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1.  Angiotensin II Infusion Induces Nephrin Expression Changes and Podocyte Apoptosis 
American journal of nephrology  2008;28(3):500-507.
Background/Aim:
In in vitro studies, angiotensin (Ang) II has been demonstrated to promote podocyte apoptosis. The present study evaluates the effects of Ang II infusion in rats on podocyte nephrin expression and apoptosis and the molecular mechanisms involved in Ang II-induced proteinuria and mesangial expansion.
Methods:
Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive either normal saline or Ang II (400 ng·kg−1·min−1) by means of a mini-osmotic pump for variable time periods. Systolic blood pressure and urinary protein and albumin excretion rate measurements were carried out on days 7, 14, 21, and 28. The animals were sacrificed on days 14 and 28 and evaluated for serum creatinine, renal pathological changes, podocyte apoptosis, renal nephrin mRNA, and protein expression.
Results:
The Ang II-infused rats developed hypertension and proteinuria. On day 14, the Ang II-infused rats showed narrowing of the slit diaphragm, an increase in podocyte nephrin mRNA and protein expression, and alterations in its distribution along the foot processes. On day 28, the Ang II-infused rats demonstrated the presence of apoptotic podocytes and decreased nephrin mRNA and protein expression. There was a negative correlation between nephrin expression and the numbers of apoptotic podocytes (r = −0.63, p < 0.05).
Conclusion:
These results suggest that changes in nephrin expression may play a role in the pathogenesis of Ang II-induced podocyte apoptosis.
doi:10.1159/000113538
PMCID: PMC2630486  PMID: 18204248
Angiotensin II; Proteinuria; Nephrin expression; Podocyte; Apoptosis
2.  Angiotensin II Infusion Induces Nephrin Expression Changes and Podocyte Apoptosis 
American Journal of Nephrology  2008;28(3):500-507.
Background/Aim
In in vitro studies, angiotensin (Ang) II has been demonstrated to promote podocyte apoptosis. The present study evaluates the effects of Ang II infusion in rats on podocyte nephrin expression and apoptosis and the molecular mechanisms involved in Ang II-induced proteinuria and mesangial expansion.
Methods
Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive either normal saline or Ang II (400 ng·kg–1·min–1) by means of a mini-osmotic pump for variable time periods. Systolic blood pressure and urinary protein and albumin excretion rate measurements were carried out on days 7, 14, 21, and 28. The animals were sacrificed on days 14 and 28 and evaluated for serum creatinine, renal pathological changes, podocyte apoptosis, renal nephrin mRNA, and protein expression.
Results
The Ang II-infused rats developed hypertension and proteinuria. On day 14, the Ang II-infused rats showed narrowing of the slit diaphragm, an increase in podocyte nephrin mRNA and protein expression, and alterations in its distribution along the foot processes. On day 28, the Ang II-infused rats demonstrated the presence of apoptotic podocytes and decreased nephrin mRNA and protein expression. There was a negative correlation between nephrin expression and the numbers of apoptotic podocytes (r = −0.63, p < 0.05).
Conclusion
These results suggest that changes in nephrin expression may play a role in the pathogenesis of Ang II-induced podocyte apoptosis.
doi:10.1159/000113538
PMCID: PMC2630486  PMID: 18204248
Angiotensin II; Proteinuria; Nephrin expression; Podocyte; Apoptosis
3.  HIV-1 gp120-induced tubular epithelial cell apoptosis is mediated through p38-MAPK phosphorylation. 
Molecular Medicine  2002;8(11):676-685.
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated nephropathy is accompanied by significant tubular alterations in the form of tubular cell proliferation, apoptosis, and microcystic dilatation. In the present study we evaluated the role of CD4 receptors in HIV-1-induced tubular cell injury. METHODS: To confirm the presence of CD4 receptors in tubular cells, immunocytochemical, Western and Northern blot studies were carried out. To determine the downstream effect of CD4 and gp120 interaction, we evaluated the effect of gp120 on tubular cell p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity and phosphorylation. To establish causal relationships between gp120, CD4, and p38 MAPK pathways, we studied the effect of anti-CD4 antibody and SB 202190 (an inhibitor of p38 MAPK) on gp120-induced tubular cell apoptosis. RESULTS: Proximal tubular cells in culture as well as in intact tissue showed expression of CD4 (immunocytochemical and Western blot studies). Cultured tubular cells also showed mRNA expression for CD4 (Northern blot studies). Gp120, at concentrations of 10-100 ng/ ml, triggered tubular cell apoptosis; however, this effect of gp120 was inhibited by anti-CD4 antibody. SB 202190 also inhibited gp120-induced tubular cell apoptosis. In addition, gp120 promoted tubular cell p38 MAPK phosphorylation in a time- and dose- dependent manner. CONCLUSION: Gp120 through interaction with CD4 triggers tubular cell apoptosis. This effect of gp120 on tubular cells is mediated through phosphorylation of p38 MAPK.
PMCID: PMC2039950  PMID: 12520084
4.  A Saturable, Vasopressin-Sensitive Carrier for Urea and Acetamide in the Toad Bladder Epithelial Cell 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1973;52(8):2083-2086.
The permeability of the toad bladder to a series of isotopically labeled nonelectrolytes was determined in the presence of 150 mM unlabeled acetamide. Under these conditions, overall bladder function was unimpaired, as shown by a normal response to vasopressin of short-circuit current and permeability coefficient of [3H]water,[14C]ethanol, and [14C]propionamide. The permeability of the bladder to isotopic acetamide and urea, however, was significantly depressed by unlabeled acetamide, in both the absence and presence of vasopressin. These experiments indicate a competition between unlabeled and isotopic species for binding sites, and show the existence of a saturable, vasopressin-sensitive carrier for urea and acetamide in the epithelial cell membrane.
PMCID: PMC302491  PMID: 4198196
5.  Effect of Phloretin on Water and Solute Movement in the Toad Bladder 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1973;52(6):1435-1442.
It is generally believed that urea crosses the cell membrane through aqueous channels, and that its movement across the membrane is accelerated in the direction of net water flow (solvent drag effect). The present report presents evidence for a vasopressin-sensitive pathway for the movement of urea, other amides, and certain non-amides, which is independent of water flow. Phloretin, when present at 10-4 M concentration in the medium bathing the luminal surface of the toad bladder, strongly inhibits the movement of urea, acetamide, and propionamide across the toad bladder, both in the absence and presence of vasopressin. The vasopressin-stimulated movement of formaldehyde and thiourea is also reduced. Osmotic water flow, on the other hand, is not affected; nor is the movement of ethanol and ethylene glycol, or the net transport of sodium. On the basis of these studies we would conclude that the movement of many, if not all, solutes across the cell membrane is independent of water flow, and that a vasopressin-sensitive carrier may be involved in the transport of certain solutes across the cell membrane.
PMCID: PMC302408  PMID: 4703229
6.  Activation energy for water diffusion across the toad bladder: evidence against the pore enlargement hypothesis 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1971;50(5):1016-1018.
The activation energy (EA) for the diffusion of water across the epithelial cell layer of the toad bladder was determined in the absence and presence of vasopressin. An experimental approach was employed which minimized the effects of unstirred layers and the thick supporting layer of the bladder on the measurement of water diffusion. EA in the absence of vasopressin was 11.7 ±1.4 kcal·mole-1; after vasopressin it was 10.6±1.1 kcal·mole-1. The difference between the two values was not significant. The results are consistent with an increase in the number rather than the size of aqueous channels in the cell membrane, a finding which differs from the generally held view that the hormone increases the radius of pores in the membrane.
PMCID: PMC292023  PMID: 5552404

Results 1-6 (6)