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author:("fundic, Suad")
1.  Amelioration of Hypoglycemia Via Somatostatin Receptor Type 2 Antagonism in Recurrently Hypoglycemic Diabetic Rats 
Diabetes  2013;62(7):2215-2222.
Selective antagonism of somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR2) normalizes glucagon and corticosterone responses to hypoglycemic clamp in diabetic rats. The purpose of this study was to determine whether SSTR2 antagonism (SSTR2a) ameliorates hypoglycemia in response to overinsulinization in diabetic rats previously exposed to recurrent hypoglycemia. Streptozotocin diabetic rats (n = 19), previously subjected to five hypoglycemia events over 3 days, received an insulin bolus (10 units/kg i.v.) plus insulin infusion (50 mU/kg/min i.v.) until hypoglycemia ensued (≤3.9 mmol/L) (experimental day 1 [Expt-D1]). The next day (Expt-D2), rats were allocated to receive either placebo treatment (n = 7) or SSTR2a infusion (3,000 nmol/kg/min i.v., n = 12) 60 min prior to the same insulin regimen. On Expt-D1, all rats developed hypoglycemia by ∼90 min, while on Expt-D2, hypoglycemia was attenuated with SSTR2a treatment (nadir = 3.7 ± 0.3 vs. 2.7 ± 0.3 mmol/L in SSTR2a and controls, P < 0.01). Glucagon response to hypoglycemia on Expt-D2 deteriorated by 20-fold in the placebo group (P < 0.001) but improved in the SSTR2a group (threefold increase in area under the curve [AUC], P < 0.001). Corticosterone response deteriorated in the placebo-treated rats on Expt-D2 but increased twofold in the SSTR2a group. Catecholamine responses were not affected by SSTR2a. Thus, SSTR2 antagonism after recurrent hypoglycemia improves the glucagon and corticosterone responses and largely ameliorates insulin-induced hypoglycemia in diabetic rats.
doi:10.2337/db12-1523
PMCID: PMC3712070  PMID: 23434929
2.  Increased expression of adenylyl cyclase 3 in pancreatic islets and central nervous system of diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats 
Islets  2012;4(5):343-348.
Adenylyl cyclase 3 (AC3) is expressed in pancreatic islets of the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat, a spontaneous animal model of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and also exerts genetic effects on the regulation of body weight in man. In addition to pancreatic islets, the central nervous system (CNS) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of T2D and obesity by regulating feeding behavior, body weight and glucose metabolism. In the present study, we have investigated AC3 expression in pancreatic islets, striatum and hypothalamus of GK rats to evaluate its role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. GK and Wistar rats at the age of 2.5 mo were used. A group of GK rats were implanted with sustained insulin release chips for 15 d. Plasma glucose and serum insulin levels were measured. AC3 gene expression levels in pancreatic islets, striatum and hypothalamus were determined by using real-time RT-PCR. Results indicated that plasma glucose levels in Wistar rats were found to be similar to insulin-treated GK rats, and significantly lower compared with non-treated GK rats. AC3 expression levels in pancreatic islets, striatum and hypothalamus of GK rats were higher compared with Wistar rats, while the levels were intermediate in insulin-treated GK rats. The AC3 expression display patterns between pancreatic islets and striatum-hypothalamus were similar. The present study thus provides the first evidence that AC3 is overexpressed in the regions of striatum and hypothalamus of brain, and similarly in pancreatic islets of GK rats suggesting that AC3 plays a role in regulation of glucose homeostasis via CNS and insulin secretion.
doi:10.4161/isl.22283
PMCID: PMC3524141  PMID: 23018249
Adenylyl cyclase 3; body weight; central nervous system; glucose; pancreatic islets; type 2 diabetes
3.  Estrogen Signalling and the Metabolic Syndrome: Targeting the Hepatic Estrogen Receptor Alpha Action 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(2):e57458.
An increasing body of evidence now links estrogenic signalling with the metabolic syndrome (MS). Despite the beneficial estrogenic effects in reversing some of the MS symptoms, the underlying mechanisms remain largely undiscovered. We have previously shown that total estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) knockout (KO) mice exhibit hepatic insulin resistance. To determine whether liver-selective ablation of ERα recapitulates metabolic phenotypes of ERKO mice we generated a liver-selective ERαKO mouse model, LERKO. We demonstrate that LERKO mice have efficient reduction of ERα selectively within the liver. However, LERKO and wild type control mice do not differ in body weight, and have a comparable hormone profile as well as insulin and glucose response, even when challenged with a high fat diet. Furthermore, LERKO mice display very minor changes in their hepatic transcript profile. Collectively, our findings indicate that hepatic ERα action may not be the responsible factor for the previously identified hepatic insulin resistance in ERαKO mice.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057458
PMCID: PMC3581463  PMID: 23451233
4.  Somatostatin Receptor Type 2 Antagonism Improves Glucagon and Corticosterone Counterregulatory Responses to Hypoglycemia in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats 
Diabetes  2011;61(1):197-207.
Diminished responsiveness to hypoglycemia contributes to defective counterregulation in diabetes. Pancreatic and/or circulating somatostatin are elevated in diabetes, which may inhibit counterregulatory hormone release during hypoglycemia. Thus, a selective somatostatin receptor type 2 antagonist (SSTR2a) should improve hormone counterregulation to hypoglycemia. Nondiabetic (N) and streptozotocin-induced diabetic (D) rats underwent 4-h infusion of saline or SSTR2a with insulin-induced hypoglycemia clamped at 2.5 ± 0.5 mmol/L. To evaluate the effect of the SSTR2a in the absence of hypoglycemia, rats underwent a 4-h infusion of saline (Ctrl:N, Ctrl:D) or SSTR2a (Ctrl:D+SSTR2a) only. The attenuated glucagon response to hypoglycemia in D (P < 0.0002) was fully restored by SSTR2a (P < 0.0001). Furthermore, the attenuated corticosterone response in D (P < 0.002) was also enhanced by SSTR2a (P < 0.05). In the absence of hypoglycemia, SSTR2a did not alter basal blood glucose levels. D exhibited 62% more pancreatic somatostatin than N after hypoglycemia. In N rats, SSTR2a did not augment the glucagon or corticosterone response to hypoglycemia. Thus, somatostatin may contribute to impaired glucagon responsiveness to hypoglycemia in diabetes. We demonstrate that SSTR2 antagonism enhances hypoglycemia-stimulated glucagon and corticosterone release in D but not in N rats. SSTR2 antagonism does not affect basal glycemia in D rats.
doi:10.2337/db11-0690
PMCID: PMC3237655  PMID: 22106159
5.  IGF-binding protein 1 and abdominal obesity in the development of type 2 diabetes in women 
European Journal of Endocrinology  2010;163(2):233-242.
Objective
Low levels of IGF-binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) are associated with metabolic syndrome and predict diabetes development in men. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of IGFBP1 in women who later develop diabetes, in relation to abdominal obesity, and to compare these levels with those of men.
Methods
IGFBP1 levels were determined at baseline and after 8 years in a case–control, prospective study of Swedish women aged 35–56 years. Individuals with normal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) who developed abnormal glucose regulation (n=240) were pair matched to controls for age and family history of diabetes and also compared to men of the same age (n=355).
Results
Low fasting IGFBP1 and increased waist measurement predicted development of diabetes in women (n=60; odds ratio (OR) 70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 8–661, lowest tertile and OR 27, 95% CI 5–141, highest tertile). In women developing diabetes, baseline IGFBP1 levels were lower than expected for fasting insulin values, were associated with impaired suppression after OGTT and increased during 8 years despite an increase in fasting insulin. All individuals in the highest tertile for waist and with ≤40% suppression of IGFBP1 developed diabetes within 8 years. Circulating IGFBP1 concentrations were higher in women compared to men. Women and men who developed diabetes had a similar degree of abdominal obesity, corrected for height.
Conclusions
We conclude that low IGFBP1 and elevated waist measurement predict diabetes development and that IGFBP1 production is suppressed by a novel factor(s) in women developing diabetes. Increasing levels of IGFBP1 during the emergence of diabetes in men and women suggest the emergence of hepatic insulin resistance.
doi:10.1530/EJE-10-0301
PMCID: PMC2909736  PMID: 20508082
6.  Effects of MCF2L2, ADIPOQ and SOX2 genetic polymorphisms on the development of nephropathy in type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 
BMC Medical Genetics  2010;11:116.
Background
MCF2L2, ADIPOQ and SOX2 genes are located in chromosome 3q26-27, which is linked to diabetic nephropathy (DN). ADIPOQ and SOX2 genetic polymorphisms are found to be associated with DN. In the present study, we first investigated the association between MCF2L2 and DN, and then evaluated effects of these three genes on the development of DN.
Methods
A total of 1177 type 1 diabetes patients with and without DN from the GoKinD study were genotyped with TaqMan allelic discrimination. All subjects were of European descent.
Results
Leu359Ile T/G variant in the MCF2L2 gene was found to be associated with DN in female subjects (P = 0.017, OR = 0.701, 95%CI 0.524-0.938) but not in males. The GG genotype carriers among female patients with DN had tendency decreased creatinine and cystatin levels compared to the carriers with either TT or TG genotypes. This polymorphism MCF2L2-rs7639705 together with SNPs of ADIPOQ-rs266729 and SOX2-rs11915160 had combined effects on decreased risk of DN in females (P = 0.001).
Conclusion
The present study provides evidence that MCF2L2, ADIPOQ and SOX2 genetic polymorphisms have effects on the resistance of DN in female T1D patients, and suggests that the linkage with DN in chromosome 3q may be explained by the cumulated genetic effects.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-11-116
PMCID: PMC2919463  PMID: 20667095
7.  Evaluation of Genetic Association and Expression Reduction of TRPC1 in the Development of Diabetic Nephropathy 
American journal of nephrology  2008;29(3):244-251.
Background/Aims
The TRPC1 gene on chromosome 3q22–24 resides within the linkage region for diabetic nephropa-thy (DN) in type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). A recent study has demonstrated that TRPC1 expression is reduced in the kidney of diabetic ZDF- and STZ-treated rats. The present study aimed to evaluate the genetic and functional role of TRPC1 in the development of DN.
Methods
Genetic association study was performed with two independent cohorts, including 1,177 T1D European Americans with or without DN from GoKinD population and 850 African-American subjects with T2D-associated end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or with hypertensive (non-diabetic) ESRD, and nondiabetic controls. Seven tag SNP markers derived from HapMap data (phase II) were genotyped. TRPC1 gene expression was examined using real time RT-PCR.
Results
No significant association of TRPC1 DNA polymorphisms with DN or ERSD was found in GoKinD and African-American populations. TRPC1 gene mRNA expression in kidney was found to be trendily reduced in 12-week and significantly in 26-week-old db/db mice.
Conclusions
TRPC1 genetic polymorphism may not fundamentally contribute to the development of DN, while reduction of the gene expression in kidney may be a late phenomenon of DN as seen in diabetic animal models.
doi:10.1159/000157627
PMCID: PMC2698220  PMID: 18802326
TRPC1 gene; Single-nucleotide polymorphism; Diabetic nephropathy; End-stage renal disease; Diabetes types 1 and 2
8.  Functional and genetic analysis in type 2 diabetes of Liver X receptor alleles – a cohort study 
BMC Medical Genetics  2009;10:27.
Background
Liver X receptor alpha (LXRA) and beta (LXRB) regulate glucose and lipid homeostasis in model systems but their importance in human physiology is poorly understood. This project aimed to determine whether common genetic variations in LXRA and LXRB associate with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and quantitative measures of glucose homeostasis, and, if so, reveal the underlying mechanisms.
Methods
Eight common single nucleotide polymorphisms in LXRA and LXRB were analyzed for association with T2D in one French cohort (N = 988 cases and 941 controls), and for association with quantitative measures reflecting glucose homeostasis in two non-diabetic population-based samples comprising N = 697 and N = 1344 adults. Investigated quantitative phenotypes included fasting plasma glucose, serum insulin, and HOMAIR as measure of overall insulin resistance. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed in N = 1344 of adults. The two alleles of the proximal LXRB promoter, differing only at the SNP rs17373080, were cloned into reporter vectors and transiently transfected, whereupon allele-specific luciferase activity was measured. rs17373080 overlapped, according to in silico analysis, with a binding site for Nuclear factor 1 (NF1). Promoter alleles were tested for interaction with NF1 using direct DNA binding and transactivation assays.
Results
Genotypes at two LXRB promoter SNPs, rs35463555 and rs17373080, associated nominally with T2D (P values 0.047 and 0.026). No LXRA or LXRB SNP associated with quantitative measures reflecting glucose homeostasis. The rs17373080 C allele displayed higher basal transcription activity (P value < 0.05). The DNA-mobility shift assay indicated that oligonucleotides corresponding to either rs17373080 allele bound NF1 transcription factors in whole cell extracts to the same extent. Different NF1 family members showed different capacity to transactivate the LXRB gene promoter, but there was no difference between promoter alleles in NF1 induced transactivation activity.
Conclusion
Variations in the LXRB gene promoter may be part of the aetiology of T2D. However, the association between LXRB rs35463555 and rs17373080, and T2D are preliminary and needs to be investigated in additional larger cohorts. Common genetic variation in LXRA is unlikely to affect the risk of developing T2D or quantitative phenotypes related to glucose homeostasis.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-10-27
PMCID: PMC2664799  PMID: 19292929
9.  Evaluation of Genetic Association and Expression Reduction of TRPC1 in the Development of Diabetic Nephropathy 
American Journal of Nephrology  2008;29(3):244-251.
Background/Aims
The TRPC1 gene on chromosome 3q22–24 resides within the linkage region for diabetic nephropathy (DN) in type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). A recent study has demonstrated that TRPC1 expression is reduced in the kidney of diabetic ZDF- and STZ-treated rats. The present study aimed to evaluate the genetic and functional role of TRPC1 in the development of DN.
Methods
Genetic association study was performed with two independent cohorts, including 1,177 T1D European Americans with or without DN from GoKinD population and 850 African-American subjects with T2D-associated end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or with hypertensive (non-diabetic) ESRD, and nondiabetic controls. Seven tag SNP markers derived from HapMap data (phase II) were genotyped. TRPC1 gene expression was examined using real time RT-PCR.
Results
No significant association of TRPC1 DNA polymorphisms with DN or ERSD was found in GoKinD and African-American populations. TRPC1 gene mRNA expression in kidney was found to be trendily reduced in 12-week and significantly in 26-week-old db/db mice.
Conclusions
TRPC1 genetic polymorphism may not fundamentally contribute to the development of DN, while reduction of the gene expression in kidney may be a late phenomenon of DN as seen in diabetic animal models.
doi:10.1159/000157627
PMCID: PMC2698220  PMID: 18802326
TRPC1 gene; Single-nucleotide polymorphism; Diabetic nephropathy; End-stage renal disease; Diabetes types 1 and 2
10.  Excessive Islet NO Generation in Type 2 Diabetic GK Rats Coincides with Abnormal Hormone Secretion and Is Counteracted by GLP-1 
PLoS ONE  2008;3(6):10.1371/annotation/a72da6a5-a71a-4cc9-ae2b-2b95c0ec89b0.
doi:10.1371/annotation/a72da6a5-a71a-4cc9-ae2b-2b95c0ec89b0
PMCID: PMC2637118
13.  Evaluation of the association between the common E469K polymorphism in the ICAM-1 gene and diabetic nephropathy among type 1 diabetic patients in GoKinD population 
BMC Medical Genetics  2008;9:47.
Background
The ICAM-1 gene is a strong positional and biological candidate for susceptibility to the development of T1D and DN. We have recently demonstrated that SNP rs5498(E469K) confers susceptibility to the development of T1D and might be associated with DN in Swedish Caucasians. The present study aimed to further evaluate the association between the ICAM-1 genetic polymorphisms and DN.
Methods
Two common non-synonymous SNPs, including rs5498(E469K) and rs1799969(R241G), in the ICAM-1 gene were genotyped in 662 (312 female/350 male) T1D patients with DN and 620 (369/251) without DN. All patients were selected from the GoKinD study.
Results
Genotype distributions of both SNPs were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium but SNP rs5498(E469K) had high heterozygous index. In this SNP, the heterozygosity and positivity for the allele G were found to be significantly associated with DN in female T1D patients (P = 0.010, OR = 0.633, CI 95% 0.447–0.895 and P = 0.026, OR = 0.692, CI 95% 0.500–0.958). Furthermore, the female patients without DN carrying three genotypes A/A, A/G and G/G had different cystatin levels (0.79 ± 0.17, 0.81 ± 0.14 and 0.75 ± 0.12 mg/L, P = 0.021). No significant association of SNP rs1799969 (R241G) with DN was found.
Conclusion
The present study provides further evidence that SNP rs5498(E469K) in the ICAM-1 gene presents a high heterozygous index and the allele G of this polymorphism may confers the decreased risk susceptibility to the development of DN in female T1D patients among the GoKinD population.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-9-47
PMCID: PMC2424038  PMID: 18505543
14.  Excessive Islet NO Generation in Type 2 Diabetic GK Rats Coincides with Abnormal Hormone Secretion and Is Counteracted by GLP-1 
PLoS ONE  2008;3(5):e2165.
Background
A distinctive feature of type 2 diabetes is inability of insulin-secreting β-cells to properly respond to elevated glucose eventually leading to β-cell failure. We have hypothesized that an abnormally increased NO production in the pancreatic islets might be an important factor in the pathogenesis of β-cell dysfunction.
Principal Findings
We show now that islets of type 2 spontaneous diabetes in GK rats display excessive NO generation associated with abnormal iNOS expression in insulin and glucagon cells, increased ncNOS activity, impaired glucose-stimulated insulin release, glucagon hypersecretion, and impaired glucose-induced glucagon suppression. Pharmacological blockade of islet NO production by the NOS inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) greatly improved hormone secretion from GK islets suggesting islet NOS activity being an important target to inactivate for amelioration of islet cell function. The incretin hormone GLP-1, which is used in clinical practice suppressed iNOS and ncNOS expression and activity with almost full restoration of insulin release and partial restoration of glucagon release. GLP-1 suppression of iNOS expression was reversed by PKA inhibition but unaffected by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Injection of glucose plus GLP-1 in the diabetic rats showed that GLP-1 amplified the insulin response but induced a transient increase and then a poor depression of glucagon.
Conclusion
The results suggest that abnormally increased NO production within islet cells is a significant player in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes being counteracted by GLP-1 through PKA-dependent, nonproteasomal mechanisms.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002165
PMCID: PMC2367446  PMID: 18478125
15.  Ca2+–Secretion Coupling Is Impaired in Diabetic Goto Kakizaki rats 
The Journal of General Physiology  2007;129(6):493-508.
The Goto Kakizaki (GK) rat is a widely used animal model to study defective glucose-stimulated insulin release in type-2 diabetes (T2D). As in T2D patients, the expression of several proteins involved in Ca2+-dependent exocytosis of insulin-containing large dense-core vesicles is dysregulated in this model. So far, a defect in late steps of insulin secretion could not be demonstrated. To resolve this apparent contradiction, we studied Ca2+–secretion coupling of healthy and GK rat β cells in acute pancreatic tissue slices by assessing exocytosis with high time-resolution membrane capacitance measurements. We found that β cells of GK rats respond to glucose stimulation with a normal increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration. During trains of depolarizing pulses, the secretory activity from GK rat β cells was defective in spite of upregulated cell size and doubled voltage-activated Ca2+ currents. In GK rat β cells, evoked Ca2+ entry was significantly less efficient in triggering release than in nondiabetic controls. This impairment was neither due to a decrease of functional vesicle pool sizes nor due to different kinetics of pool refilling. Strong stimulation with two successive trains of depolarizing pulses led to a prominent activity-dependent facilitation of release in GK rat β cells, whereas secretion in controls was unaffected. Broad-spectrum inhibition of PKC sensitized Ca2+-dependent exocytosis, whereas it prevented the activity-dependent facilitation in GK rat β cells. We conclude that a decrease in the sensitivity of the GK rat β-cell to depolarization-evoked Ca2+ influx is involved in defective glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Furthermore, we discuss a role for constitutively increased activity of one or more PKC isoenzymes in diabetic rat β cells.
doi:10.1085/jgp.200609604
PMCID: PMC2151625  PMID: 17535961

Results 1-15 (15)