Increased sympathetic outflow, renin–angiotensin system (RAS) activity, and oxidative stress are critical mechanisms underlying the adverse cardiovascular effects of dietary salt excess. Nebivolol is a third-generation, highly selective β1-receptor blocker with RAS-reducing effects and additional antioxidant properties. This study evaluated the hypothesis that nebivolol reduces salt-induced cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs) by suppressing cardiac RAS and oxidative stress.
Male SHRs (8 weeks of age) were given an 8% high salt diet (HSD; n = 22), whereas their age-matched controls (n = 10) received standard chow. In a subgroup of HSD rats (n = 11), nebivolol was given at a dose of 10 mg/kg per day by gastric gavage.
After 5 weeks, HSD exacerbated hypertension as well as increased left-ventricular weight and collagen deposition while impairing left-ventricular relaxation. Salt-induced cardiac remodeling and dysfunction were associated with increased plasma renin concentration (PRC), cardiac angiotensin II immunostaining, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)/ACE2 mRNA and activity ratio. HSD also increased cardiac 3-nitrotyrosine staining indicating enhanced oxidative stress. Nebivolol treatment did not alter the salt-induced increase in arterial pressure, left-ventricular weight, and cardiac dysfunction but reduced PRC, cardiac angiotensin II immunostaining, ACE/ACE2 ratio, oxidative stress, and fibrosis.
Our data suggest that nebivolol, in a blood pressure-independent manner, ameliorated cardiac oxidative stress and associated fibrosis in salt-loaded SHRs. The beneficial effects of nebivolol may be attributed, at least in part, to the decreased ACE/ACE2 ratio and consequent reduction of cardiac angiotensin II levels.
β1-adrenergic receptors; angiotensin II; blood pressure; cardiac fibrosis; nebivolol; salt
Hypertension; Diabetes; Microalbuminuria
Hypertension is often associated with increased oxidative stress and systemic insulin resistance. Use of β adrenergic receptor blockers in hypertension is limited due to potential negative influence on insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. We sought to determine the impact of nebivolol, a selective vasodilatory β1adrenergic blocker, on whole-body insulin sensitivity, skeletal muscle oxidative stress, insulin signaling and glucose transport in the transgenic TG(mRen2)27rat (Ren2). This rodent model manifests increased tissue renin angiotensin expression, excess oxidative stress, and whole-body insulin resistance.
Research design and methods
Young (age 6-9 wks) Ren2 and age-matched Sprague-Dawley control rats were treated with nebivolol 10 mg/kg/day or placebo for 21 days. Basal measurements were obtained for glucose and insulin to calculate the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA–IR). Additionally, insulin metabolic signaling, NADPH oxidase activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and ultrastructural changes as evaluated by transmission electron microscopy were examined ex vivo in skeletal muscle tissue.
The Ren2 rat demonstrated systemic insulin resistance as examined by HOMA-IR, along with impaired insulin metabolic signaling in skeletal muscle. This was associated with increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial remodeling. Treatment with nebivolol was associated with improvement in insulin resistance and decreased NADPH oxidase activity/levels ROS in skeletal muscle tissue.
Nebivolol treatment for 3 weeks reduces NADPH oxidase activity and improves systemic insulin resistance, in concert with reduced oxidative stress in skeletal muscle in a young rodent model of hypertension, insulin resistance and enhanced tissue RAS expression.
Insulin resistance; oxidative stress; skeletal muscle
The prevalence of obesity has increased rapidly in the United States. Obesity affects about one third of the adult population and, even though it is attributed to excess calorie intake and inadequate physical activity, its etiopathogenesis is much more complex and is an area of active study. Lifestyle modifications (with a focus on increased activity and decreased calorie intake) have modest efficacy in the treatment of obesity. There is a dearth of safe and effective therapeutic modalities to treat obesity. In this review, we discuss the role of different treatment options in the management of obesity and its comorbidities, with a focus on recently approved drugs and the emerging role of bariatric surgery.
Obesity; Cardiorenal metabolic syndrome; Cardiovascular disease; Kidney
Insulin (INS) metabolic signaling is important for normal cardiovascular and renal function as well as for exerting the classic actions of INS, such as glucose uptake in skeletal muscle tissue. There is emerging evidence that tyrosine phosphatases as well as protein kinases have important modulating roles in INS metabolic signaling in both cardiovascular and classically INS- sensitive tissues. For example, increases in phosphatase activity may partially explain how angiotensin II and aldosterone attenuate activation of the INS receptor substrate protein 1 (IRS-1)-phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase-protein kinase B pathway, thereby promoting INS resistance. On the other hand, phosphatase activation may also exert beneficial and cardiovascular protective effects in conditions such as overnutrition by blocking serine phosphorylation of IRS-1, thereby improving downstream INS metabolic signaling. Both the beneficial and the detrimental effects exerted by the activation of phosphatases will be covered in this report.
Cell signaling; Hormones; Cytokines; Receptors
Recent data implicate oxidative stress as a mediator of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and of the associated pathological changes to the pulmonary vasculature and right ventricle (RV). Increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS), altered redox state, and elevated oxidant stress have been demonstrated in the lungs and RV of several animal models of PH, including chronic hypoxia, monocrotaline toxicity, caveolin-1 knock-out mouse, and the transgenic Ren2 rat which overexpresses the mouse renin gene. Generation of ROS in these models is derived mostly from the activities of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases, xanthine oxidase, and uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase. As disease progresses circulating monocytes and bone marrow-derived monocytic progenitor cells are attracted to and accumulate in the pulmonary vasculature. Once established, these inflammatory cells generate ROS and secrete mitogenic and fibrogenic cytokines that induce cell proliferation and fibrosis in the vascular wall resulting in progressive vascular remodeling. Deficiencies in antioxidant enzymes also contribute to pulmonary hypertensive states. Current therapies were developed to improve endothelial function, reduce pulmonary artery pressure, and slow the progression of vascular remodeling in the pulmonary vasculature by targeting deficiencies in either NO (PDE-type 5 inhibition) or PGI2 (prostacyclin analogs), or excessive synthesis of ET-1 (ET receptor blockers) with the intent to improve patient clinical status and survival. New therapies may slow disease progression to some extent, but long term management has not been achieved and mortality is still high. Although little is known concerning the effects of current pulmonary arterial hypertension treatments on RV structure and function, interest in this area is increasing. Development of therapeutic strategies that simultaneously target pathology in the pulmonary vasculature and RV may be beneficial in reducing mortality associated with RV failure.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension; Rosuvastatin; Oxidative stress; Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase; Statins
Since the classic experiments by Tigerstedt and Bergman that established the role of renin in hypertension a century ago, aggressive efforts have been launched to effectively block the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Blockade of RAS is advocated at multiple levels by direct renin inhibitor, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and/or angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, or aldosterone inhibitor (spironolactone), and has now become part of the standard of care to control hypertension and related metabolic diseases including diabetes. However, recent lessons learned from randomized clinical trials question the wisdom of blocking RAS at multiple levels. In this context, it is highly pertinent that components of RAS are evolutionarily conserved, and novel physiological/adaptive/protective roles for renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme are currently emerging. Angiotensin II, the classical RAS effector peptide responsible for hypertension, hypertrophy, fluid retention and fibrosis, manifests its cardiovascular protective effect when it activates the angiotensin II type 2 receptor. Additionally, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and the angiotensin II metabolite Ang-(1–7) that acts through the Mas proto-oncogene constitute the cardiovascular and renal protective branch of RAS. It is conceivable that modulating this vasodilative/anti-inflammatory branch of RAS by activation of the RAS components that constitute this branch may offer a safer long-term treatment strategy to balance RAS activity and achieve homeostasis compared to chronic multilevel RAS inhibition.
Renin-angiotensin system; Angiotensin II type 1 receptor; Angiotensin II type 2 receptor; Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2; Chymase
Bariatric surgery is emerging as an effective method to alleviate a multitude of medical conditions associated with morbid obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, little is known about the effects and mechanisms of bariatric surgery on visceral fat inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. We hypothesize that bariatric surgery ameliorates interferon-gamma (IFNγ-mediated adipose tissue inflammation/oxidative stress and improves endothelial function in type 2 diabetic mice.
Methods and Results
Control mice (m Leprdb) and diabetic mice (Leprdb) were treated with either sham surgery or Improved Gastric Bypass Surgery (IGBS) and then evaluated at 5, 10, 20, and 30 days to assess post-surgical effects. Surgery reduced body weight, abdominal adiposity, blood glucose level, and food intake in Leprdb. The surgery-induced decrease in visceral adiposity was accompanied by amelioration of T-lymphocytes and macrophage infiltration, as well as reduction in the expression of IFNγ and other inflammatory cytokines in the mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT) of Leprdb mice. Furthermore, surgery improved endothelium-dependent, but not endothelium-independent vasorelaxation in small mesenteric arteries (SMA) of Leprdb mice. The improvement in endothelial function was largely attenuated by nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME) incubation. IFNγ treatment increased the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) in the MAT of control mice, and incubation of SMA of control mice with TNFα caused impairment of endothelial function. Superoxide production in MAT/SMA and nitrotyrosine protein level in SMA were elevated in diabetic mice. Surgery reduced MAT/SMA oxidative stress in Leprdb mice.
The amelioration of adipose tissue inflammation and the improvement of endothelial function may represent important mechanisms that result in cardiovascular benefits following bariatric surgery.
Diabetes; Adipose; Inflammation; Endothelial Function; Interferon-gamma
Unlike conventional β-blockers, nebivolol, a third-generation β-adrenergic receptor blocker with vasodilator properties, promotes insulin sensitivity. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether nebivolol regulates overnutrition-induced activation of cardiac nutrient sensor kinases and inflammatory signaling.
Young Zucker obese (ZO) rats, a rodent model for overnutrition, and age-matched Zucker lean rats were treated with nebivolol (10 mg/kg/day; 21 days) and cardiac function was monitored by echocardiography and pressure volume loop analysis. Activation status of nutrient sensor serine/threonine kinases mammalian target for rapamycin (mTOR), and p70 S6kinase (S6K1) and S6K1-substrate RPS6, inflammatory marker Janus kinase 2 (Jak2) and its substrate STAT1, and energy sensor AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK) were monitored by determining phosphorylation status of pSer2448 of mTOR, pThr389 of S6K1, pSer235/236 of RPS6, pTyr1007/1008 of Jak2, pTyr701 of STAT1, and pThr172 of AMPK, respectively.
Nebivolol reduced weight and improved cardiac function of ZO rats as shown by improvements in the myocardial performance index and a decrease in the diastolic parameter tau (τ), the time constant of isovolumic relaxation. Nebivolol also attenuated excessive activation of the nutrient sensor kinases mTOR and S6K1 and their substrate RPS6 as well as the inflammatory marker Jak2 and substrate STAT1 in ZO myocardium (p < 0.05). Moreover, nebivolol reversed suppression of the energy sensor kinase AMPK in ZO hearts (p < 0.05).
We report for the first time that nebivolol regulates overnutrition-induced activation of cardiac mTOR and Jak/STAT signaling and reverses suppression of AMPK. Since it also suppresses weight gain, nebivolol appears effective in the treatment of overnutrition-related cardiac inflammation and diastolic dysfunction.
Nebivolol; Zucker obese; AMP kinase; mTORC1; Jak/STAT
There are important sex-related differences in the prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Indeed, premenopausal women have a lower prevalence of these conditions relative to age-matched men. Estrogen participates in the modulation of insulin sensitivity, energy balance, and body composition. In this paper, we investigated the impact of estrogen signaling through estrogen receptor α (ERα) on systemic insulin sensitivity and insulin signaling in skeletal muscle.
In 14- and 30-week-old female ERα knockout (ERαKO) mice and age-matched controls, we assessed insulin sensitivity by a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance testing. Blood pressure was evaluated by tail cuff and telemetry. We studied ex vivo insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle tissue, as well as insulin metabolic signaling molecule phosphorylation by immunoblotting and oxidative stress by immunostaining for 3-nitrotyrosine.
Body weight was higher in ERαKO mice at 14 and 30 weeks of age. At 30 weeks, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance testing and clamp results demonstrated impaired systemic insulin sensitivity in ERαKO mice. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in soleus was lower in ERαKO mice at both ages. The insulin receptor substrate 1/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase association and the activation of protein kinase B were decreased in ERαKO mice, whereas immunostaining for 3-nitrotyrosine was increased.
Our data demonstrate a critical age-dependent role for estrogen signaling through ERα on whole-body insulin sensitivity and insulin metabolic signaling in skeletal muscle tissue. These findings have potential translational implications for the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease in women, who are at increased risk for these conditions.
Estrogen; Insulin resistance; Skeletal muscle
The prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing in concert with obesity. Insulin resistance, metabolic dyslipidemia, central obesity, albuminuria and hypertension commonly cluster to comprise the cardiometabolic syndrome. Emerging evidence supports a shift in our understanding of the crucial role of elevated serum aldosterone in promoting insulin resistance and resistant hypertension. Aldosterone enhances tissue generation of oxygen free radicals and systemic inflammation. This increase in oxidative stress and inflammation, in turn, contributes to impaired insulin metabolic signaling, reduced endothelial-mediated vasorelaxation and associated cardiovascular and renal structural and functional abnormalities. In this context, recent investigation indicates that hyperaldosteronism, which is often associated with obesity, contributes to impaired pancreatic beta-cell function as well as diminished skeletal muscle insulin metabolic signaling. Accumulating evidence indicates that the cardiovascular and renal abnormalities associated with insulin resistance are mediated, in part, by aldosterone's non-genomic as well as genomic signaling through the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). In the cardiometabolic syndrome there are increased circulating levels of glucocorticoids, which can also activate MR signaling in cardiovascular, adipose, skeletal muscle, neuronal, and liver tissue. Further, there is increasing evidence that fat tissue produces a lipid soluble factor that stimulates aldosterone production from the adrenal zona glomerulosa. Recently, have we learned that MR blockade improves pancreatic insulin release, insulin-mediated glucose utilization, endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation as well as reducing the progression of CVD and CKD. In summary, aldosterone excess exerts detrimental metabolic effects that contribute to the development of the CMS and resistant hypertension as well as CVD and CKD.
Aldosterone; Insulin Resistance; Hypertension; Cardiometabolic Syndrome
Studies were performed to determine if early treatment with an angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor blocker (ARB), olmesartan, prevents the onset of microalbuminuria by attenuating glomerular podocyte injury in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
OLETF rats were treated with either a vehicle, olmesartan (10 mg/kg/ day) or a combination of nonspecific vasodilators (hydralazine 15 mg/ kg/day, hydrochlorothiazide 6 mg/kg/day, and reserpine 0.3 mg/kg/ day; HHR) from the age of 7–25 weeks.
OLETF rats were hypertensive and had microalbuminuria from 9 weeks of age. At 15 weeks, OLETF rats had higher Ang II levels in the kidney, larger glomerular desmin-staining areas (an index of podocyte injury), and lower gene expression of nephrin in juxtamedullary glomeruli, than nondiabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats. At 25 weeks, OLETF rats showed overt albuminuria, and higher levels of Ang II in the kidney and larger glomerular desmin-staining areas in superficial and juxtamedullary glomeruli compared to LETO rats. Reductions in mRNA levels of nephrin were also observed in superficial and juxtamedullary glomeruli. Although olmesartan did not affect glucose metabolism, it decreased blood pressure and prevented the renal changes in OLETF rats. HHR treatment also reduced blood pressure, but did not affect the renal parameters.
This study demonstrated that podocyte injury occurs in juxtamedullary glomeruli prior to superficial glomeruli in type 2 diabetic rats with microalbuminuria. Early treatment with an ARB may prevent the onset of albuminuria through its protective effects on juxtamedullary glomerular podocytes.
angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs); blood pressure; hypertension; juxtamedullary glomeruli; microalbuminuria; olmesartan; type 2 diabetes mellitus
Insulin resistance is characteristic of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and components of the cardiometabolic syndrome, including hypertension and dyslipidemia, that collectively contribute to a substantial risk for cardiovascular disease. Metabolic actions of insulin in classic insulin target tissues (eg, skeletal muscle, fat, and liver), as well as actions in nonclassic targets (eg, cardiovascular tissue), help to explain why insulin resistance and metabolic dysregulation are central in the pathogenesis of the cardiometabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Glucose and lipid metabolism are largely dependent on mitochondria to generate energy in cells. Thereby, when nutrient oxidation is inefficient, the ratio of ATP production/oxygen consumption is low, leading to an increased production of superoxide anions. Reactive oxygen species formation may have maladaptive consequences that increase the rate of mutagenesis and stimulate proinflammatory processes. In addition to reactive oxygen species formation, genetic factors, aging, and reduced mitochondrial biogenesis all contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction. These factors also contribute to insulin resistance in classic and nonclassic insulin target tissues. Insulin resistance emanating from mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities and subsequent increases in cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, interventions that improve mitochondrial function also improve insulin resistance. Collectively, these observations suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction may be a central cause of insulin resistance and associated complications. In this review, we discuss mechanisms of mitochondrial dysfunction related to the pathophysiology of insulin resistance in classic insulin-responsive tissue, as well as cardiovascular tissue.
mitochondrial dysfunction; insulin resistance; cardiovascular disease
The risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in women who had previously been diagnosed with gestational diabetes (GDM) is well established. There is increasing evidence that the offspring of women with GDM are at increased risk for the development of all components of the cardiorenal metabolic syndrome. Overall, it appears that these offspring have an increased risk for overweight/obesity, insulin resistance, higher blood pressure, renal disease, and type 2 diabetes. However, distinct differences in regional populations, lack of routine screening and treatment of GDM worldwide, and long follow-up periods for offspring represent a challenge in assessing the risk for development of these abnormalities in the offspring of women who have had GDM.
Gestational diabetes; Offspring; Fetal programming; Cardiorenal syndrome
Mitochondria play a fundamental role in the maintenance of normal structure, function, and survival of tissues. There is considerable evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction in association with metabolic diseases including insulin resistance, obesity, diabetes, and the cardiorenal metabolic syndrome. The phenomenon of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced ROS release through interactions between cytosolic and mitochondrial oxidative stress contributes to a vicious cycle of enhanced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Activation of the cytosolic and mitochondrial NADPH oxidase system, impairment of the mitochondrial electron transport, activation of p66shc pathway-targeting mitochondria, endoplasmic reticular stress, and activation of the mammalian target of the rapamycin-S6 kinase pathway underlie dysregulation of mitochondrial dynamics and promote mitochondrial oxidative stress. These processes are further modulated by acetyltransferases including sirtuin 1 and sirtuin 3, the former regulating nuclear acetylation and the latter regulating mitochondrial acetylation. The regulation of mitochondrial functions by microRNAs forms an additional layer of molecular control of mitochondrial oxidative stress. Alcohol further exacerbates mitochondrial oxidative stress induced by overnutrition and promotes the development of metabolic diseases.
Cardiorenal syndrome; Overnutrition; Mitochondria; NADPH oxidase; Angiotensin II; MicroRNA; Alcoholic cardiomyopathy
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system plays an important role in the development and progression of hypertension and accelerated atherosclerosis (atheroscleropathy) associated with the cardiorenal metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Additionally, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system plays an important role in vascular-endothelial-intimal cellular and extracellular remodeling.
Thoracic aortas of young male transgenic heterozygous (mRen2)27 (Ren2) rats were utilized for this ultrastructural study. This lean model of hypertension, insulin resistance and oxidative stress harbors the mouse renin gene with increased local tissue (aortic) levels of angiotensin II and angiotensin type 1 receptors and elevated plasma aldosterone levels.
The ultrastructural observations included marked endothelial cell retraction, separation, terminal nuclear lifting, adjacent duplication, apoptosis and a suggestion of endothelial progenitor cell attachment. The endothelium demonstrated increased caveolae, microparticles, depletion of Weibel-Palade bodies, loss of cell-cell and basal adhesion hemidesmosome-like structures, platelet adhesion and genesis of subendothelial neointima.
These observational ultrastructural studies of the transgenic Ren2 vasculature provide an in-depth evaluation of early abnormal remodeling changes within conduit-elastic arteries under conditions of increased local levels of angiotensin II, oxidative stress, insulin resistance and hypertension.
Angiotensin II; Extracellular matrix remodeling; Hypertension; Intima; NADPH oxidase; Oxidative stress; Type 2 diabetes mellitus
Diabetes is a leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Whether reclassification of CKD stages based on glomerular filtration rate estimated using the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation versus the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation modifies estimates of prevalent risk factors across stages is unknown.
This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP), a community-based health screening program targeting individuals 18 years and older with diabetes, hypertension, or a family history of diabetes, hypertension, or kidney disease. Of 109,055 participants, 68.2% were women and 31.8% were African American. Mean age was 55.3 ± 0.05 years. Clinical, demographic, and laboratory data were collected from August 2000 through December 2009. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated using the CKD-EPI and MDRD Study equations.
CKD was present in 25.6% and 23.5% of the study population using the MDRD Study and CKD-EPI equations, respectively. Diabetes was present in 42.4% and 43.8% of participants with CKD, respectively. Prevalent risk factors for diabetes included obesity (body mass index >30 kg/m2), 44.0%; hypertension, 80.5%; cardiovascular disease, 23.2%; family history of diabetes, 55.9%; and dyslipidemia, 43.0%. In a logistic regression model after adjusting for age and other risk factors, odds for diabetes increased significantly compared with no CKD with each CKD stage based on the CKD-EPI equation and similarly with stages based on the MDRD Study equation. Using a CKD-EPI–adjusted model, ORs were: stage 1, 2.08 (95% CI, 1.90–2.27); stage 2, 1.86 (95% CI, 1.72–2.02); stage 3, 1.23 (95% CI, 1.17–1.30); stage 4, 1.69 (95% CI, 1.42–2.03); and stage 5, 2.46 (95% CI, 1.46–4.14).
Using the CKD-EPI equation led to a lower prevalence of CKD but to similar diabetes prevalence rates associated with CKD across all stages compared with the MDRD Study equation. Diabetes and other CKD risk factor prevalence was increased compared with the non-CKD population.
Chronic kidney disease; diabetes mellitus; estimated glomerular filtration rate
We investigated renal effects of nebivolol, a selective β1-receptor blocker with additional antioxidative ability, in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) where increased salt intake induces oxidative stress and worsens renal function as a result of further activation of the renin-angiotensin and sympathetic nervous systems.
Male SHR were given an 8% salt diet (HS; n = 22) for 5 weeks; their age-matched controls (n = 9) received standard chow. Nebivolol was given at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day for 5 weeks in 11 HS rats.
HS increased blood pressure, plasma renin concentration, urinary protein excretion, and renal nitroxidative stress while decreasing renal blood flow and angiotensin 1–7 receptor (mas) protein expression. There was no change in angiotensin II type 1 receptor expression among the experimental groups. Nebivolol did not alter the salt-induced increase in blood pressure but reduced urinary protein excretion, plasma renin concentration, and nitroxidative stress. Nebivolol also increased neuronal NOS expression while preventing the salt-induced decrease in renal blood flow and mas protein expression.
Nebivolol prevented salt-induced kidney injury and associated proteinuria in SHR through a blood pressure-independent mechanism. Its protective effects may be related to reduction in oxidative stress, increases in neuronal NOS and restoration of angiotensin II type 1/mas receptor balance.
Salt; Hypertension; Kidney; Oxidative stress; Nitric oxide; β1-Receptor antagonism
Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) maintain a higher risk for recurrent GDM and overt diabetes. Overt diabetes is a risk factor for development of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but GDM alone, without subsequent development of overt diabetes, may also pose a risk for CKD.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
This cross-sectional analysis included Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) participants from 2000 to 2009. Patient characteristics and kidney function among three categories (GDM alone, overt diabetes, and no history of diabetes) were compared. The prevalence of microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria, and CKD stages 1–2 and 3–5 was assessed using logistic regression.
Of 37,716 KEEP female participants, 571 (1.5%) had GDM alone and 12,100 (32.1%) had overt diabetes. Women with GDM had a higher rate of microalbuminuria but not macroalbuminuria than their nondiabetic peers (10.0 vs. 7.7%) that was substantially lower than the 13.6% prevalence in diabetic women. In multivariate analysis, women with GDM alone, compared with nondiabetic women, demonstrated increased odds of CKD stages 1–2 (multivariate odds ratio 1.54 [95% CI 1.16–2.05]) similar to the odds for women with overt diabetes (1.68 [1.55–1.82]). In stratified analyses, age, race, BMI, and hypertension modified the odds for CKD stages 1 –2 but not CKD stages 3–5 among women with GDM.
Women with GDM alone have a higher prevalence of microalbuminuria than women without any history of diabetes, translating to higher rates of CKD stages 1–2. These results suggest that GDM, even in the absence of subsequent overt diabetes, may increase the risk for future cardiovascular and kidney disease.