African Americans (AAs) have increased susceptibility to non-diabetic nephropathy relative to European Americans.
Follow-up of a pooled genome-wide association study (GWAS) in AA dialysis patients with nondiabetic nephropathy; novel gene-gene interaction analyses.
Setting & Participants
Wake Forest sample: 962 AA nondiabetic nephropathy cases; 931 non-nephropathy controls. Replication sample: 668 Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND) AA nondiabetic nephropathy cases; 804 non-nephropathy controls.
Individual genotyping of top 1420 pooled GWAS-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 54 SNPs in six nephropathy susceptibility genes.
APOL1 genetic association and additional candidate susceptibility loci interacting with, or independently from, APOL1.
The strongest GWAS associations included two non-coding APOL1 SNPs, rs2239785 (odds ratio [OR], 0.33; dominant; p = 5.9 × 10−24) and rs136148 (OR, 0.54; additive; p = 1.1 × 10−7) with replication in FIND (p = 5.0 × 10−21 and 1.9 × 10−05, respectively). Rs2239785 remained significantly associated after controlling for the APOL1 G1 and G2 coding variants. Additional top hits included a CFH SNP(OR from meta-analysis in above 3367 AA cases and controls, 0.81; additive; p = 6.8 × 10−4). The 1420 SNPs were tested for interaction with APOL1 G1 and G2 variants. Several interactive SNPs were detected, the most significant was rs16854341 in the podocin gene (NPHS2) (p = 0.0001).
Non-pooled GWAS have not been performed in AA nondiabetic nephropathy.
This follow-up of a pooled GWAS provides additional and independent evidence that APOL1 variants contribute to nondiabetic nephropathy in AAs and identified additional associated and interactive non-diabetic nephropathy susceptibility genes.
African American; APOL1; CFH; end-stage renal disease; FIND; FSGS; hypertension
Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is responsible for protecting DNA in skin cells against ultraviolet radiation-induced damage. Using a candidate pathway approach, a matched case-control study nested within a prospective, community-based cohort was carried out to test the hypothesis that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NER genes are associated with susceptibility to non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Histologically-confirmed cases of NMSC (n=900) were matched to controls (n=900) on age, gender, and skin type. Associations were measured between NMSC and 221 SNPs in 26 NER genes. Using the additive model, two tightly linked functional SNPs in ERCC6 were significantly associated with increased risk of NMSC: rs2228527 (odds ratio (OR) 1.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20 – 2.05), and rs2228529 (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.20 – 2.05). These associations were confined to basal cell carcinoma of the skin (BCC) (rs2228529, OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.30 – 2.44; rs2228527 OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.31 – 2.43). These hypothesis-generating findings suggest functional variants in ERCC6 may be associated with an increased risk of NMSC that may be specific to BCC.
Hypertension status among spouses is known to be concordant, but previous studies relied on history rather than direct measurement, and few data exist on treatment and control between spouses. The goal of this study was to estimate the spousal association of hypertension status, treatment, and control in adults. The authors identified and analyzed data on 4,500 pairs from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort, which sampled middle-aged adults and their spouses in 1986–1989, with 3 follow-up visits 3 years apart. Generalized estimating equations were used in logistic regression analyses to calculate the odds ratio of a spouse's being hypertensive on the basis of the other spouse's hypertension status across 4 visits, adjusting for age, race, body mass index, smoking status, and sodium intake in both individuals. There are marginally increased odds of hypertension for spouses married to someone with hypertension (odds ratio (OR) = 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 1.25). Treatment was positively associated between spouses (OR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.67). Control was suggestive of an association, although it was not statistically significant (OR = 1.21, 95% CI: 0.93, 1.56). In middle-aged adults, hypertension status and treatment were moderately associated between spouses after controlling for shared environment. Physicians may target hypertension education and prevention to spouses as a pair rather than as 2 separate patients.
control; hypertension; spouses; therapeutics
Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values are higher in African Americans than whites, raising the question of whether classification of diabetes status by HbA1c should differ for African Americans. We investigated the relative contribution of genetic ancestry and nongenetic factors to HbA1c values and the effect of genetic ancestry on diabetes classification by HbA1c in African Americans.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from the community-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. We estimated percentage of European genetic ancestry (PEA) for each of the 2,294 African Americans without known diabetes using 1,350 ancestry-informative markers. HbA1c was measured from whole-blood samples and categorized using American Diabetes Association diagnostic cut points (<5.7, 5.7–6.4, and ≥6.5%).
PEA was inversely correlated with HbA1c (adjusted r = −0.07; P < 0.001) but explained <1% of its variance. Age and socioeconomic and metabolic factors, including fasting glucose, explained 13.8% of HbA1c variability. Eleven percent of participants were classified as having diabetes; adjustment for fasting glucose decreased this to 4.4%. Additional adjustment for PEA did not significantly reclassify diabetes status (net reclassification index = 0.034; P = 0.94) nor did further adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic, and metabolic risk factors.
The relative contribution of demographic and metabolic factors far outweighs the contribution of genetic ancestry to HbA1c values in African Americans. Moreover, the impact of adjusting for genetic ancestry when classifying diabetes by HbA1c is minimal after taking into account fasting glucose levels, thus supporting the use of currently recommended HbA1c categories for diagnosis of diabetes in African Americans.
Polymorphisms in the MYH9 and adjacent APOL1 gene region demonstrate a strong association with non-diabetic kidney disease in African-Americans. However, it is not known to what extent these polymorphisms are present in other ethnic groups. To examine the association of genetic polymorphisms in this region with chronic kidney disease (CKD; estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73 m2) in individuals of European ancestry, we examined rs4821480, an MYH9 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) recently identified as associated with kidney disease in African-Americans, in 13 133 participants from the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) and Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. In addition, we further interrogated the MYH9/APOL1 gene region using 282 SNPs for association with CKD using age-, sex- and center-adjusted models and performed a meta-analysis of the results from both studies. Because of prior data linking rs4821480 and kidney disease, we used a P-value of <0.05 to test the association with CKD. In the meta-analysis, rs4821480 (minor allele frequency 4.45 and 3.96% in FHS and ARIC, respectively) was associated with higher CKD prevalence in participants free of diabetes (odds ratio 1.44; 95% confidence interval 1.15–1.80; P = 0.001). No other SNPs achieved significance after adjusting for multiple testing. Results utilizing directly genotyped data confirmed the results of the primary analysis. Recently identified APOL1 risk variants were also directly genotyped, but did not account for the observed MYH9 signal. These data suggest that the MYH9 polymorphism rs4821480 is associated with an increased risk of non-diabetic CKD in individuals of European ancestry.
Little is known regarding the association of scavenger receptor class B type I (SCARB1) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and subclinical atherosclerosis (SCA), particularly in subjects of different racial/ethnic backgrounds. We examined this relationship in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).
Methods and Results
Forty-three SCARB1 tagging SNPs were genotyped. Baseline examinations included fasting lipids and SCA phenotypes (coronary artery calcium [CAC], and common and internal carotid artery thickness [CCIMT and ICIMT]). Examining SNP associations with different SCA phenotypes across multiple racial/ethnic groups with adjustment for multiple covariates, we found the C allele of SNP rs10846744 was associated with higher CCIMT in African American (P=0.03), Chinese (P=0.02), European American (P=0.05), and Hispanic participants (P=0.03), and was strongly associated in pooled analyses (P=0.0002). The results also showed that the association of this SNP with CCIMT was independent of lipids and other well-established cardiovascular risk factors. Stratifying by sex, there appeared to be a strong association of rs10846744 with CCIMT in females, but no genotype-sex interactions were observed.
Variation in SCARB1 at rs10846744 was significantly associated with CCIMT across racial/ethnic groups in MESA.
genetics; atherosclerosis; cholesterol; lipids; prospective cohort study; genetic association
P-selectin is released by activated platelets and endothelium contributing to inflammation and thrombosis. We evaluated the association between soluble P-selectin and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in dialysis patients.
We measured soluble P-selectin in serum from 824 incident dialysis patients. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we modeled the association of P-selectin levels with ASCVD events, cardiovascular mortality and sudden cardiac death.
After adjustment for demographics, comorbidity and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, higher P-selectin levels were associated with increased risk of ASCVD and cardiovascular mortality among males (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, respectively), but not females (p = 0.52 and p = 0.31, respectively; p interaction = 0.003), over a median of 38.2 months. Higher P-selectin was associated with a greater risk of sudden cardiac death among males (p = 0.05). The associations between increasing P-selectin and cardiovascular mortality as well as sudden cardiac death in males persisted after adjustment for C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, serum albumin and platelet count (p = 0.01 and p = 0.03, respectively). The risk for sudden cardiac death was more than 3 times greater for males in the highest tertile of soluble P-selectin compared with the lowest tertile after adjustment (HR: 3.19; 95% CI: 1.18 – 8.62; p = 0.02).
P-selectin is associated with ASCVD, cardiovascular mortality and sudden cardiac death among male dialysis patients.
Cardiovascular disease; Dialysis; End-stage renal disease; Inflammation; Sudden cardiac death; P-selectin
Serum calcium levels are tightly regulated. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in population-based studies participating in the CHARGE Consortium to uncover common genetic variations associated with total serum calcium levels. GWAS of serum calcium concentrations was performed in 20 611 individuals of European ancestry for ∼2.5 million genotyped and imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The SNP with the lowest P-value was rs17251221 (P = 2.4 * 10−22, minor allele frequency 14%) in the calcium-sensing receptor gene (CASR). This lead SNP was associated with higher serum calcium levels [0.06 mg/dl (0.015 mmol/l) per copy of the minor G allele] and accounted for 0.54% of the variance in serum calcium concentrations. The identification of variation in CASR that influences serum calcium concentration confirms the results of earlier candidate gene studies. The G allele of rs17251221 was also associated with higher serum magnesium levels (P = 1.2 * 10−3), lower serum phosphate levels (P = 2.8 * 10−7) and lower bone mineral density at the lumbar spine (P = 0.038), but not the femoral neck. No additional genomic loci contained SNPs associated at genome-wide significance (P < 5 * 10−8). These associations resemble clinical characteristics of patients with familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, an autosomal-dominant disease arising from rare inactivating mutations in the CASR gene. We conclude that common genetic variation in the CASR gene is associated with similar but milder features in the general population.
Recent breakthroughs in genomics have led to a critical reappraisal of factors once thought to initiate common complex forms of kidney disease. The tenet that diabetes mellitus and hypertension routinely initiate kidney disease whenever blood glucose concentrations or systemic blood pressures reach critical levels for prolonged periods is falling from favor, although it remains important to control hypertension and hyperglycemia to slow nephropathy progression and prevent cardiovascular disease. Many patients with systemic diseases that may potentially involve their kidneys never develop nephropathy. In addition, severe forms of several common kidney diseases cluster tightly in families. This manuscript discusses the existence of differential nephropathy susceptibility based on an individual's genetic make-up, in the context of environmental exposures. Novel genetic analysis methods and recently identified major kidney disease susceptibility genes are discussed, including novel perspectives for categorizing complex forms of nephropathy based on the expanding spectrum of MYH9-associated disease. Genetic screening, gene-environment and gene-gene interactions are also addressed.
African American; chronic kidney disease; focal segmental glomerulosclerosis; hypertension; genetics; MYH9
Higher levels of the adipocyte-specific hormone adiponectin have been linked to increased HDL and lower insulin resistance. This study was conducted to determine the influence of macronutrient intake on adiponectin levels. One hundred and sixty-four pre- and stage-1 hypertensive adults participated in OMNI-Heart, a cross-over feeding study originally testing the effects of macronutrients on blood pressure. Participants underwent three 6-week feeding periods: one rich in carbohydrates (CARB), one rich in monounsaturated fat (MUFA), and one rich in protein (PROT), while maintaining body weight. Their median plasma high molecular weight (HMW) and total adiponectin levels were 2.3 and 8.2 μg/ml, respectively, resulting in an average of 27% HMW adiponectin. Both HMW and total adiponectin levels decreased after baseline while the percent HMW adiponectin remained unchanged. Between diets, the MUFA diet maintained a higher level of both HMW and total adiponectin level than either the CARB (HMW: +6.8%, p=0.02; total: +4.5%, p=0.001) or PROT (HMW: +8.4%, p=0.003; total: +5.6%, p<0.001) diets. Changes in total adiponectin levels were positively correlated to changes in HDL cholesterol irrespective of diets (Spearman r = 0.22–0.40). No correlation was found between changes in lipids, blood pressure, or insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Macronutrient intake has effects on HMW and total adiponectin levels independent of weight loss. A diet rich in monounsaturated fat was associated with higher levels of total and HMW adiponectin in comparison to a carbohydrate- or protein- rich diet. Effects seen in adiponectin paralleled those found with HDL cholesterol.
adiponectin; cholesterol; diet; obesity
Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is an important causal cardiovascular risk factor, with serum Lp(a) levels predicting atherosclerotic heart disease and genetic determinants of Lp(a) levels showing association with myocardial infarction. Lp(a) levels vary widely between populations, with African-derived populations having nearly 2-fold higher Lp(a) levels than European Americans. We investigated the genetic basis of this difference in 4464 African Americans from the Jackson Heart Study (JHS) using a panel of up to 1447 ancestry informative markers, allowing us to accurately estimate the African ancestry proportion of each individual at each position in the genome. In an unbiased genome-wide admixture scan for frequency-differentiated genetic determinants of Lp(a) level, we found a convincing peak (LOD = 13.6) at 6q25.3, which spans the LPA locus. Dense fine-mapping of the LPA locus identified a number of strongly associated, common biallelic SNPs, a subset of which can account for up to 7% of the variation in Lp(a) level, as well as >70% of the African-European population differences in Lp(a) level. We replicated the association of the most strongly associated SNP, rs9457951 (p = 6×10−22, 27% change in Lp(a) per allele, ∼5% of Lp(a) variance explained in JHS), in 1,726 African Americans from the Dallas Heart Study and found an even stronger association after adjustment for the kringle(IV) repeat copy number. Despite the strong association with Lp(a) levels, we find no association of any LPA SNP with incident coronary heart disease in 3,225 African Americans from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.
Previous studies have shown that, in addition to environmental influences, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has a strong genetic component. The goal of the current study is to identify regions of linkage for T2DM in ethnically diverse populations.
Phenotypic and genotypic data were obtained from African American (AA; total number of individuals (N)=1004), American Indian (AI; N=883), European American (EA; N=537), and Mexican American (MA; N=1634) individuals from the Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes. Nonparametric linkage analysis, using an average of 4,404 SNPs, was performed in relative pairs affected with T2DM in each ethnic group. In addition, family-based tests were performed to detect association with T2DM.
Statistically significant evidence for linkage was observed on chromosomes 4q21.1 (LOD=3.13; genome-wide p=0.04) in AA. In addition, a total of eleven regions showed suggestive evidence for linkage (estimated at LOD>1.71), with the highest LOD scores on chromosomes 12q21.31 (LOD=2.02) and 22q12.3 (LOD=2.38) in AA, 2p11.1 (LOD=2.23) in AI, 6p12.3 (LOD=2.77) in EA, and 13q21.1 (LOD=2.24) in MA. While no region overlapped across all ethnic groups, at least five loci showing LOD>1.71 have been identified in previously published studies.
The results from this study provide evidence for the presence of genes affecting T2DM on chromosomes 4q, 12q, and 22q in AA, 6p in EA, 2p in AI, and 13q in MA. The strong evidence for linkage on chromosome 4q in AA provides important information given the paucity of diabetes genetic studies in this population.
FIND; Type 2 Diabetes; linkage analysis; ethnicity
Glucose levels 2 h after an oral glucose challenge are a clinical measure of glucose tolerance used in the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. We report a meta-analysis of nine genome-wide association studies (n = 15,234 nondiabetic individuals) and a follow-up of 29 independent loci (n = 6,958–30,620). We identify variants at the GIPR locus associated with 2-h glucose level (rs10423928, β (s.e.m.) = 0.09 (0.01) mmol/l per A allele, P = 2.0 × 10−15). The GIPR A-allele carriers also showed decreased insulin secretion (n = 22,492; insulinogenic index, P = 1.0 × 10−17; ratio of insulin to glucose area under the curve, P = 1.3 × 10−16) and diminished incretin effect (n = 804; P = 4.3 × 10−4). We also identified variants at ADCY5 (rs2877716, P = 4.2 × 10−16), VPS13C (rs17271305, P = 4.1 × 10−8), GCKR (rs1260326, P = 7.1 × 10−11) and TCF7L2 (rs7903146, P = 4.2 × 10−10) associated with 2-h glucose. Of the three newly implicated loci (GIPR, ADCY5 and VPS13C), only ADCY5 was found to be associated with type 2 diabetes in collaborating studies (n = 35,869 cases, 89,798 controls, OR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.09–1.15, P = 4.8 × 10−18).
The electrocardiographic PR interval reflects atrial and atrioventricular nodal conduction, disturbances of which increase risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). To identify underlying common genetic variation, we meta-analyzed genome-wide association results for PR interval from seven community-based studies of European-ancestry individuals in the CHARGE consortium: AGES, ARIC, CHS, FHS, KORA, Rotterdam Study, and SardiNIA (N=28,517). Statistically significant loci (P<5×10-8) were tested for association with AF (N=5,741 cases). We identified nine loci associated with PR interval. At chromosome 3p22.2, we observed two independent associations in voltage gated sodium channel genes SCN10A and SCN5A, while six loci were near cardiac developmental genes CAV1/CAV2, NKX2-5 (CSX1), SOX5, WNT11, MEIS1, and TBX5/TBX3. Another signal was at ARHGAP24, a locus without known relevance to the heart. Five of the nine loci, SCN5A, SCN10A, NKX2-5, CAV1/CAV2, and SOX5, were also associated with AF (P<0.0056). Common genetic variation, particularly in ion channel and developmental genes, contributes significantly to atrial and atrioventricular conduction and to AF risk.
genome-wide association study; quantitative trait; PR interval; PQ interval; developmental genes; voltage gated sodium channel; atrial fibrillation
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene are associated with body mass index (BMI) in populations of European descent. The FTO rs9939609 variant, first detected in a genome-wide association study of diabetes, conferred an increased disease risk that was abolished after adjustment for BMI, suggesting that the association may be due to variation in adiposity. The relationship between diabetes, four previously identified FTO polymorphisms that span a 19.6-kb genomic region, and obesity was therefore evaluated in the biracial population-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study with the goal of further refining the association by comparing results between the two ethnic groups. The prevalence of diabetes and obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) was established at baseline, and diabetes was determined by either self-report, a fasting glucose level ≥126 mg/dL, or non-fasting glucose ≥200 mg/dL. There were 1,004 diabetes cases and 10,038 non-cases in whites, and 670 cases and 2,780 non-cases in African-Americans. Differences in mean BMI were assessed by a general linear model, and multivariable logistic regression was used to predict the risk of diabetes and obesity. For white participants, the FTO rs9939609 A allele was associated with an increased risk of diabetes (odds ratio (OR) = 1.19, p<0.001) and obesity (OR = 1.22, p<0.001) under an additive genetic model that was similar for all of the SNPs analyzed. In African-Americans, only the rs1421085 C allele was a determinant of obesity risk (OR = 1.17, p = 0.05), but was found to be protective against diabetes (OR = 0.79, p = 0.03). Adjustment for BMI did not eliminate any of the observed associations with diabetes. Significant statistical interaction between race and the FTO variants suggests that the effect on diabetes susceptibility may be context dependent.
Recent experimental evidence suggests that DNA damage and cell cycle regulatory proteins are involved in kidney injury and apoptosis. The checkpoint 2 gene (CHEK2) is an important transducer in DNA damage signaling pathways in response to injury, and therefore, CHEK2 variants may affect susceptibility to kidney disease.
We used tag-single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tag-SNPs) to evaluate the association of the CHEK2 with kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR) in 1,549 African-American and 1,423 white Hypertension Genetic Epidemiology Network (HyperGEN) participants. We performed replication analyses in the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA) participants (1,746 African Americans and 1,418 whites), GenNet participants (706 whites), and Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study participants (3,783 African Americans and 10,936 whites). All analyses were race-stratified and used additive genetic models with adjustments for covariates and for family structure, if needed.
One tag-SNP, rs5762764, was associated with eGFR in HyperGEN P = (0.003) and GENOA white participants (P = 0.009), and it was significantly associated with eGFR in meta-analyses (P = 0.002). The associations were independent of type 2 diabetes.
These results suggest that CHEK2 variants may influence eGFR in the context of hypertension.
The prevalence of obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2) is higher in African Americans than in European Americans, even after adjustment for socioeconomic factors, suggesting that genetic factors may explain some of the difference. To identify genetic loci influencing BMI, we carried out a pooled analysis of genome-wide admixture mapping scans in 15,280 African Americans from 14 epidemiologic studies. Samples were genotyped at a median of 1,411 ancestry-informative markers. After adjusting for age, sex, and study, BMI was analyzed both as a dichotomized (top 20% versus bottom 20%) and a continuous trait. We found that a higher percentage of European ancestry was significantly correlated with lower BMI (ρ = −0.042, P = 1.6×10−7). In the dichotomized analysis, we detected two loci on chromosome X as associated with increased African ancestry: the first at Xq25 (locus-specific LOD = 5.94; genome-wide score = 3.22; case-control Z = −3.94); and the second at Xq13.1 (locus-specific LOD = 2.22; case-control Z = −4.62). Quantitative analysis identified a third locus at 5q13.3 where higher BMI was highly significantly associated with greater European ancestry (locus-specific LOD = 6.27; genome-wide score = 3.46). Further mapping studies with dense sets of markers will be necessary to identify the alleles in these regions of chromosomes X and 5 that may be associated with variation in BMI.
Obesity is about 1.5-fold more prevalent in African Americans than European Americans. To determine whether genetic background may contribute to this observed disparity, we scanned the genomes of African Americans, searching for genomic regions where obese individuals have a difference from the average proportion of African ancestry. By examining genetic data from more than 15,000 African Americans, we show that the proportion of European ancestry is inversely correlated with BMI. In obese individuals, we detect two loci with increased African ancestry on chromosome X (Xq13.1 and Xq25) and one locus with increased European ancestry on chromosome 5 (5q13.3). The 5q13.3 and Xq25 regions both contain genes that are known to be involved in appetite regulation. Our results suggest that genetic factors may contribute to the difference in obesity prevalence between African Americans and European Americans. Further studies of the regions may identify the causative variants affecting susceptibility to obesity.
Persistently low white blood cell count (WBC) and neutrophil count is a well-described phenomenon in persons of African ancestry, whose etiology remains unknown. We recently used admixture mapping to identify an approximately 1-megabase region on chromosome 1, where ancestry status (African or European) almost entirely accounted for the difference in WBC between African Americans and European Americans. To identify the specific genetic change responsible for this association, we analyzed genotype and phenotype data from 6,005 African Americans from the Jackson Heart Study (JHS), the Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study, and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. We demonstrate that the causal variant must be at least 91% different in frequency between West Africans and European Americans. An excellent candidate is the Duffy Null polymorphism (SNP rs2814778 at chromosome 1q23.2), which is the only polymorphism in the region known to be so differentiated in frequency and is already known to protect against Plasmodium vivax malaria. We confirm that rs2814778 is predictive of WBC and neutrophil count in African Americans above beyond the previously described admixture association (P = 3.8×10−5), establishing a novel phenotype for this genetic variant.
Many African Americans have white blood cell counts (WBC) that are persistently below the normal range for people of European descent, a condition called “benign ethnic neutropenia.” Because most African Americans have both African and European ancestors, selected genetic variants can be analyzed to assign probable African or European origin to each region of each such person's chromosomes. Previously, we found a region on chromosome 1 where increased local African ancestry completely accounted for differences in WBC between African and European Americans, suggesting the presence of an African-derived variant causing low WBC. Here, we show that low neutrophil count is predominantly responsible for low WBC; that a dominant, European-derived allele contributes to high neutrophil count; and that the frequency of this allele differs in Africans and Europeans by >91%. Across the chromosome 1 locus, only the well-characterized “Duffy” polymorphism was this differentiated. Neutrophil count was more strongly associated to the Duffy variant than to ancestry, suggesting that the variant itself causes benign ethnic neutropenia. The African, or “null,” form of this variant abolishes expression of the “Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines” on red blood cells, perhaps altering the concentrations and distribution of chemokines that regulate neutrophil production or migration.
Extremes of electrocardiographic QT interval are associated with increased risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD); thus, identification and characterization of genetic variants that modulate QT interval may elucidate the underlying etiology of SCD. Previous studies have revealed an association between a common genetic variant in NOS1AP and QT interval in populations of European ancestry, but this finding has not been extended to other ethnic populations. We sought to characterize the effects of NOS1AP genetic variants on QT interval in the multi-ethnic population-based Dallas Heart Study (DHS, n = 3,072). The SNP most strongly associated with QT interval in previous samples of European ancestry, rs16847548, was the most strongly associated in White (P = 0.005) and Black (P = 3.6×10−5) participants, with the same direction of effect in Hispanics (P = 0.17), and further showed a significant SNP × sex-interaction (P = 0.03). A second SNP, rs16856785, uncorrelated with rs16847548, was also associated with QT interval in Blacks (P = 0.01), with qualitatively similar results in Whites and Hispanics. In a previously genotyped cohort of 14,107 White individuals drawn from the combined Atherosclerotic Risk in Communities (ARIC) and Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) cohorts, we validated both the second locus at rs16856785 (P = 7.63×10−8), as well as the sex-interaction with rs16847548 (P = 8.68×10−6). These data extend the association of genetic variants in NOS1AP with QT interval to a Black population, with similar trends, though not statistically significant at P<0.05, in Hispanics. In addition, we identify a strong sex-interaction and the presence of a second independent site within NOS1AP associated with the QT interval. These results highlight the consistent and complex role of NOS1AP genetic variants in modulating QT interval.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by impaired insulin secretion, peripheral insulin resistance, and increased hepatic glucose production. Genes that contribute to genetic susceptibility to T2DM function in numerous biochemical pathways. Uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) functions as a negative regulator of insulin secretion. Animal studies show induction of UCP2 plays a pathogenic role in the progression of obesity-induced T2DM, and some human studies have shown an association between a common UCP2 polymorphism, Ala55Val (rs660339), and T2DM, obesity, and resting metabolic rate with the Val/Val genotype conferring increased risk. We investigated the relationship between the Ala55Val variant and incidence of T2DM among 12,056 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study ages 45−64 years at baseline. Incident T2DM (n=1,406) cases were identified over 9 years of follow-up. The Val55 allele frequency was 44% in blacks and 41% in whites. The rate of T2DM per 1,000 person-years was 15.0, 15.6, and 15.6 for Ala/Ala, Ala/Val, and Val/Val genotypes respectively. We found no significant association between UCP2 genotypes and incident T2DM in the whole cohort, in race-gender subgroups, or in categories of body mass index (normal-overweight-obese). The Ala55Val polymorphism of UCP2 was not associated with incident T2DM in the ARIC cohort.
mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2; Diabetes Mellitus; Type 2; Polymorphism; Single Nucleotide; Obesity; genetics
Through a genome-wide association study, we discovered an association of the electrocardiographic QT interval with polymorphisms in the NOS1AP (CAPON) gene. The purpose of the current study was to replicate this association in the Old Order Amish.
Four NOS1AP SNPs were selected that captured all major haplotypes in the region of interest (∼120 kb segment). Genotyping was completed in 763 subjects from the Heredity and Phenotype Intervention (HAPI) Heart Study. Association analyses were performed using a variance components methodology, accounting for relatedness of individuals.
Heritability of the QT interval was 0.50 ± 0.09 (p = 1.9 × 10–9). All four SNPs were common with a high degree of correlation between SNPs. Two of the four SNPs (pairwise r2 = 0.86) were significantly associated with variation in adjusted QT interval (rs1415262, p = 0.02 and rs10494366, p = 0.006, additive models for both). SNP rs10494366 explained 0.9% of QT interval variability, with an average genetic effect of 6.1 ms. Haplotypes that contained the minor allele for rs10494366 were associated with longer QT interval.
This study provides further evidence that NOS1AP variants influence QT interval and further validates the utility of genome-wide association studies, a relatively new approach to gene discovery.
Association analysis; Candidate gene analysis; Cardiovascular diseases; Genetic polymorphisms; Heritability; Isolated population
Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common variants in the UMOD region associated with kidney function and disease in the general population. To identify novel rare variants as well as common variants that may account for this GWAS signal, the exons and 4 kb upstream region of UMOD were sequenced.
Individuals (n = 485) were selected based on presence of the GWAS risk haplotype and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the ARIC Study and on the extremes of of the UMOD gene product, uromodulin, in urine (Tamm Horsfall protein, THP) in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS). Targeted sequencing was conducted using capillary based Sanger sequencing (3730 DNA Analyzer). Variants were tested for association with THP concentrations and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and identified non-synonymous coding variants were genotyped in up to 22,546 follow-up samples. Twenty-four and 63 variants were identified in the 285 ARIC and 200 FHS participants, respectively. In both studies combined, there were 33 common and 54 rare (MAF<0.05) variants. Five non-synonymous rare variants were identified in FHS; borderline enrichment of rare variants was found in the extremes of THP (SKAT p-value = 0.08). Only V458L was associated with THP in the FHS general-population validation sample (p = 9*10−3, n = 2,522), but did not show direction-consistent and significant association with eGFR in both the ARIC (n = 14,635) and FHS (n = 7,520) validation samples. Pooling all non-synonymous rare variants except V458L together showed non-significant associations with THP and eGFR in the FHS validation sample. Functional studies of V458L revealed no alternations in protein trafficking.
Multiple novel rare variants in the UMOD region were identified, but none were consistently associated with eGFR in two independent study samples. Only V458L had modest association with THP levels in the general population and thus could not account for the observed GWAS signal.
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The multicenter FIND consortium aims to identify genes for DN and its associated quantitative traits, e.g. the urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR). Herein, the results of whole-genome linkage analysis and a sparse association scan for ACR and a dichotomous DN phenotype are reported in diabetic individuals.
A genomewide scan comprising more than 5,500 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism markers (average spacing of 0.6 cM) was performed on 1,235 nuclear and extended pedigrees (3,972 diabetic participants) ascertained for DN from African-American (AA), American-Indian (AI), European-American (EA) and Mexican-American (MA) populations.
Strong evidence for linkage to DN was detected on chromosome 6p (p = 8.0 × 10−5, LOD = 3.09) in EA families as well as suggestive evidence for linkage to chromosome 7p in AI families. Regions on chromosomes 3p in AA, 7q in EA, 16q in AA and 22q in MA displayed suggestive evidence of linkage for urine ACR. The linkage peak on chromosome 22q overlaps the MYH9/APOL1 gene region, previously implicated in AA diabetic and nondiabetic nephropathies.
These results strengthen the evidence for previously identified genomic regions and implicate several novel loci potentially involved in the pathogenesis of DN.
Albuminuria; Diabetes mellitus; Renal failure; End-stage renal disease; Linkage; Allelic association