancy, and highlight potential pathways and targets amenable to therapeutic intervention to ameliorate this condition.
The mechanisms underlying perinatal mortality due to intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy are not fully understood. Here, the authors show that absence of the nuclear receptor and bile acid regulator Nrli2 and the biliary transporter Abcb11 strongly reduces maternal serum bile acid levels, improving neonatal survival.
Consumer products containing engineered nanoparticles (ENP) are already entering the marketplace. This leads, inter alia, to questions about the potential for release of ENP into the environment from commercial products. We have inventoried the prevalence of ENP-containing consumer products in the Singapore market by carrying out onsite assessments of products sold in all major chains of retail and cosmetic stores. We have assessed their usage patterns and estimated release factors and emission quantities to obtain a better understanding of the quantities of ENP that are released into which compartments of the aquatic environment in Singapore. Products investigated were assessed for their likelihood to contain ENP based on the declaration of ENP by producers, feature descriptions, and the information on particle size from the literature. Among the 1,432 products investigated, 138 were “confirmed” and 293 were “likely” to contain ENP. Product categories included sunscreens, cosmetics, health and fitness, automotive, food, home and garden, clothing and footwear, and eyeglass/lens coatings. Among the 27 different types of nanomaterials identified, SiO2 was predominant, followed by TiO2 and ZnO, Carbon Black, Ag, and Au. The amounts of ENP released into the aquatic system, which was estimated on the basis of typical product use, ENP concentration in the product, daily use quantity, release factor, and market share, were in the range of several hundred tons per year. As these quantities are likely to increase, it will be important to further study the fate of ENP that reach the aquatic environment in Singapore.
nano-inventory; engineered nanoparticles (ENP); emission quantity; aquatic environment
Dental follicle cells (DFCs) are the precursor cells of periodontium. Under certain differentiation conditions, DFCs can be induced to differentiate into chondrogenic, osteogenic and adipogenic cells. However, DFCs has limited lifespan in vitro, so it’s difficult to harvest enough cells for basic research and translational application. pMPH86 is a piggyBac transposon-mediated vector which contains SV40 T-Ag cassette that can be removed by flippase recognition target (FRT) recombinase. Here we demonstrated the pMPH86 can effectively amplify human DFCs through reversible immortalization. The immortalized DFCs (iDFCs) exhibit higher proliferate activity, which can be reversed to its original level before immortalization when deimmortalized by FLP recombinase. The iDFCs and deimmortalized DFCs (dDFCs) express most DFC markers and maintain multiple differentiation potential in vitro as they can be induced by BMP9 to differentiate into chondrogenic, osteogenic and adipogenic cells evidenced by gene expression and protein marker. We also proved telomerase activity of iDFCs are significantly increased and maintained at a high level, while the telomerase activity of primary DFCs was relatively low and decreased with every passage. After SV40 T-Ag was removed to deimmortalize the cells, telomerase activity was reduced to its original level before immortalization and decreased with passages just the same as primary DFCs. These results suggest that piggyBac immortalization system could be a potential strategy to amplify primary cells, which is critical for regenerative research and further clinical application.
A long-term high-energy diet affects human health and leads to obesity and metabolic syndrome in addition to cardiac steatosis and hypertrophy. Ectopic fat accumulation in the heart has been demonstrated to be a risk factor for heart disorders, but the molecular mechanism of heart disease remains largely unknown. Bama miniature pigs were fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet (HFHSD) for 23 months. These pigs developed symptoms of metabolic syndrome and showed cardiac steatosis and hypertrophy with a greatly increased body weight (2.73-fold, P<0.01), insulin level (4.60-fold, P<0.01), heart weight (1.82-fold, P<0.05) and heart volume (1.60-fold, P<0.05) compared with the control pigs. To understand the molecular mechanisms of cardiac steatosis and hypertrophy, nine pig heart cRNA samples were hybridized to porcine GeneChips. Microarray analyses revealed that 1,022 genes were significantly differentially expressed (P<0.05, ≥1.5-fold change), including 591 up-regulated and 431 down-regulated genes in the HFHSD group relative to the control group. KEGG analysis indicated that the observed heart disorder involved the signal transduction-related MAPK, cytokine, and PPAR signaling pathways, energy metabolism-related fatty acid and oxidative phosphorylation signaling pathways, heart function signaling-related focal adhesion, axon guidance, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and actin cytoskeleton signaling pathways, inflammation and apoptosis pathways, and others. Quantitative RT-PCR assays identified several important differentially expressed heart-related genes, including STAT3, ACSL4, ATF4, FADD, PPP3CA, CD74, SLA-8, VCL, ACTN2 and FGFR1, which may be targets of further research. This study shows that a long-term, high-energy diet induces obesity, cardiac steatosis, and hypertrophy and provides insights into the molecular mechanisms of hypertrophy and fatty heart to facilitate further research.
Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) with chain lengths of 20 carbons and longer provide feedstocks for various applications; therefore, improvement of VLCFA contents in seeds has become an important goal for oilseed enhancement. VLCFA biosynthesis is controlled by a multi-enzyme protein complex referred to as fatty acid elongase, which is composed of β-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS), β-ketoacyl-CoA reductase (KCR), β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase (HCD) and enoyl reductase (ECR). KCS has been identified as the rate-limiting enzyme, but little is known about the involvement of other three enzymes in VLCFA production. Here, the combinatorial effects of fatty acid elongase enzymes on VLCFA production were assessed by evaluating the changes in nervonic acid content. A KCS gene from Lunaria annua (LaKCS) and the other three elongase genes from Arabidopsis thaliana were used for the assessment. Five seed-specific expressing constructs, including LaKCS alone, LaKCS with AtKCR, LaKCS with AtHCD, LaKCS with AtECR, and LaKCS with AtKCR and AtHCD, were transformed into Camelina sativa. The nervonic acid content in seed oil increased from null in wild type camelina to 6-12% in LaKCS-expressing lines. However, compared with that from the LaKCS-expressing lines, nervonic acid content in mature seeds from the co-expressing lines with one or two extra elongase genes did not show further increases. Nervonic acid content from LaKCS, AtKCR and AtHCD co-expressing line was significantly higher than that in LaKCS-expressing line during early seed development stage, while the ultimate nervonic acid content was not significantly altered. The results from this study thus provide useful information for future engineering of oilseed crops for higher VLCFA production.
Arsenic trioxide exhibits therapeutic effects on certain blood malignancies, at least partly by modulating cell differentiation. Previous in vitro studies in human hematopoietic progenitor cells have suggested that arsenic may inhibit erythroid differentiation. However, these effects were all observed in the presence of arsenic compounds, while the concomitant cytostatic and cytotoxic actions of arsenic might mask a prodifferentiating activity. To eliminate the potential impacts of the cytostatic and cytotoxic actions of arsenic, we adopted a novel protocol by pretreating human bone marrow CD34+ cells with a low, noncytotoxic concentration of arsenic trioxide, followed by assaying the colony forming activities in the absence of the arsenic compound. Bone marrow specimens were obtained from chronic myeloid leukemia patients who achieved complete cytogenetic remission. CD34+ cells were isolated by magnetic-activated cell sorting. We discovered that arsenic trioxide enhanced the erythroid colony forming activity, which was accompanied by a decrease in the granulomonocytic differentiation function. Moreover, in erythroleukemic K562 cells, we showed that arsenic trioxide inhibited erythrocyte maturation, suggesting that arsenic might have biphasic effects on erythropoiesis. In conclusion, our data provided the first evidence showing that arsenic trioxide could prime human hematopoietic progenitor cells for enhanced erythroid differentiation.
The Silky Fowl (SF) is known for its special phenotypes and atypical distribution of melanocytes among internal organs. Although the genes associated with melanocyte migration have been investigated substantially, there is little information on the postnatal distribution of melanocytes in inner organs and the effect of hyperpigmentation on the development of SF. Here, we analyzed melanocyte distribution in 26 tissues or organs on postnatal day 1 and weeks 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, and 23. Except for the liver, pancreas, pituitary gland, and adrenal gland, melanocytes were distributed throughout the body, primarily around blood vessels. Interaction between melanocytes and the tissue cells was observed, and melanin was transported by filopodia delivery through engulfed and internalized membrane-encapsulated melanosomes. SFs less than 10 weeks old have lower indices of spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius than White Leghorns (WLs). The expression levels of interferon-γ and interlukin-4 genes in the spleen, and serum antibody levels against H5N1 and infectious bursal disease virus were lower in SF than in WL. We also found immune organ developmental difference between Black-boned and non-Black- boned chickens from SFs and WLs hybrid F2 population. However, degeneration of the thymus and bursa of Fabricius occurred later in SF than in WL after sexual maturity. Analysis of apoptotic cells and apoptosis-associated Bax and Bcl-2 proteins indicated that apoptosis is involved in degeneration of the thymus and bursa of Fabricius. Therefore, these results suggest that hyperpigmentation in SF may have a close relationship with immune development in SF, which can provide an important animal model to investigate the roles of melanocyte.
The meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the impact of gamma-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) on maintenance warfarin dose. 8 studies were included, focusing on the impact of GGCX single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on mean daily warfarin dose (MDWD). GGCX (rs699664; AA versus GG, GA versus GG, A versus GG) and GGCX (rs12714145; GA versus GG, AA versus GG, A versus GG) showed no significant differences on mean daily warfarin dose (MDWD). This meta-analysis was the first to report the relationship between GGCX SNPs and MDWD in Chinese populations. No evidence could be found in the relationship between SNPs of GGCX (rs699664 and rs12714145) and maintenance warfarin dose.
CI, confidence interval; SD, standard deviation; SNPs, single nucleotide polymorphisms; GGCX, gamma-glutamyl carboxylase; CYP2C9, cytochrome P450 complex subunit 2C9; VKORC1, vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1; CYP4F2, cytochrome P450 complex subunit 4F2; EPHX1, epoxide hydro-lase 1 INR, International Normalized Ratio; MDWD, mean daily warfarin dose; WMD, weight mean difference; Warfarin; GGCX; Gene polymorphisms; Systematic review; Meta-analysis; Chinese
Congenital heart diseases (CHD) are among the most common birth defects in China. Environmental causes and folate metabolism changes may alter susceptibility to CHD. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relevant risk-factors of children with CHD and their mothers.
138 children with CHD and 207 normal children for controls were recruited. Their mothers were also enlisted in this study and interviewed following a questionnaire about their pregnant history and early pregnancy situation. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MS) and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) of mothers and children were genotyped.
There were significant differences in the gender of children, occupation of mothers, family history with CHD, history of abortion, history of adverse pregnancy, early pregnancy health, fetus during pregnancy, pesticide exposure and drug exposure in CHD group and control group ( P < 0.05). Logistic regression analyses showed that after adjustment for above factors, MTHFR rs1801131 were significantly associated with their offspring CHD risk in mothers. Compared with the mothers whose MTHFR were rs1801131 AA and AC genotypes, the mothers who got a mutation of MTHFR rs1801131 CC genotypes had a 267% increase in risk of given birth of a CHD children (OR=3.67,95%CI=1.12-12.05). Meanwhile, MTHFR rs1801131 were significantly associated with CHD susceptibility in children (OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.00-2.44 in additive model).
Besides mothers’ social and fertility characteristics, our results suggested that the genetic variants in folate metabolism pathway might be one of the most related risk-factors of CHD. MTHFR rs1801131 were identified as loci in Chinese population that were involved in CHD.
The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of high-dose and early gestational exposure to zearalenone (ZEN) in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, to correlate the maternal uterus with the fetus, and to explore the development and malformation of fetuses. Pregnant female SD rats were fed diets containing 0.3, 48.5, 97.6, or 146.0 mg/kg ZEN on gestational days (GDs) 0 through 7. All the females survived until GD 20, at which point a cesarean section was performed to harvest the organs, blood, and fetuses. The results indicated that exposure to ZEN during early gestation can impact the maternal reproductive capability. Delayed fetal development was directly linked to maternal toxicity. The toxic effects of ZEN caused early deaths more frequently than late deaths, and the deleterious effects lasted through the end of pregnancy.
zearalenone; uterine capacity; developmental toxicity; teratogenesis; rat
Engineered bladder tissues, created with autologous bladder cells seeded on biodegradable scaffolds, are being developed for use in patients who need cystoplasty. However, in individuals with organ damage from congenital disorders, infection, irradiation, or cancer, abnormal cells obtained by biopsy from the compromised tissue could potentially contaminate the engineered tissue. Thus, an alternative cell source for construction of the neo-organ would be useful. Although other types of stem cells have been investigated, autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are most suitable to use in bladder regeneration. These cells are often used as a cell source for bladder repair in three ways - secreting paracrine factors, recruiting resident cells, and trans-differentiation, inducing MSCs to differentiate into bladder smooth muscle cells and urothelial cells. Adult stem cell populations have been demonstrated in bone marrow, fat, muscle, hair follicles, and amniotic fluid. These cells remain an area of intense study, as their potential for therapy may be applicable to bladder disorders. Recently, we have found stem cells in the urine and the cells are highly expandable, and have self-renewal capacity and paracrine properties. As a novel cell source, urine-derived stem cells (USCs) provide advantages for cell therapy and tissue engineering applications in bladder tissue repair because they originate from the urinary tract system. Importantly, USCs can be obtained via a noninvasive, simple, and low-cost approach and induced with high efficiency to differentiate into bladder cells.
Cyclophilin J (CYPJ) is a new member of the peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans-isomerase (PPIase) identified with upregulated expression in human glioma. However, the biological function of CYPJ remained unclear. We aimed to study the role of CYPJ in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) carcinogenesis and its therapeutic potential. We determined the expression of CYPJ in HCC/adjacent normal tissues using Western blot, Northern blot and semi-quantitative RT-PCR, analyzed the biochemical characteristics of CYPJ, and resolved the 3D-structure of CYPJ/Cyclosporin A (CsA) complex. We also studied the roles of CYPJ in cell cycle, cyclin D1 regulation, in vitro and in vivo tumor growth. We found that CYPJ expression was upregulated in over 60% HCC tissues. The PPIase activity of CYPJ could be inhibited by the widely used immunosuppressive drug CsA. CYPJ was found expressed in the whole cell of HCC with preferential location at the cell nucleus. CYPJ promoted the transition of cells from G1 phase to S phase in a PPIase-dependent manner by activating cyclin D1 promoter. CYPJ overexpression accelerated liver cell growth in vitro (cell growth assay, colony formation) and in vivo (xenograft tumor formation). Inhibition of CYPJ by its inhibitor CsA or CYPJ-specific RNAi diminished the growth of liver cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, CYPJ could facilitate HCC growth by promoting cell cycle transition from G1 to S phase through the upregulation of cyclin D1. Suppression of CYPJ could repress the growth of HCC, which makes CYPJ a potential target for the development of new strategies to treat this malignancy.
Human urine-derived stem cells (hUSCs) are a newly found stem cell with a potential for therapeutic application in urology. The aim of this study was to investigate whether hUSCs contributed to cartilage regeneration. Despite the characterization with multi-lineage differentiation capacities, in terms of osteogenesis, adipogenesis, and myogenesis, hUSCs did not show the ability to differentiate into chondrocytes. Human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) are a tissue-specific stem cell for endochondral bone formation; however, repeated passage hBMSCs have less capacity for chondrogenic differentiation. Our findings showed that extracellular matrix deposited by hUSCs (UECM) could greatly recharge repeated passage hBMSCs toward chondrogenic differentiation, which might be explained by trophic factors released by hUSCs that were immobilized in UECM. We also found that ECM from repeated passage hBMSCs (BECM) had a limited rejuvenation effect; the Wnt11-mediated noncanonical signaling pathway might be responsible for UECM-mediated hBMSC rejuvenation and subsequent chondrogenic differentiation. Our data indicated that commercially available UECM from young and healthy donors might provide a simple and promising approach for autologous hBMSC rejuvenation. This study also provides an excellent model to investigate the effect of trophic factors released by stem cells on tissue regeneration without interference by stem cell differentiation.
Decellularized stem cell matrix; Monolayer expansion; Urine-derived stem cell; Bone marrow stromal cell; Endochondral bone formation
In recent years, much evidence suggested that vitamin D plays an important role in decreasing the risk of type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether 1, 25 (OH) 2D3 can modulate inflammation and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetic rat liver.
Type 2 diabetes was induced in SD rat with high-fat and high-sugar diets and multiple low-dose streptozotocin. The levels of serum calcium, phosphorus, glucose, TC, TG, AST, ALT and hepatic TG were determined. H & E staining were performed to assess the effects of vitamin D treatment on pathological changes in the liver tissues. Immunohistology, real-time PCR and Western blot were used to evaluate the expressions of NF-κ B, MCP-1, ICAM-1, TGF-β1, PPAR-α and CPT-1.
The administration of 1, 25 (OH) 2D3 reduced liver weight. Compared to DM rats, 1, 25 (OH) 2D3-treated DM rats had lower liver weight. Moreover, compared to healthy or 1, 25 (OH) 2D3-treated DM rats, DM rats had increased hepatic transcription factors (NF-κ B), monocyte chemoattractant protein −1 (MCP-1), intercellular adhesion molecule −1 (ICAM-1), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) expressions, but had fewer hepatic PPAR- α and CPT-1 expressions.
1, 25 (OH) 2D3 significantly modulated the liver inflammation and lipid metabolism in diabetic rat models, which may be caused by its regulations on hepatic signaling NF-κ B pathway and PPAR- α.
Diabetes-induced liver injury; Vitamin D; NF-κ B; PPAR-α
Antigen-presentation genes play a vital role in the pathogenesis of HCV infection. However, the relationship of variants of these genes with spontaneous outcomes of HCV infection has not been fully investigated. To explore novel loci in the Chinese population, 34 tagging-SNPs in 9 candidate genes were genotyped for their associations with the outcomes of HCV infection. The distributions of different genotypes and haplotypes were compared among 773 HCV-negative controls, 246 subjects with HCV natural clearance, and 218 HCV persistent carriers recruited from hemodialysis patients and intravenous drug users. Our study implicated that TAP2, HLA-DOA, HLA-DOB, and tapasin loci were novel candidate regions for susceptibility to HCV infection and viral clearance in the Chinese population. Logistic regression analyses showed that TAP2 rs1800454 A (OR = 1.48, P = 0.002) and HLA-DOB rs2071469 G (OR = 1.23, P = 0.048) were significantly associated with increased susceptibility to establishment of HCV infection. However, high-risk behavior exposure and age were stronger predictors of HCV infection. Mutation of tapasin rs9277972 T (OR = 1.57, P =0.043) increased the risk of HCV chronicity, and HLA-DOA rs3128935 C (OR = 0.62, P = 0.019) increased the chance of viral resolution. With regards to the effect of rs3128925, interactions were found with high-risk behavior (P = 0.013) and age (P = 0.035). The risk effect of rs3128925 T for persistent HCV infection was higher in injecting drug users (vs. dialysis patients) and in subjects ≥ 40 years old (vs. < 40 years old).
Iron overload cardiomyopathy results from iron accumulation in the myocardium that is closely linked to iron-mediated myocardial fibrosis. Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM, also known as Danshen), a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, has been widely used for hundreds of years to treat cardiovascular diseases. Here, we investigated the effect and potential mechanism of SM on myocardial fibrosis induced by chronic iron overload (CIO) in mice. Kunming male mice (8 weeks old) were randomized to six groups of 10 animals each: control (CONT), CIO, low-dose SM (L-SM), high-dose SM (H-SM), verapamil (VRP) and deferoxamine (DFO) groups. Normal saline was injected in the CONT group. Mice in the other five groups were treated with iron dextran at 50 mg/kg per day intraperitoneally for 7 weeks, and those in the latter four groups also received corresponding daily treatments, including 3 g/kg or 6 g/kg of SM, 100 mg/kg of VRP, or 100 mg/kg of DFO. The iron deposition was estimated histologically using Prussian blue staining. Myocardial fibrosis was determined by Masson’s trichrome staining and hydroxyproline (Hyp) quantitative assay. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and protein expression levels of type I collagen (COL I), type I collagen (COL III), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were analyzed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects of SM against iron-overloaded fibrosis. Treatment of chronic iron-overloaded mice with SM dose-dependently reduced iron deposition levels, fibrotic area percentage, Hyp content, expression levels of COL I and COL III, as well as upregulated the expression of TGF- β1 and MMP-9 proteins in the heart. Moreover, SM treatment decreased MDA content and increased SOD activity. In conclusion, SM exerted activities against cardiac fibrosis induced by CIO, which may be attributed to its inhibition of iron deposition, as well as collagen metabolism and oxidative stress.
As a subfamily of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), gelatinases including MMP-2 and MMP-9 play an important role in remodeling and homeostasis of the extracellular matrix. However, conflicting results have been reported regarding their expression level and activity in the diabetic kidney. This study investigated whether and how MMP-9 expression and activity were changed in glomerular epithelial cells upon albumin overload. In situ zymography, immunostaining and Western blot for renal MMP gelatinolytic activity and MMP-9 protein expression were performed in Zucker lean and Zucker diabetic rats. Confocal microscopy revealed a focal increase in gelatinase activity and MMP-9 protein in the glomeruli of diabetic rats. Increased glomerular MMP-9 staining was mainly observed in hyperplastic parietal epithelial cells (PECs) expressing claudin-1 in the diabetic kidneys. Interestingly, increased parietal MMP-9 was often accompanied by decreased staining for podocyte markers (nephrin and podocalyxin) in the sclerotic area of affected glomeruli in diabetic rats. Additionally, urinary excretion of podocyte marker proteins was significantly increased in association with the levels of MMP-9 and albumin in the urine of diabetic animals. To evaluate the direct effect of albumin on expression and activity of MMP-9, primary cultured rat glomerular PECs were incubated with rat serum albumin (0.25 - 1 mg/ml) for 24 - 48 hrs. MMP-9 mRNA levels were significantly increased following albumin treatment. Meanwhile, albumin administration resulted in a dose-dependent increase in MMP-9 protein and activity in culture supernatants of PECs. Moreover, albumin activated p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in PECs. Inhibition of p44/42 MAPK suppressed albumin-induced MMP-9 secretion from glomerular PECs. Taken together, we have demonstrated that an up-regulation of MMP-9 in activated parietal epithelium is associated with a loss of adjacent podocytes in progressive diabetic nephropathy. Albumin overload may induce MMP-9 expression and secretion by PECs via the activation of p44/42 MAPK pathway.
Objective: To explore the protective effects of calcitriol on diabetic nephropathy by modulating the expressions of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and Cdc42 interacting protein-4 (CIP4). Methods: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy rats (n=36) were randomly divided into control group (control-H, control-M, control-L) and calcitriol group (calcitriol-H, calcitriol-M, calcitriol-L). The expression of TGF-β1 gradually decreased in control-H, control-M and control-L subgroups by injection of different virus vectors. Peanut oil and calcitriol were given to control and calcitriol group, respectively. The expressions of TGF-β1 and CIP4 in kidney, the pathology, and the renal function and lipid profiles were compared between control and calcitriol treatment groups. Results: In the control group, the higher level of TGF-β1 was associated with more severe glomerular pathology (P<0.05). There is a positive correlation between the expression of CIP4 and TGF-β1. Control-H subgroup had significant more severe kidney disease, higher levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) than control-M and control-L subgroups. After calcitriol treatment, the expression of TGF-β1 and CIP4 were significantly decreased compared to the corresponding control subgroups (all P<0.05). Renal fibrosis and pathological changes were markedly improved. The levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, blood glucose, BUN and Cr were significantly reduced (P<0.05). Conclusion: Calcitriol may protect diabetic nephropathy from fibrosis via inhibition of TGF-β1 and CIP4.
Diabetic nephropathy; calcitriol; transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1); Cdc42 interacting protein-4 (CIP4)
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency is one of the most common causes of fatty acid oxidation metabolism disorders. However, the molecular mechanism between CPT2 gene polymorphisms and metabolic stress has not been fully clarified. We previously reported that a number of patients show a thermal instable phenotype of compound hetero/homozygous variants of CPT II. To understand the mechanism of the metabolic disorder resulting from CPT II deficiency, the present study investigated CPT II variants in patient fibroblasts, [c.1102 G>A (p.V368I)] (heterozygous), [c.1102 G>A (p.V368I)] (homozygous), and [c.1055 T>G (p.F352C)] (heterozygous) + [c.1102 G>A (p.V368I)] (homozygous) compared with fibroblasts from healthy controls. CPT II variants exerted an effect of dominant negative on the homotetrameric proteins that showed thermal instability, reduced residual enzyme activities and a short half-life. Moreover, CPT II variant fibroblasts showed a significant decrease in fatty acid β-oxidation and adenosine triphosphate generation, combined with a reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, resulting in cellular apoptosis. Collectively, our data indicate that the CPT II deficiency induces an energy crisis of the fatty acid metabolic pathway. These findings may contribute to the elucidation of the genetic factors involved in metabolic disorder encephalopathy caused by the CPT II deficiency.
EZSCAN™ is a non-invasive technology that evaluates sweat gland dysfunction using electrochemical skin conductance measurements, providing an opportunity to determine the risk of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and diabetes mellitus (DM). This study was conducted with the aims of detecting IGT and DM and investigating the efficacy and cut-off points of the EZSCAN test in a patient population. The traditional serum and plasma glucose tests were used as comparators. In this cross-sectional study, 270 previously undiagnosed patients (180 women and 90 men) with a high risk of glucose metabolism disorders (≥45 years old) were enrolled. All patients underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and EZSCAN tests. Forty (14.8%) patients had newly diagnosed DM (NDM), 79 (29.3%) had IGT and 151 (55.9%) had normal glucose tolerance. The EZSCAN values of these groups were 48±11, 47±11 and 34±13%, respectively. For all patients, the correlation coefficient of EZSCAN was 0.462 with the OGTT (P<0.001), 0.182 with the FPG test (P<0.001) and 0.379 with the HbA1c test (P<0.001). The EZSCAN cut-off point for the detection of IGT was 37% [sensitivity, 82%; specificity, 62%; area under the curve (AUC), 0.778], and the cut-off point for NDM was 50% (sensitivity, 53%; specificity, 59%; AUC, 0.528). This study demonstrated that the non-invasive EZSCAN system is an effective screening tool for the detection of glucose dysfunction in the population tested, and that its performance in detecting previously undiagnosed IGT is superior to its performance in detecting DM.
EZSCAN™; impaired glucose tolerance; diabetes; Chinese
The ability to extract somatic cells from a patient and reprogram them to pluripotency opens up new possibilities for personalized medicine. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been employed to generate beating cardiomyocytes from a patient's skin or blood cells. Here, iPSC methods were used to generate cardiomyocytes starting from the urine of a patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Urine was chosen as a starting material because it contains adult stem cells called urine-derived stem cells (USCs). USCs express the canonical reprogramming factors c-myc and klf4, and possess high telomerase activity. Pluripotency of urine-derived iPSC clones was confirmed by immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and teratoma formation. Urine-derived iPSC clones generated from healthy volunteers and a DMD patient were differentiated into beating cardiomyocytes using a series of small molecules in monolayer culture. Results indicate that cardiomyocytes retain the DMD patient's dystrophin mutation. Physiological assays suggest that dystrophin-deficient cardiomyocytes possess phenotypic differences from normal cardiomyocytes. These results demonstrate the feasibility of generating cardiomyocytes from a urine sample and that urine-derived cardiomyocytes retain characteristic features that might be further exploited for mechanistic studies and drug discovery.
Nuclear reprogramming; Induced pluripotent stem cells; Myocytes; Cardiac; Muscular Dystrophy; Duchenne; Cell differentiation
Lymph node staging in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is essential for deciding appropriate treatment. This study systematically reviews the literature regarding the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in lymph node staging of patients with NSCLC, and determines its pooled sensitivity and specificity.
PubMed and Embase databases and the Cochrane library were used to search for relevant studies. Two reviewers independently identified the methodological quality of each study. A meta-analysis of the reported sensitivity and specificity of each study was performed.
Nine studies were included. These studies had moderate to good methodological quality. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (LR+), negative likelihood ratio (LR−) and diagnosis odds ratio (DOR) for per-patient based analyses (7 studies) were 74%, 90%, 7.5, 0.26, and 36.7, respectively, and those for per-lymph node based analyses (5 studies) were 77%, 98%, 42.24, 0.21, and 212.35, respectively. For meta-analyses of quantitative short time inversion recovery imaging (STIR) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), pooled sensitivity and specificity were 84% and 91%, and 69% and 93%, respectively. Pooled LR+ and pooled LR− were 8.44 and 0.18, and 8.36 and 0.36, respectively. The DOR was 56.29 and 27.2 respectively.
MRI showed high specificity in the lymph node staging of NSCLC. Quantitative STIR has greater DOR than quantitative DWI. Large, direct, and prospective studies are needed to compare the diagnostic power of STIR versus DWI; consistent diagnostic criteria should be established.
Lymph node staging; magnetic resonance imaging; meta-analysis; non-small cell lung cancer; systematic review