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1.  Epicardial adipose tissue and pericoronary fat thickness measured with 64-multidetector computed tomography: potential predictors of the severity of coronary artery disease 
Clinics  2014;69(6):388-392.
OBJECTIVE:
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between pericoronary fat and the severity and extent of atherosclerosis, quantified using 64-multidetector computed tomography, in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.
METHODS:
The study population consisted of 131 patients who were clinically referred for noninvasive multislice computed tomography coronary angiography for the evaluation of coronary artery disease. Patients were classified as follows: no atherosclerosis, Group 1; nonobstructive atherosclerosis (luminal narrowing <50% in diameter), Group 2; and obstructive atherosclerosis (luminal narrowing ≥50%) in a single vessel or obstructive atherosclerosis in the left main coronary artery and/or multiple vessels, Group 3. Epicardial adipose tissue was defined as the adipose tissue between the surface of the heart and the visceral layer of the pericardium (visceral epicardium). Epicardial adipose tissue thickness (mm) was determined in the right ventricular anterior free wall. The mean thickness of the pericoronary fat surrounding the three coronary arteries was used for the analyses.
RESULTS:
The average thickness over all three regions was 13.2 ± 2.1 mm. The pericoronary fat thickness was significantly increased in Group 3 compared with Groups 2 and 1. The epicardial adipose tissue thickness was significantly increased in Group 3 compared with Groups 2 and 1. A receiver operating characteristic curve for obstructive coronary artery disease was assessed to verify the optimum cut-off point for pericoronary fat thickness, which was 13.8 mm. A receiver operating characteristic curve for obstructive coronary artery disease was also assessed to verify the optimum cut-off point for epicardial adipose tissue, which was 6.8 cm.
CONCLUSION:
We showed that the epicardial adipose tissue and pericoronary fat thickness scores were higher in patients with obstructive coronary artery diseases.
doi:10.6061/clinics/2014(06)04
PMCID: PMC4050325  PMID: 24964302
Epicardial Adipose Tissue; Pericoronary Fat Thickness; 64-Multidetector Computed Tomography; Severity of Coronary Artery Disease
2.  Sudden Unilateral Vision Loss Arising from Calcified Amorphous Tumor of the Left Ventricle 
Texas Heart Institute Journal  2013;40(4):453-458.
Calcified amorphous tumor of the heart is a very rare non-neoplastic intracavitary mass. The clinical presentation is similar to that of other cardiac masses. The precise cause and best approach to treatment remain unclear. We describe a case of cardiac calcified amorphous tumor presenting with refractory unilateral vision loss that was successfully treated by surgical excision. To our knowledge, this is only the 2nd reported case of retinal arterial embolism due to cardiac calcified amorphous tumor in the English-language literature.
PMCID: PMC3783124  PMID: 24082378
Blindness/etiology; calcinosis/complications/radiography/surgery; diagnosis, differential; tumor, cardiac calcified amorphous; vision loss, sudden
3.  Uric Acid and Pentraxin-3 Levels Are Independently Associated with Coronary Artery Disease Risk in Patients with Stage 2 and 3 Kidney Disease 
American Journal of Nephrology  2011;33(4):325-331.
Background and Objectives
Cardiovascular disease is prevalent in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Uric acid is increased in subjects with CKD and has been linked with cardiovascular mortality in this population. However, no study has evaluated the relationship of uric acid with angiographically proven coronary artery disease (CAD) in this population. We therefore investigated the link between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and (i) extent of CAD assessed by the Gensini score and (ii) inflammatory parameters, including C-reactive protein (CRP) and pentraxin-3, in patients with mild-to-moderate CKD.
Material and Methods
In an unselected population of 130 patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) between 90 and 30 ml/min/1.73 m2, we measured SUA, serum pentraxin-3, CRP, urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio, lipid parameters and the severity of CAD as assessed by coronary angiography and quantified by the Gensini lesion severity score.
Results
The mean serum values for SUA, pentraxin-3 and CRP in the entire study population were 5.5 ± 1.5 mg/dl, 6.4 ± 3.4 ng/ml and 3.5 ± 2.6 mg/dl, respectively. The Gensini scores significantly correlated in univariate analysis with gender (R = −0.379, p = 0.02), uric acid (R = 0.42, p = 0.001), pentraxin-3 (R = 0.54, p = 0.001), CRP (R = 0.29, p = 0.006) levels, eGFR (R = −0.33, p = 0.02), proteinuria (R = 0.21, p = 0.01), and presence of hypertension (R = 0.37, p = 0.001), but not with smoking status, diabetes mellitus, and lipid parameters. After adjustments for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, only uric acid (R = 0.21, p = 0.02) and pentraxin-3 (R = 0.28, p = 0.01) remained significant predictors of the Gensini score.
Conclusions
SUA and pentraxin-3 levels are independent determinants of severity of CAD in patients with mild-to-moderate CKD. We recommend a clinical trial to determine whether lowering uric acid could prevent progression of CAD in patients with CKD.
doi:10.1159/000324916
PMCID: PMC3064941  PMID: 21389698
Chronic kidney disease; Coronary artery disease; Uric acid; Pentraxin-3
4.  Double right coronary artery: a report of two cases 
Clinics  2010;65(4):449-451.
doi:10.1590/S1807-59322010000400016
PMCID: PMC2862678  PMID: 20454505
6.  The effect of high dose digoxin on cytokines in healthy dogs. 
Mediators of Inflammation  2002;11(4):261-263.
BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-1beta are pro-inflammatory cytokines, causing myocardial dysfunction and a negative inotropic effect. The drugs used to treat heart failure affect the production of cytokines. Digoxin, on which this study was focused, is one of the drugs for the treatment of heart failure. AIM: The present study was designed to examine the early effects of high doses of digoxin on the production of cytokines in healthy dogs. METHODS: Digoxin was given parenterally to dogs at 0.15 mg/kg. IL-1beta and TNF-alpha production and levels of digoxin in the serum were measured 0, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h following administration of digoxin. RESULTS: As the levels of serum digoxin taken at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h of administration were considered significantly high compared with preceding values (p < 0.001), no notable change in serum IL-1beta and TNF-alpha levels was observed. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that high doses of digoxin do not cause a significant cytokine production in heart muscle in the early phase.
doi:10.1080/096293502900000122
PMCID: PMC1781670  PMID: 12396478

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