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1.  Glomerular Expression of Kidney Injury Molecule-1 and Podocytopenia in Diabetic Glomerulopathy 
American Journal of Nephrology  2011;34(3):268-280.
Background/Aims
Studies have shown that kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is upregulated in damaged renal proximal tubules. In this study, we examined KIM-1 expression in glomerular epithelial cells in diabetic glomerulopathy.
Methods
Renal histology, immunostaining and Western blot for protein level, and real-time PCR for mRNA expression of KIM-1 and podocyte markers were evaluated in untreated or losartan-treated Zucker lean (Fa/+) and Zucker diabetic fatty (Fa/Fa) rats.
Results
The diabetic rats showed an increased glomerular expression of KIM-1. KIM-1 staining was localized primarily in the hyperplastic parietal epithelium of Bowman's capsule in the early stages of diabetes with subsequent increase in KIM-1-positive cells in the glomerular tuft in the more advanced stages. The increase in glomerular KIM-1 was associated with a decrease in podocytes in Fa/Fa rats. Antiproteinuric treatment with losartan attenuated podocytopenia and decreased renal expression of KIM-1 in treated diabetic rats. In an in vitro study, albumin overload increased KIM-1 protein in the primary cultures of rat glomerular epithelial cells.
Conclusion
These results show that glomerular KIM-1 expression was increased, in proportion to the extent of proteinuria and podocytopenia in the diabetic animals, supporting that KIM-1 could be used as a potential biomarker for glomerular injury in proteinuric kidney disease.
doi:10.1159/000330187
PMCID: PMC3169370  PMID: 21822010
Albuminuria; Kidney injury molecule-1; Parietal epithelial cells; Podocytes; Glomerulopathy
2.  Fenofibrate attenuates tubulointerstitial fibrosis and inflammation through suppression of nuclear factor-κB and transforming growth factor-β1/Smad3 in diabetic nephropathy 
Fibrates, the ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, have been shown to have a renal protective action in diabetic models of renal disease, but the mechanisms underlying this effect are unknown. In the present study, we sought to investigate in greater detail the effect of fenofibrate and its mechanism of action on renal inflammation and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in an animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Twelve-week-old non-diabetic Zucker lean (ZL) and Zucker diabetic fatty (ZD) rats were treated with vehicle or fenofibrate for 10 weeks. mRNA and protein analyses were performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot and immunostaining. The diabetic condition of ZD rats was associated with an increase in collagen and α-smooth muscle actin accumulation in the kidney, which was significantly reduced by fenofibrate. Chronic treatment of ZD rats with fenofibrate attenuated renal inflammation and tubular injury as evidenced by a decrease in mRNA and protein expression of secreted phosphoprotein-1, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and kidney injury molecule-1 in the kidneys. Renal interstitial macrophage infiltration was also significantly reduced in the kidneys of fenofibrate-treated diabetic animals. Moreover, renal nuclear factor (NF)-κB DNA-binding activity, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and phospho-Smad3 proteins were significantly higher in ZD animals compared with ZL ones. This increase in NF-κB activity, TGF-β1 expression and Smad3 phosphorylation was greatly attenuated by fenofibrate in the diabetic kidneys. Taken together, fenofibrate suppressed NF-κB and TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathways and reduced renal inflammation and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in diabetic ZD animals.
doi:10.1258/ebm.2009.009218
PMCID: PMC3057137  PMID: 20404057
inflammation; kidney; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α; renal injury; type 2 diabetes

Results 1-2 (2)