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1.  Uric Acid Level and Erectile Dysfunction In Patients With Coronary Artery Disease 
The journal of sexual medicine  2013;11(1):165-172.
Introduction
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a frequent complaint of elderly subjects, and is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. Uric acid is also associated with endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease, raising the hypothesis that an increased serum uric acid might predict erectile dysfunction in patients who are at risk for coronary artery disease.
Aim
To evaluate the association of serum uric acid levels with presence and severity of ED in patients presenting with chest pain of presumed cardiac origin.
Methods
This is a cross-sectional study of 312 adult male patients with suspected coronary artery disease who underwent exercise stress test (EST) for workup of chest pain and completed a sexual health inventory for men (SHIM) survey form to determine the presence and severity of ED. Routine serum biochemistry (and uric acid levels) were measured. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess risk factors for ED.
Main Outcome Measures
The short version of the international index of erectile function (IIEF-5) questionnaire diagnosed ED (cutoff score ≤21). Serum Uric acid levels were determined. Patients with chest pain of suspected cardiac origin underwent an exercise stress test.
Results
149 of 312 (47.7%) male subjects had ED by survey criteria. Patients with ED were older and had more frequent CAD, hypertension, diabetes, and impaired renal function, and also had significantly higher levels of uric acid, fibrinogen, glucose, CRP, triglycerides compared with patients without ED. Uric acid levels were associated with ED by univariate analysis (OR = 1.36, p = 0.002); however, this association was not observed in multivariate analysis adjusted for eGFR.
Conclusion
Subjects presenting with chest pain of presumed cardiac origin are more likely to have ED if they have elevated uric acid levels.
doi:10.1111/jsm.12332
PMCID: PMC3962193  PMID: 24433559
Uric Acid; Erectile Dysfunction; Coronary Artery Disease; Endothelial Dysfunction
2.  Dietary Potassium: a Key Mediator of the Cardiovascular Response to Dietary Sodium Chloride 
Potassium and sodium share a yin/yang relationship in the regulation of blood pressure (BP). BP is directly associated with the total body sodium and negatively correlated with the total body potassium. Epidemiologic, experimental, and clinical studies have demonstrated that potassium is a significant regulator of BP and further improves cardiovascular outcomes. Hypertensive cardiovascular damage, stroke and stroke-related death are accelerated by salt intake but could be prevented by increased dietary potassium intake. The antihypertensive effect of potassium supplementation appears to occur through several mechanisms that include regulation of vascular sensitivity to catecholamines, promotion of natriuresis, limiting plasma renin activity, and improving endothelial function. In the absence of chronic kidney disease, the combined evidence supports a diet high in potassium content serves a vasculoprotective function, especially in the setting of salt-sensitive hypertension and prehypertension.
doi:10.1016/j.jash.2013.04.009
PMCID: PMC4083820  PMID: 23735420
dietary potassium; blood pressure; natriuresis; sodium chloride; renin; endothelium
3.  An Update on Coronary Artery Disease and Chronic Kidney Disease 
Despite the improvements in diagnostic tools and medical applications, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), especially coronary artery disease (CAD), remain the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The main factors for the heightened risk in this population, beside advanced age and a high proportion of diabetes and hypertension, are malnutrition, chronic inflammation, accelerated atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, coronary artery calcification, left ventricular structural and functional abnormalities, and bone mineral disorders. Chronic kidney disease is now recognized as an independent risk factor for CAD. In community-based studies, decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and proteinuria were both found to be independently associated with CAD. This paper will discuss classical and recent epidemiologic, pathophysiologic, and clinical aspects of CAD in CKD patients.
doi:10.1155/2014/767424
PMCID: PMC3964836  PMID: 24734178
4.  Serum Level of Lactate Dehydrogenase is a Useful Clinical Marker to Monitor Progressive Multiple Myeloma Diseases: A Case Report 
Turkish Journal of Hematology  2014;31(1):84-87.
To follow the progression of multiple myeloma (MM) disease, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels are as useful markers as beta-2 microglobulin and monoclonal immunoglobulin. With this study, we have presented a case of a patient with a multiple myeloma which was fulminant course, whose LDH levels were normal at the onset of diagnosis increasing as 27 times more than normal as the disease progressed and who showed the development of extramedullary plasmacytomas. The patient, an 80-year-old female, was diagnosed with stage IIIA IgA type multiple myeloma and melphalan-prednisolon (MP) treatment was started. Although the LDH levels were low during the diagnosis and chemotherapy, the LDH levels increased up to 7557 U/L following the progression and occurrence of extramedullary plasmacytomas and the patient died. During the observation of the patient with MM, if the LDH levels are abnormally high, the progression of the disease should be considered after eliminating the other causes. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy should be examined and the progression or relapse should be shown. On the other hand, the patients with LDH levels are high should be considered to have added plasmacytomas, the whole body should be examined at an early stage before the development of clinical symptoms and early treatment should be started.
doi:10.4274/Tjh.2013.0044
PMCID: PMC3996640  PMID: 24764735
Multiple myeloma; LDH; prognosis
6.  Relationship between Uric Acid and Subtle Cognitive Dysfunction in Chronic Kidney Disease 
American Journal of Nephrology  2011;34(1):49-54.
Background
Elevated serum uric acid has been associated with cognitive dysfunction and vascular cognitive impairment in the elderly. Serum uric acid is also commonly elevated in chronic kidney disease (CKD), but its relationship with cognitive function in these patients has not been addressed.
Methods
Subjects with CKD (defined as eGFR <60/ml/min/1.73 m2) were evaluated for cognitive dysfunction using the validated Standardized Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE). Individuals with dementia, depression or other psychiatric disorders were excluded, as were subjects on uric acid-lowering therapy or with serious illnesses such as severe anemia or active or ongoing cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease.
Results
247 subjects were enrolled. SMMSE scores showed stepwise deterioration with increasing quartile of serum uric acid (26.4; 26.1; 25.5; 25.3, score range 20–30, p = 0.019). Post-hoc analysis demonstrated that there was no linear trend and only groups 1 and 4 were different with respect to SMMSE scores (p = 0.025). Stepwise multivariate linear regression revealed that age, educational status, presence of cerebrovascular disease, and serum uric acid were independently related to SMMSE scores.
Conclusion
Serum uric acid levels are independently and inversely associated with mild cognitive dysfunction in subjects with CKD.
doi:10.1159/000329097
PMCID: PMC3121541  PMID: 21659739
Cognitive function; Chronic kidney disease; Uric acid
7.  Serum Uric Acid Level and Endothelial Dysfunction in Patients with Nondiabetic Chronic Kidney Disease 
American Journal of Nephrology  2011;33(4):298-304.
Background
An elevated serum uric acid level is strongly associated with endothelial dysfunction and inflammation, both of which are common in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We hypothesized that endothelial dysfunction in subjects with CKD would correlate with uric acid levels.
Materials and Methods
We evaluated the association between serum uric acid level and ultrasonographic flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) in 263 of 486 patients with recently diagnosed CKD (stage 3–5) (48% male, age 52 ± 12 years). To minimize confounding, 233 patients were excluded because they were diabetic, had established cardiovascular complications or were taking drugs (renin-angiotensin system blockers, statins) interfering with vascular function.
Results
Serum uric acid level was significantly increased in all stages of CKD and strongly correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR-MDRD); FMD was inversely associated with serum uric acid (r = −0.49, p < 0.001). The association of serum uric acid with FMD remained after adjustment for age, gender, smoking, LDL cholesterol, eGFR, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, systolic blood pressure, proteinuria, and homeostatic model assessment index (β = −0.27, p < 0.001).
Conclusion
Increased serum uric acid is an independent predictor of endothelial dysfunction in subjects with CKD.
doi:10.1159/000324847
PMCID: PMC3064939  PMID: 21389694
Chronic kidney disease; Uric acid; Endothelial dysfunction
8.  Uric Acid and Pentraxin-3 Levels Are Independently Associated with Coronary Artery Disease Risk in Patients with Stage 2 and 3 Kidney Disease 
American Journal of Nephrology  2011;33(4):325-331.
Background and Objectives
Cardiovascular disease is prevalent in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Uric acid is increased in subjects with CKD and has been linked with cardiovascular mortality in this population. However, no study has evaluated the relationship of uric acid with angiographically proven coronary artery disease (CAD) in this population. We therefore investigated the link between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and (i) extent of CAD assessed by the Gensini score and (ii) inflammatory parameters, including C-reactive protein (CRP) and pentraxin-3, in patients with mild-to-moderate CKD.
Material and Methods
In an unselected population of 130 patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) between 90 and 30 ml/min/1.73 m2, we measured SUA, serum pentraxin-3, CRP, urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio, lipid parameters and the severity of CAD as assessed by coronary angiography and quantified by the Gensini lesion severity score.
Results
The mean serum values for SUA, pentraxin-3 and CRP in the entire study population were 5.5 ± 1.5 mg/dl, 6.4 ± 3.4 ng/ml and 3.5 ± 2.6 mg/dl, respectively. The Gensini scores significantly correlated in univariate analysis with gender (R = −0.379, p = 0.02), uric acid (R = 0.42, p = 0.001), pentraxin-3 (R = 0.54, p = 0.001), CRP (R = 0.29, p = 0.006) levels, eGFR (R = −0.33, p = 0.02), proteinuria (R = 0.21, p = 0.01), and presence of hypertension (R = 0.37, p = 0.001), but not with smoking status, diabetes mellitus, and lipid parameters. After adjustments for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, only uric acid (R = 0.21, p = 0.02) and pentraxin-3 (R = 0.28, p = 0.01) remained significant predictors of the Gensini score.
Conclusions
SUA and pentraxin-3 levels are independent determinants of severity of CAD in patients with mild-to-moderate CKD. We recommend a clinical trial to determine whether lowering uric acid could prevent progression of CAD in patients with CKD.
doi:10.1159/000324916
PMCID: PMC3064941  PMID: 21389698
Chronic kidney disease; Coronary artery disease; Uric acid; Pentraxin-3
9.  Mechanisms and Consequences of Salt Sensitivity and Dietary Salt Intake 
Purpose of review
Investigation into the underlying mechanisms of salt sensitivity has made important advances in recent years. This review examines in particular the effects of sodium and potassium on vascular function.
Recent findings
Sodium chloride (salt) intake promotes cutaneous lymphangiogenesis mediated through tissue macrophages and directly alters endothelial cell function, promoting increased production of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and nitric oxide (NO). In the setting of endothelial dysfunction, such as occurs with aging, diminished NO production exacerbates the vascular effects of TGF-β, promoting decreased arterial compliance and hypertension. Dietary potassium intake may serve as an important countervailing influence on the effects of salt in the vasculature.
Summary
There is growing appreciation that, independently of alterations in blood pressure, dietary intake of sodium and potassium promote functional changes in the vasculature and lymphatic system. These changes may serve as compensatory changes that protect against development of salt-sensitive hypertension. While salt sensitivity cannot be ascribed exclusively to these factors, perturbation of these processes promote hypertension during high-salt intake. These studies add to the list of genetic and environmental factors that are associated with salt sensitivity, but in particular provide insight into adaptive mechanisms during high salt intake.
doi:10.1097/MNH.0b013e32834122f1
PMCID: PMC3089903  PMID: 21088577
dietary sodium; dietary potassium; nitric oxide; TGF-β; arterial compliance
10.  A forgotten but important risk factor for severe hyponatremia: myxedema coma 
Clinics  2010;65(4):447-448.
doi:10.1590/S1807-59322010000400015
PMCID: PMC2862668  PMID: 20454504
11.  Cefuroxime-induced lupus. 
Drug-induced lupus erythematosus (DILE) is a syndrome that shares symptoms and laboratory characteristics with idiopathic systemic lupus erythematosus. Recognition of DILE is important because it usually reverts within a few weeks after stopping the offending drug. Antibiotics are uncommonly associated with DILE, and cefuroxime has never been incriminated as a cause. We present herein the first case of DILE induced by cefuroxime. Although this is the first report of cefuroxime-induced DILE, we should be aware of this occurrence.
PMCID: PMC2575873  PMID: 17913119
12.  Route of nutrition has no effect on the development of infectious complications. 
BACKGROUND: Infection is a serious complication of nutritional support, causing a high rate of mortality and morbidity. Critically ill patients having nutritional support are prone to infectious complications. Questions regarding the effects of the route of nutrition in infectious complications have been asked. We aimed to determine the relationship between the route of nutrition and the risk of developing infectious complications in severely ill patients on nutritional support in an intensive care unit. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on the files of 144 severely ill patients who had either enteral or parenteral nutrition during follow-up in an intensive care unit. The primary diagnoses of patients were heterogenous. RESULTS: Sixty-eight (35.8%) of them acquired novel infections during the hospitalization period. Forty-nine and 19 of the 68 infected patients had enteral and parenteral nutrition support, respectively. Seventy-six (40%) of the patients were free of infection. Fifty-one of 76 infection-free patients had enteral nutrition support, and 25 of them had parenteral nutrition support. Pulmonary infections, urinary tract infections, catheter infections and septicemia were the most frequent types of infectious complications. There was no significant difference in the rate of infectious complications between enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition groups (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: We conclude that the route of the nutritional support in severely ill patients having nutritional support in an intensive care unit does not affect the rate of infectious complications. We think that comorbid medical conditions and the need of intensive care unit support are more important parameters that determine the risk of development of infectious complications.
PMCID: PMC2569691  PMID: 17225842
13.  A case of bilateral psoas abscesses and lumbar osteomyelitis due to recurrent salmonella infection. 
Psoas abscess and lumbar osteomyelitis due to salmonella infection is very rare, although it is frequently seen all over the world. These two complications have severe clinical progress, poor prognosis and high mortality. Here, we report a case of salmonellosis presenting with bilateral multiple psoas abscesses and lumbar osteomyelitis, which resolved completely following medical treatment and percutoneous drainage of abscess.
Images
PMCID: PMC2569776  PMID: 17128697
14.  Involvement of the esophagus in a patient with pemphigus vulgaris who was on immunosuppressive therapy. 
Esophageal involvement of pemphigus vulgaris (PV) had been considered an exceptional event. We present the case of a woman with PV who developed esophageal involvement while being treated with azathioprine and resolved after steroid therapy. This case highlights that esophageal involvement of PV might be resistant to immunosuppressive therapy other than steroids.
Images
PMCID: PMC2569544  PMID: 16916141
15.  Tuberculous epididymitis presenting with Addison's disease: a rare case. 
This report describes a case of tuberculosis with an atypical presentation characterized by epididymitis and Addison's disease in the absence of lung involvement. A 54-year-old male who presented with acute right scrotal pain and a whitish discharge, had been diagnosed four months earlier with acute epididymitis and prescribed ciprofloxacin. The clinical diagnosis was epididymitis and Addison's disease. Hydrocortisone therapy was initiated, and bilateral epididymectomy was undertaken. Biopsy specimen showed the presence of acid-fast bacilli and antituberculous treatment was initiated. On follow-up, the patient was in good clinical condition and free of symptoms. We conclude that tuberculous epididymitis can cause serious complications and should be included in the differential diagnosis for chronic epididymitis of unknown cause that does not respond to routine treatment. A high index of suspicion is required for diagnosis.
Images
PMCID: PMC2569482  PMID: 16895290

Results 1-15 (15)