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1.  Impact of Sleep Quality on Cardiovascular Outcomes in Hemodialysis Patients: Results from the Frequent Hemodialysis Network Study 
American Journal of Nephrology  2011;33(5):398-406.
Background
Poor sleep quality is a common, persistent, and important problem to patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). This report examines whether sleep quality is associated with dialysis treatment factors and other modifiable clinical factors in a large group of hemodialysis (HD) patients.
Methods
Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline data collected from participants in the Frequent Hemodialysis Network trials. Sleep quality was measured using the Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Problems Index II (SPI II), a 9-item measure of sleep quality with higher scores reflecting poorer sleep quality.
Results
The participants had an age of 51.2 ± 13.6 years, 61% were male, 38% were black, and 42% had diabetes. Higher pre-dialysis serum phosphorus (per 0.5 mg/ml) (OR 0.91; 95% CI 0.85, 0.96) and depression (OR 0.16; 95% CI 0.10, 0.25) were independently associated with decrements in sleep quality. There was also a difference in time to recovery from dialysis for the fourth versus the first SPI II quartile (5.1 h; p < 0.0001).
Conclusion
These findings underscore the link between sleep and daytime function and suggest that improving sleep may provide an opportunity to improve outcomes in ESRD. Whether sleep problems may be improved by reduction of serum phosphorus or treatment of depression in the HD population merits further investigation.
doi:10.1159/000326343
PMCID: PMC3080580  PMID: 21474924
Hemodialysis; Sleep; Quality of life; Cognitive function; Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging
2.  Investigation of Food and Environmental Exposures Relating to the Epidemiology of Campylobacter coli in Humans in Northwest England▿  
This study uses multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to investigate the epidemiology of Campylobacter coli in a continuous study of a population in Northwest England. All cases of Campylobacter identified in four Local Authorities (government administrative boundaries) between 2003 and 2006 were identified to species level and then typed, using MLST. Epidemiological information was collected for each of these cases, including food and recreational exposure variables, and the epidemiologies of C. jejuni and C. coli were compared using case-case methodology. Samples of surface water thought to represent possible points of exposure to the populations under study were also sampled, and campylobacters were typed with multilocus sequence typing. Patients with C. coli were more likely to be older and female than patients with C. jejuni. In logistic regression, C. coli infection was positively associated with patients eating undercooked eggs, eating out, and reporting problems with their water supply prior to illness. C. coli was less associated with consuming pork products. Most of the cases of C. coli yielded sequence types described elsewhere in both livestock and poultry, but several new sequence types were also identified in human cases and water samples. There was no overlap between types identified in humans and surface waters, and genetic analysis suggested three distinct clades but with several “intermediate” types from water that were convergent with the human clade. There is little evidence to suggest that epidemiological differences between human cases of C. coli and C. jejuni are a result of different food or behavioral exposures alone.
doi:10.1128/AEM.00942-09
PMCID: PMC2798646  PMID: 19854914
3.  Living donor renal transplant recipients tolerate early removal of bladder catheters 
Recipients of living donor renal grafts enjoy numerous benefits compared with deceased donor kidney recipients. Bladder catheterization allows for the continuous determination of urinary output and, theoretically, may prevent urinary leaks. A series of 25 consecutive renal transplants was reviewed to evaluate the timing of removal of bladder catheters after transplantation. Removing urinary catheters as early as 24 h to 48 h post-transplant showed no increase in undesirable outcomes. More than 50% of the patients had invasive bladder catheters in place for only one or two days. Early removal was associated with a lower rate of urinary tract infections, decreased length of hospitalization and possibly less discomfort, in the absence of detrimental effects.
PMCID: PMC2780850  PMID: 22477495
Catheter; Donor; Foley; Infection; Kidney; Live; Satisfaction; Transplant; Urinary
4.  Cadaveric renal transplant recipients can safely tolerate removal of bladder catheters within 48 h of transplant 
The ideal time to remove urinary catheters after renal transplantation has not been thoroughly established. It remains unclear whether the anastomosis is actually protected with prolonged bladder catheterization. In addition, the incidence of urinary tract infections may increase with prolonged catheterization. A series of 57 consecutive deceased donor renal transplants was retrospectively reviewed for outcomes associated with duration of bladder catheterization. Removing urinary catheters within 48 h post-transplant showed no increase in undesirable outcomes, and very likely improved patient satisfaction.
PMCID: PMC2780854  PMID: 22477496
Cadaver; Catheter; Deceased; Donor; Foley; Infection; Kidney; Satisfaction; Transplant; Urinary

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