Hypoxia plays a major pathogenic role in diabetic nephropathy (DN). We have investigated in this study the effect of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 α subunit (HIF1A) genetic polymorphisms on the development of DN.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
In 1,165 American type 1 diabetic patients with and without DN selected from the Genetics of Kidneys in Diabetes (GoKinD) study, the HIF1A genetic polymorphisms were genotyped with TaqMan allelic discrimination. The regulation of HIF-1α in the kidneys of diabetic mice was appreciated by immunohistochemistry, and the effect HIF1A Pro582Ser polymorphism on HIF-1α sensitivity to glucose was evaluated in vitro.
We identified a protective association between HIF1A Pro582Ser polymorphism and DN in male subjects. We also provided mechanistic insights that HIF-1α is repressed in the medulla of diabetic mice despite hypoxia and that Pro582Ser polymorphism confers less sensitivity to the inhibitory effect of glucose during a hypoxic challenge.
The current study demonstrates for the first time that HIF1A Pro582Ser polymorphism has an effect on DN, possibly by conferring a relative resistance to the repressive effect of glucose on HIF-1α.
Vitamin D insufficiency may increase the risk for cardio metabolic disturbances in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT).
To analyze the vitamin D status and indices of the metabolic syndrome in PHPT patients and the effect of vitamin D supplementation after parathyroid adenomectomy (PTX).
Design and methods
Double-blinded, randomized clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00982722) performed at Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden, April 2008 to November 2011. One hundred and fifty consecutive patients with PHPT (119 women) were randomized after PTX, 75 to oral treatment with calcium carbonate 1000 mg daily and 75 to calcium carbonate 1000 mg and cholecalciferol 1600 IU daily over 12 months. Changes in metabolic profile and ambulatory blood pressure (BP) were analyzed. Main outcome measures were changes in metabolic factors, BP, and body composition.
The 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D)-level was <50 nmol/l in 76% of the patients before PTX. After PTX, glucose, insulin, and IGF1 decreased, while the 25-OH-D and the IGF-binding protein 1 increased and remained unchanged at follow-up after study medication. One year of vitamin D supplementation resulted in lower parathyroid hormone (PTH) (40 (34–52) vs 49 (38–66) ng/l) and higher 25-OH-D (76 (65–93) vs 49 (40–62) nmol/l; P<0.05). Other laboratory parameters were stable compared with after PTX. Systolic BP decreased and total bone mineral content increased in both groups.
Except for the lowering of the PTH level, no additive effect of vitamin D supplementation was seen. However, PTX proved effective in reducing insulin resistance.
Recent reports have demonstrated that elevated plasma long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) levels are associated with cardiovascular and chronic kidney diseases. In the current study, we investigated the plasma PTX3 levels in 296 Malay subjects including the subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients with or without DN by using an enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay. Results showed that in males, plasma PTX3 levels in T2DM patients without DN were lower than that in the subjects with NGT (2.78 versus 3.98 ng/mL; P = 0.021). Plasma PTX3 levels in T2DM patients with DN were decreased compared to the patients without DN (1.63 versus 2.78 ng/mL; P = 0.013). In females, however, no significant alteration of plasma PTX3 levels among NGT subjects and T2DM patients with and without DN was detected. Furthermore, an inverse correlation between PTX3 and body mass index was found in male subjects with NGT (P = 0.012; r = −0.390), but not in male T2DM patients, neither in all females. The current study provided the first evidence that decreased plasma PTX3 levels are associated with T2DM and DN in Malay men and also suggested that PTX3 may have different effects in DN and chronic kidney diseases.
Prospective studies have shown that low levels of circulating insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) are associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. In the present study, we investigated DNA methylation in the IGFBP1 gene to evaluate its changes in relation to serum IGFBP-1 levels in type 2 diabetes.
A total of 406 Swedish men, including age-matched normal glucose tolerance subjects and type 2 diabetes patients either newly diagnosed or undergoing treatment, were selected from the Stockholm Diabetes Prevention Program. IGFBP1 methylation levels in genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood were analysed by bisulfite pyrosequencing. Serum IGFBP-1 levels were measured by radio-immunoassay. We found that IGFBP1 DNA methylation levels were higher in both newly diagnosed and treated type 2 diabetes patients with a mean diabetes duration of 3 years compared with subjects with normal glucose tolerance (19.8% and 20.2% vs. 16.9%, P < 0.001 for both). Serum levels of IGFBP-1 in newly diagnosed and in treated type 2 diabetes patients were lower compared with healthy individuals (18 μg/l both vs. 24 μg/l, P = 0.011, P < 0.001). IGFBP1 methylation levels but not serum IGFBP-1 levels in type 2 diabetes patients were independent of body mass index. Newly diagnosed patients with a family history of diabetes (FHD) had higher IGFBP1 methylation levels than those without FHD (20.3% vs. 18.6%, P = 0.017).
This study provides the first evidence that changes in DNA methylation of the IGFBP1 gene are associated with type 2 diabetes in Swedish men and suggests that increased IGFBP1 DNA methylation and decreased IGFBP-1 serum levels are features of type 2 diabetes with a short duration.
IGFBP-1; DNA methylation; type 2 diabetes
Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP-7) is able to interact with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) as well as insulin. Previous studies have suggested that serum IGFBP-7 levels may be associated with insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study aimed to evaluate IGFBP-7 serum protein and IGFBP7 DNA methylation levels in the subjects with and without T2D.
A total of 340 Swedish subjects including 100 newly diagnosed T2D patients (50 women/50 men), 100 age-matched nondiabetic control subjects (50/50) and 140 treated T2D patients (54/86) were studied. Serum IGFBP-7 levels were measured with a novel ELISA. IGF1, IGFBP-1, and insulin were determined by in-house radioimmunoassays. DNA methylation levels in the IGFBP7 gene were analyzed with a bisulfite-pyrosequencing technique. Serum IGFBP-7 protein levels were similar among nondiabetic subjects, newly diagnosed, and treated T2D patients and were not correlated with IGFBP7 DNA methylation. However, IGFBP7 DNA methylation was increased in men with newly diagnosed T2D compared with nondiabetic controls (17.6% vs. 12.5%, P < 0.01). Serum IGFBP-7 levels correlated (r = 0.331, P = 0.019) with serum IGFBP-1 levels, a marker of insulin production, in men but not women with newly diagnosed T2D.
This study demonstrates for the first time that IGFBP7 DNA methylation levels are increased in Swedish men with newly diagnosed T2D. The correlation between IGFBP-7 and IGFBP-1 suggests that low IGFBP-7 may be associated with insulin resistance in T2D.
IGF-1; IGFBP-1; IGFBP-7; Insulin; Type 2 diabetes
Adenylyl cyclase 3 (AC3) is expressed in pancreatic islets of the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat, a spontaneous animal model of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and also exerts genetic effects on the regulation of body weight in man. In addition to pancreatic islets, the central nervous system (CNS) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of T2D and obesity by regulating feeding behavior, body weight and glucose metabolism. In the present study, we have investigated AC3 expression in pancreatic islets, striatum and hypothalamus of GK rats to evaluate its role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. GK and Wistar rats at the age of 2.5 mo were used. A group of GK rats were implanted with sustained insulin release chips for 15 d. Plasma glucose and serum insulin levels were measured. AC3 gene expression levels in pancreatic islets, striatum and hypothalamus were determined by using real-time RT-PCR. Results indicated that plasma glucose levels in Wistar rats were found to be similar to insulin-treated GK rats, and significantly lower compared with non-treated GK rats. AC3 expression levels in pancreatic islets, striatum and hypothalamus of GK rats were higher compared with Wistar rats, while the levels were intermediate in insulin-treated GK rats. The AC3 expression display patterns between pancreatic islets and striatum-hypothalamus were similar. The present study thus provides the first evidence that AC3 is overexpressed in the regions of striatum and hypothalamus of brain, and similarly in pancreatic islets of GK rats suggesting that AC3 plays a role in regulation of glucose homeostasis via CNS and insulin secretion.
Adenylyl cyclase 3; body weight; central nervous system; glucose; pancreatic islets; type 2 diabetes
Background and Aims
Brassica rapa and B. oleracea are the progenitors of oilseed rape B. napus. The addition of each chromosome of B. oleracea to the chromosome complement of B. rapa results in a series of monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs). Analysis of MAALs determines which B. oleracea chromosomes carry genes controlling specific phenotypic traits, such as seed colour. Yellow-seeded oilseed rape is a desirable breeding goal both for food and livestock feed end-uses that relate to oil, protein and fibre contents. The aims of this study included developing a missing MAAL to complement an available series, for studies on seed colour control, chromosome homoeology and assignment of linkage groups to B. oleracea chromosomes.
A new batch of B. rapa–B. oleracea aneuploids was produced to generate the missing MAAL. Seed colour and other plant morphological features relevant to differentiation of MAALs were recorded. For chromosome characterization, Snow's carmine, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) were used.
The final MAAL was developed. Morphological traits that differentiated the MAALs comprised cotyledon number, leaf morphology, flower colour and seed colour. Seed colour was controlled by major genes on two B. oleracea chromosomes and minor genes on five other chromosomes of this species. Homoeologous pairing was largely between chromosomes with similar centromeric positions. FISH, GISH and a parallel microsatellite marker analysis defined the chromosomes in terms of their linkage groups.
A complete set of MAALs is now available for genetic, genomic, evolutionary and breeding perspectives. Defining chromosomes that carry specific genes, physical localization of DNA markers and access to established genetic linkage maps contribute to the integration of these approaches, manifested in the confirmed correspondence of linkage groups with specific chromosomes. Applications include marker-assisted selection and breeding for yellow seeds.
Brassica rapa var. trilocularis; B. oleracea var. alboglabra; MAALs; characterization of C chromosomes; plant morphology; seed colour control; FISH; GISH; chromosome homoeology; chromosome structural changes; linkage groups; crop plant breeding
Background. Hypercortisolism and type 2 diabetes (T2D) share clinical characteristics. We examined pioglitazone's effects on the GH-IGF-I and HPA axes in men with varying glucose intolerance. Methods. 10 men with T2D and 10 with IGT received pioglitazone 30–45 mg for 12 weeks. OGTT with microdialysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue and 1 μg ACTH-stimulation test were performed before and after. Glucose, insulin, IGF-I, IGFBP1, and interstitial measurements were analyzed during the OGTT. Insulin sensitivity was estimated using HOMA-IR. Results. HOMA-IR improved in both groups. IGF-I was initially lower in T2D subjects (P = 0.004) and increased during treatment (−1.4 ± 0.5 to −0.5 ± 0.4 SD; P = 0.007); no change was seen in IGT (0.4 ± 39 SD before and during treatment). Fasting glycerol decreased in T2D (P = 0.038), indicating reduced lipolysis. Fasting cortisol decreased in T2D (400 ± 30 to 312 ± 25 nmol/L; P = 0.041) but increased in IGT (402 ± 21 to 461 ± 35 nmol/L; P = 0.044). Peak cortisol was lower in T2D during treatment (599 ± 32 to 511 ± 43, versus 643 ± 0.3 to 713 ± 37 nmol/L in IGT; P = 0.007). Conclusions. Pioglitazone improved adipose tissue and liver insulin sensitivity in both groups. This may explain increased IGF-I in T2D. Pioglitazone affected cortisol levels in both groups but differently, suggesting different mechanisms for improving insulin sensitivity between T2D and IGT.
A sedentary lifestyle predisposes to cardiometabolic diseases. Lifestyle changes such as increased physical activity improve a range of cardiometabolic risk factors. The objective of this study was to examine whether functional changes in adipose tissue were related to these improvements.
Seventy-three sedentary, overweight (mean BMI 29.9 ± 3.2 kg/m2) and abdominally obese, but otherwise healthy men and women (67.6 ± 0.5 years) from a randomised controlled trial of physical activity on prescription over a 6-month period were included (control n = 43, intervention n = 30). Detailed examinations were carried out at baseline and at follow-up, including fasting blood samples, a comprehensive questionnaire and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies for fatty acid composition analysis (n = 73) and quantification of mRNA expression levels of 13 candidate genes (n = 51), including adiponectin, leptin and inflammatory cytokines.
At follow-up, the intervention group had a greater increase in exercise time (+137 min/week) and a greater decrease in body fat mass (−1.5 kg) compared to the control subjects (changes of 0 min/week and −0.5 kg respectively). Circulating concentrations of adiponectin were unchanged, but those of leptin decreased significantly more in the intervention group (−1.8 vs −1.1 ng/mL for intervention vs control, P < 0.05). The w6-polyunsaturated fatty acid content, in particular linoleic acid (18:2w6), of adipose tissue increased significantly more in the intervention group, but the magnitude of the change was small (+0.17 vs +0.02 percentage points for intervention vs control, P < 0.05). Surprisingly leptin mRNA levels in adipose tissue increased in the intervention group (+107% intervention vs −20% control, P < 0.05), but changes in expression of the remaining genes did not differ between the groups.
After a 6-month period of increased physical activity in overweight elderly individuals, circulating leptin concentrations decreased despite increased levels of leptin mRNA in adipose tissue. Otherwise, only minor changes occurred in adipose tissue, although several improvements in metabolic parameters accompanied the modest increase in physical activity.
Adipose tissue; Physical activity; Fatty acid composition; Gene expression
Lower extremity amputations are costly and debilitating complications in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Our aim was to investigate changes in the amputation rate in patients with DM at the Karolinska University Hospital in Solna (KS) following the introduction of consensus guidelines for treatment and prevention of diabetic foot complications, and to identify risk groups of lower extremity amputations that should be targeted for preventive treatment.
150 diabetic and 191 nondiabetic patients were amputated at KS between 2000 and 2006; of these 102 diabetic and 99 nondiabetic patients belonged to the catchment area of KS. 21 diabetic patients who belonged to KS catchment area were amputated at Danderyd University Hospital. All patients' case reports were searched for diagnoses of diabetes, vascular disorders, kidney disorders, and ulcer infections of the foot.
There was a 60% reduction in the rate of amputations performed above the ankle in patients with DM during the study period. Patients with DM who underwent amputations were more commonly affected by foot infections and kidney disorders compared to the nondiabetic control group. Women with DM were 10 years older than the men when amputated, whereas men with DM underwent more multiple amputations and had more foot infections compared to the women. 88% of all diabetes-related amputations were preceded by foot ulcers. Only 30% of the patients had been referred to the multidisciplinary foot team prior to the decision of amputation.
These findings indicate a reduced rate of major amputations in diabetic patients, which suggests an implementation of the consensus guidelines of foot care. We also propose further reduced amputation rates if patients with an increased risk of future amputation (i.e. male sex, kidney disease) are identified and offered preventive treatment early.
Lower extremity amputations; Diabetic foot; Foot ulcer; Diabetic complications
Fifty-four type 2 diabetic patients with neuroischemic foot ulcers were randomised to treatment with 5000 IU of dalteparin, (n = 28),
or physiological saline, (n = 26), once daily until ulcer healing or for a maximum of 6 months. Thirty-three patients had normo-, 15 micro-, and 6 macroalbuminuria. The urinary levels of IgM and IgG2 were elevated in 47 and 50 patients, respectively. Elevated urinary levels of IgM and IgG2 indicate decreased glomerular size selectivity. Urine IgM levels were associated with IGF-1/IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-1 levels. Dalteparin treatment increased urinary levels of glycosaminoglycans (P < 0.001) and serum IGFBP-1 (P < 0.05)
while no significant effects were seen in any of the other studied parameters. In conclusion, dalteparin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes had no effects on urinary levels of albumin, IgM, or IgG2 despite significantly increased glycosaminoglycans in urine. Elevated urinary levels of IgM and IgG2 might be more sensitive markers of renal disease than albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes and antihypertensive therapy.
Diabetes and diabetic nephropathy are complex diseases affected by genetic and environmental factors. Identification of the susceptibility genes and investigation of their roles may provide useful information for better understanding of the pathogenesis and for developing novel therapeutic approaches. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1) is a cell surface glycoprotein expressed on endothelial cells and leukocytes in the immune system. The ICAM1 gene is located on chromosome 19p13 within the linkage region of diabetes. In the recent years, accumulating reports have implicated that genetic polymorphisms in the ICAM1 gene are associated with diabetes and diabetic nephropathy. Serum ICAM1 levels in diabetes patients and the icam1 gene expression in kidney tissues of diabetic animals are increased compared to the controls. Therefore, ICAM1 may play a role in the development of diabetes and diabetic nephropathy. In this review, we present genomic structure, variation, and regulation of the ICAM1 gene, summarized genetic and biological studies of this gene in diabetes and diabetic nephropathy and discussed about the potential application using ICAM1 as a biomarker and target for prediction and treatment of diabetes and diabetic nephropathy.
intercellular adhesion molecule 1; diabetic nephropathy; end-stage renal disease; type 1 diabetes mellitus; type 2 diabetes mellitus
The very presence of an implanted sensor (a foreign body) causes changes in the adjacent tissue that may alter the analytes being sensed. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in glucose availability and local tissue metabolism at the sensor–tissue interface in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Microdialysis was used to model implanted sensors. Capillary glucose and subcutaneous (sc) microdialysate analytes were monitored in five T1DM and five T2DM patients. Analytes included glucose, glycolysis metabolites (lactate, pyruvate), a lipolysis metabolite (glycerol), and a protein degradation byproduct (urea). On eight consecutive days, four measurements were taken during a period of steady state blood glucose.
Microdialysate glucose and microdialysate-to-blood-glucose ratio increased over the first several days in all patients. Although glucose recovery eventually stabilized, the lactate levels continued to rise. These trends were explained by local inflammatory and microvascular changes observed in histological analysis of biopsy samples. Urea concentrations mirrored glucose trends. Urea is neither produced nor consumed in sc tissue, and so the initially increasing urea trend is explained by increased local capillary presence during the inflammatory process. Pyruvate in T2DM microdialysate was significantly higher than in T1DM, an observation that is possibly explained by mitochondrial dysfunction in T2DM. Glycerol in T2DM microdialysate (but not in T1DM) was higher than in healthy volunteers, which is likely explained by sc insulin resistance (insulin is a potent antilipolytic hormone). Urea was also higher in microdialysate of patients with diabetes mellitus compared to healthy volunteers. Urea is a byproduct of protein degradation, which is known to be inhibited by insulin. Therefore, insulin deficiency or resistance may explain the higher urea levels. To our knowledge, this is the first histological evaluation of a human tissue biopsy containing an implanted glucose monitoring device.
Monitoring metabolic changes at a material–tissue interface combined with biopsy histology helped to formulate an understanding of physiological changes adjacent to implanted glucose sensors. Microdialysate glucose trends were similar over 1-week in T1DM and T2DM; however, differences in other analytes indicated wound healing and metabolic activities in the two patient groups differ. We propose explanations for the specific observed differences based on differential insulin insufficiency/resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction in T1DM versus T2DM.
biosensors; diabetes mellitus; foreign body response; glucose metabolism; material–tissue interaction; microdialysis
To determine whether C-terminal provasopressin (copeptin) explains the prognostic importance of insulin growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) in patients with myocardial infarction and type 2 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Copeptin and IGFBP-1 were analyzed in 393 patients participating in the Diabetes Mellitus Insulin-Glucose Infusion in Acute Myocardial Infarction (DIGAMI) 2 trial.
Copeptin was associated with IGFBP-1 (Spearman rank correlation test, r = 0.53; P < 0.001). During follow-up there were 138 cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke). In univariate Cox proportional hazard regression analyses both biomarkers were predictors of events: the hazard ratio for log copeptin was 1.59 (95% CI 1.41–1.81; P < 0.001) and for log IGFBP-1 was 1.49 (1.26–1.77; P < 0.001). In the final model, adjusting for age and renal function, copeptin was the only independent predictor (1.35 [1.16–1.57]; P < 0.001).
Copeptin is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and appears to at least partly explain the prognostic impact of IGFBP-1 in patients with type 2 diabetes and myocardial infarction. Copeptin may be a pathogenic factor to address to improve outcome in these patients.
A feature of the Asian Indian phenotype is low birth weight with increased adult type 2 diabetes risk. Most populations show consistent associations between low birth weight and adult type 2 diabetes. Recently, two birth weight-lowering loci on chromosome 3 (near CCNL1 and ADCY5) were identified in a genome-wide association study, the latter of which is also a type 2 diabetes locus. We therefore tested the impact of these genetic variants on birth weight and adult glucose/insulin homeostasis in a large Indian birth cohort.
Adults (n = 2,151) enrolled in a birth cohort (established 1969-73) were genotyped for rs900400 (near CCNL1) and rs9883204 (ADCY5). Associations were tested for birth weight, anthropometry from infancy to adulthood, and type 2 diabetes related glycemic traits. The average birth weight in this population was 2.79±0.47 kg and was not associated with genetic variation in CCNL1 (p = 0.87) or ADCY5 (p = 0.54). Allele frequencies for the ‘birth weight-lowering’ variants were similar compared with Western populations. There were no significant associations with growth or adult weight. However, the ‘birth weight-lowering’ variant of ADCY5 was associated with modest increase in fasting glucose (β 0.041, p = 0.027), 2-hours glucose (β 0.127, p = 0.019), and reduced insulinogenic index (β -0.106, p = 0.050) and 2-hour insulin (β -0.058, p = 0.010).
The low birth weight in Asian Indians is not even partly explained by genetic variants near CCNL1 and ADCY5 which implies that non-genetic factors may predominate. However, the ‘birth-weight-lowering’ variant of ADCY5 was associated with elevated glucose and decreased insulin response in early adulthood which argues for a common genetic cause of low birth weight and risk of type 2 diabetes.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with changes in body composition and bone mineral density (BMD). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether anti-TNF treatment in early RA has an impact on body composition and BMD besides that which could be achieved by intensive disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) combination therapy.
Forty patients with early RA who failed treatment with methotrexate up to 20 mg/week for 3 months were randomised to addition of sulphasalazine and hydroxychloroquine (treatment A) or addition of infliximab (treatment B). At 3, 12 and 24 months, body composition and BMD were assessed by total-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. At the same time points, leptin, adiponectin, apolipoproteins, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and markers of bone remodelling were analysed. Compliance to treatment was considered in the analyses. Data were analysed with a mixed, linear model.
Patients treated with anti-TNF had a significant increase in fat mass at 2 years, 3.8 (1.6 to 5.9) kg, in contrast to patients in treatment A, 0.4 (-1.5 to 2.2) kg (P = 0.040), despite similar reduction in disease activity. Both treatment strategies prevented loss of muscle mass and bone. Leptin concentrations increased significantly in both groups at 2 years and adiponectin increased significantly at 2 years in treatment A and at 1 year in treatment B. There were no significant changes in apolipoproteins or IGF-1. The markers of bone resorption decreased at 12 months in both treatment groups with no significant difference between the treatment groups.
Infliximab therapy increased body fat mass, an effect that was not achieved with the combination of DMARDs, despite a similar reduction in disease activity, and thus seemed to be drug specific. The increase of fat mass was not associated with an exacerbated atherogenic lipid profile. Leptin and adiponectin concentrations increased in both treatment groups. The increase of adiponectin may partially explain the reduced frequency of cardiovascular diseases found when disease activity is reduced in RA.
Genes involved in hepatic metabolism have a sex-different expression in rodents. To test whether male and female rat livers differ regarding lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, whole-genome transcript profiles were generated and these were complemented by measurements of hepatic lipid and glycogen content, fatty acid (FA) oxidation rates and hepatic glucose output (HGO). The latter was determined in perfusates from in situ perfusion of male and female rat livers. These perfusates were also analysed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to identify putative sex-differences in other liver-derived metabolites. Effects of insulin were monitored by analysis of Akt-phosphorylation, gene expression and HGO after s.c. insulin injections.
Out of approximately 3 500 gene products being detected in liver, 11% were significantly higher in females, and 11% were higher in males. Many transcripts for the production of triglycerides (TG), cholesterol and VLDL particles were female-predominant, whereas genes for FA oxidation, gluconeogenesis and glycogen synthesis were male-predominant. Sex-differences in mRNA levels related to metabolism were more pronounced during mild starvation (12 h fasting), as compared to the postabsorptive state (4 h fasting). No sex-differences were observed regarding hepatic TG content, FA oxidation rates or blood levels of ketone bodies or glucose. However, males had higher hepatic glycogen content and higher HGO, as well as higher ratios of insulin to glucagon levels. Based on NMR spectroscopy, liver-derived lactate was also higher in males. HGO was inhibited by insulin in parallel with increased phosphorylation of Akt, without any sex-differences in insulin sensitivity. However, the degree of Thr172-phosphorylated AMP kinase (AMPK) was higher in females, indicating a higher degree of AMPK-dependent actions.
Taken together, males had higher ratios of insulin to glucagon levels, higher levels of glycogen, lower degree of AMPK phosphorylation, higher expression of gluconeogenic genes and higher hepatic glucose output. Possibly these sex-differences reflect a higher ability for the healthy male rat liver to respond to increased energy demands.
Low levels of IGF-binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) are associated with metabolic syndrome and predict diabetes development in men. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of IGFBP1 in women who later develop diabetes, in relation to abdominal obesity, and to compare these levels with those of men.
IGFBP1 levels were determined at baseline and after 8 years in a case–control, prospective study of Swedish women aged 35–56 years. Individuals with normal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) who developed abnormal glucose regulation (n=240) were pair matched to controls for age and family history of diabetes and also compared to men of the same age (n=355).
Low fasting IGFBP1 and increased waist measurement predicted development of diabetes in women (n=60; odds ratio (OR) 70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 8–661, lowest tertile and OR 27, 95% CI 5–141, highest tertile). In women developing diabetes, baseline IGFBP1 levels were lower than expected for fasting insulin values, were associated with impaired suppression after OGTT and increased during 8 years despite an increase in fasting insulin. All individuals in the highest tertile for waist and with ≤40% suppression of IGFBP1 developed diabetes within 8 years. Circulating IGFBP1 concentrations were higher in women compared to men. Women and men who developed diabetes had a similar degree of abdominal obesity, corrected for height.
We conclude that low IGFBP1 and elevated waist measurement predict diabetes development and that IGFBP1 production is suppressed by a novel factor(s) in women developing diabetes. Increasing levels of IGFBP1 during the emergence of diabetes in men and women suggest the emergence of hepatic insulin resistance.
MCF2L2, ADIPOQ and SOX2 genes are located in chromosome 3q26-27, which is linked to diabetic nephropathy (DN). ADIPOQ and SOX2 genetic polymorphisms are found to be associated with DN. In the present study, we first investigated the association between MCF2L2 and DN, and then evaluated effects of these three genes on the development of DN.
A total of 1177 type 1 diabetes patients with and without DN from the GoKinD study were genotyped with TaqMan allelic discrimination. All subjects were of European descent.
Leu359Ile T/G variant in the MCF2L2 gene was found to be associated with DN in female subjects (P = 0.017, OR = 0.701, 95%CI 0.524-0.938) but not in males. The GG genotype carriers among female patients with DN had tendency decreased creatinine and cystatin levels compared to the carriers with either TT or TG genotypes. This polymorphism MCF2L2-rs7639705 together with SNPs of ADIPOQ-rs266729 and SOX2-rs11915160 had combined effects on decreased risk of DN in females (P = 0.001).
The present study provides evidence that MCF2L2, ADIPOQ and SOX2 genetic polymorphisms have effects on the resistance of DN in female T1D patients, and suggests that the linkage with DN in chromosome 3q may be explained by the cumulated genetic effects.
The fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene has an important genetic effect on body mass index (BMI) and risk of obesity, and obesity contributes to the progression of renal diseases, including diabetic nephropathy. We thus conducted a genetic association study to evaluate whether the FTO gene confers the risk susceptibility to the development of diabetic nephropathy. Genotyping experiments of the common FTO polymorphism, rs9939609, in 1170 type 1 diabetes patients with (n = 597) or without diabetic nephropathy (n = 573) were performed with TaqMan allelic discrimination. All subjects are of European descent and selected from the Genetics of Kidney Diseases in Diabetes (GoKinD) study. The frequency of T allele of this polymorphism was 0.414 in the studied population. There was no allelic association of this polymorphism with diabetic nephropathy. But, the risk susceptibility of A allele conferring to the increased BMI among type 1 diabetes patients was observed. The subjects carrying with AA genotype had higher BMI compared to the carriers with TA and/or TT genotype(s) (P ≤ 0.019). The present study provides evidence that the common FTO genetic polymorphism, rs9939609, is associated with increased BMI in type 1 diabetes but not with diabetic nephropathy.
diabetic nephropathy; fat mass and obesity associated; genetic association; single nucleotide polymorphism
OBJECTIVE—To assess associations between peripheral sensory neuropathy (PSN) and other diabetes-related complications.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD—In an area-based cohort of type 2 diabetic subjects, we investigated 156 subjects (age 61.7 ± 7.2 years and diabetes duration 7.0 ± 5.7 years) by questionnaires, clinical examinations, blood and urine sampling, and review of medical records.
RESULTS—Prevalence of PSN, assessed by monofilament and neurothesiometer testing, increased with severity of retinopathy (50% frequency in moderate and 100% in severe or proliferative retinopathy; P = 0.02). Vibration perception threshold was higher in subjects with retinopathy (25.6 ± 8.9 vs. 20.5 ± 8.9 V; P = 0.007). PSN was more common in subjects with overt nephropathy, with higher vibration perception thresholds, than in subjects without overt nephropathy. Subjects with PSN but no retinopathy had twice the prevalence of peripheral vascular disease (PVD) (52%) as subjects with both PSN and retinopathy (19%; P = 0.05). In subjects with PSN alone, PVD was three times more likely (52%) than in subjects without PSN (16%; P = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, PSN was independently associated with PVD (odds ratio 2.31; P = 0.007), age (1.12; P = 0.008), male sex (2.01; P = 0.02), and HDL cholesterol (0.21; P < 0.05) and tended to be independently associated with IGF-1 binding protein (1.03; P = 0.05) but not with diabetes duration or A1C.
CONCLUSIONS—In a representative population of type 2 diabetes, PSN is related to microvascular and macrovascular pathology. PSN is possibly affected by the IGF axis.
OBJECTIVE—The purpose of this study was to estimate the risks of nontraumatic lower-extremity amputations (LEAs) in patients with type 1 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We identified 31,354 patients with type 1 diabetes (15,001 women and 16,353 men) in the Swedish Inpatient Register between 1975 and 2004. The incidence of nontraumatic LEAs was followed up until 31 December 2004 by cross-linkage in the Inpatient Register and linkage to the Death and Migration registers. Poisson regression modeling was used to compare the risks of nontraumatic LEAs during different calendar periods of follow-up, with adjustment for both sex and attained age at follow-up. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were used to estimate the relative risks (RRs) with the age-, sex-, and calendar period–matched general Swedish population as reference. The cumulative probability of nontraumatic LEAs was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method.
RESULTS—In total, 465 patients with type 1 diabetes underwent nontraumatic LEAs. The risk was lower during the most recent calendar period (2000–2004) than during the period before 2000 (RR 0.6 [95% CI 0.5–0.8]). However, even in this most recent period, the risk for nontraumatic LEAs among these relatively young patients was 86-fold higher than that in the matched general population (SIR 85.8 [72.9–100.3]). By age 65 years, the cumulative probability of having a nontraumatic LEA was 11.0% for women with type 1 diabetes and 20.7% for men with type 1 diabetes.
CONCLUSIONS—Although the risks appeared to have declined in recent years, patients with type 1 diabetes still have a very high risk for nontraumatic LEAs.
The TRPC1 gene on chromosome 3q22–24 resides within the linkage region for diabetic nephropa-thy (DN) in type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). A recent study has demonstrated that TRPC1 expression is reduced in the kidney of diabetic ZDF- and STZ-treated rats. The present study aimed to evaluate the genetic and functional role of TRPC1 in the development of DN.
Genetic association study was performed with two independent cohorts, including 1,177 T1D European Americans with or without DN from GoKinD population and 850 African-American subjects with T2D-associated end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or with hypertensive (non-diabetic) ESRD, and nondiabetic controls. Seven tag SNP markers derived from HapMap data (phase II) were genotyped. TRPC1 gene expression was examined using real time RT-PCR.
No significant association of TRPC1 DNA polymorphisms with DN or ERSD was found in GoKinD and African-American populations. TRPC1 gene mRNA expression in kidney was found to be trendily reduced in 12-week and significantly in 26-week-old db/db mice.
TRPC1 genetic polymorphism may not fundamentally contribute to the development of DN, while reduction of the gene expression in kidney may be a late phenomenon of DN as seen in diabetic animal models.
TRPC1 gene; Single-nucleotide polymorphism; Diabetic nephropathy; End-stage renal disease; Diabetes types 1 and 2
Liver X receptor alpha (LXRA) and beta (LXRB) regulate glucose and lipid homeostasis in model systems but their importance in human physiology is poorly understood. This project aimed to determine whether common genetic variations in LXRA and LXRB associate with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and quantitative measures of glucose homeostasis, and, if so, reveal the underlying mechanisms.
Eight common single nucleotide polymorphisms in LXRA and LXRB were analyzed for association with T2D in one French cohort (N = 988 cases and 941 controls), and for association with quantitative measures reflecting glucose homeostasis in two non-diabetic population-based samples comprising N = 697 and N = 1344 adults. Investigated quantitative phenotypes included fasting plasma glucose, serum insulin, and HOMAIR as measure of overall insulin resistance. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed in N = 1344 of adults. The two alleles of the proximal LXRB promoter, differing only at the SNP rs17373080, were cloned into reporter vectors and transiently transfected, whereupon allele-specific luciferase activity was measured. rs17373080 overlapped, according to in silico analysis, with a binding site for Nuclear factor 1 (NF1). Promoter alleles were tested for interaction with NF1 using direct DNA binding and transactivation assays.
Genotypes at two LXRB promoter SNPs, rs35463555 and rs17373080, associated nominally with T2D (P values 0.047 and 0.026). No LXRA or LXRB SNP associated with quantitative measures reflecting glucose homeostasis. The rs17373080 C allele displayed higher basal transcription activity (P value < 0.05). The DNA-mobility shift assay indicated that oligonucleotides corresponding to either rs17373080 allele bound NF1 transcription factors in whole cell extracts to the same extent. Different NF1 family members showed different capacity to transactivate the LXRB gene promoter, but there was no difference between promoter alleles in NF1 induced transactivation activity.
Variations in the LXRB gene promoter may be part of the aetiology of T2D. However, the association between LXRB rs35463555 and rs17373080, and T2D are preliminary and needs to be investigated in additional larger cohorts. Common genetic variation in LXRA is unlikely to affect the risk of developing T2D or quantitative phenotypes related to glucose homeostasis.
Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have an increased frequency of osteoporosis, mainly because of increased bone resorption. Reduction of disease activity is suggested to reduce bone remodelling. It might also be possible that prednisolone treatment could cause this effect because prednisolone has been shown to arrest the development of joint destruction in early RA. Therefore, we examined the effects of low-dose prednisolone on serum concentrations of bone remodelling markers and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in RA patients in relation to bone mineral density.
One hundred and fifty patients, 67% women, with early RA, mean disease duration of six months (95% confidence interval (CI) = three to eight months), who had participated in the BARFOT (Better Anti-Rheumatic FarmacOTherapy) low-dose prednisolone study were included. They had been randomised to either the P-group, who were treated with 7.5 mg prednisolone daily (n = 70, mean age = 51 years, 95% CI 48 to 54 years), or the NoP-group, who received no prednisolone (n = 80, mean age 58 years, 95% CI 56 to 61 years), when they started their first disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD). Serum samples were analysed at baseline, 3 and 12 months for procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (P1NP), a marker of bone formation, and the C-telopeptide crosslaps of type I collagen (CTX-1) and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (1CTP), markers of bone degradation. IGF-1 was analysed at baseline and after 12 months. Bone mineral density at the lumbar spine and femoral neck was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and after 24 months.
Levels of P1NP decreased rapidly in the P-group (p < 0.001). Levels of CTX-1 and 1CTP decreased in both treatment groups, but significantly more in the P-group (differences between groups p < 0.019 and p < 0.001, respectively). IGF-1 increased in the P-group (p < 0.001) but remained stable in the NoP-group. Bone mineral density decreased in the spine in both groups, significantly more in postmenopausal women from the P-group. Femur bone mineral density only decreased in the NoP-group.
Low-dose prednisolone in early RA counteracts the negative impact of rheumatoid inflammation on bone tissue in the hip, a juxta-articular localisation. Thus bone mineral density was preserved in the femur in the P-group and 1CTP decreased rapidly. However, the systemic inflammatory consequences on bone could not be prevented in the lumbar spine, especially not in postmenopausal women, probably because of the combined effect of suppression of bone synthesis by prednisolone and the postmenopausal status.