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author:("agree, sarima")
1.  Angiotensin II Activation of mTOR Results in Tubulointerstitial Fibrosis through Loss of N-Cadherin 
American Journal of Nephrology  2011;34(2):115-125.
Background/Aims
Angiotensin (Ang) II contributes to tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Recent data highlight mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) signaling in tubulointerstitial fibrosis; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. Thereby, we investigated the role of Ang II on mTOR/S6K1-dependent proximal tubule (PT) injury, remodeling, and fibrosis.
Methods
We utilized young transgenic Ren2 rats (R2-T) and Sprague-Dawley rats (SD-T) treated with the Ang type 1 receptor (AT1R) blocker telmisartan (2 mg · kg−1 · day−1) or vehicle (R2-C; SD-C) for 3 weeks to examine PT structure and function.
Results
Ren2 rats displayed increased systolic blood pressure, proteinuria and increased PT oxidant stress and remodeling. There were parallel increases in kidney injury molecule-1 and reductions in neprilysin and megalin with associated ultrastructural findings of decreased clathrin-coated pits, endosomes, and vacuoles. Ren2 rats displayed increased Serine2448 phosphorylation of mTOR and downstream S6K1, in concert with ultrastructural basement membrane thickening, tubulointerstitial fibrosis and loss of the adhesion molecule N-cadherin. Telmisartan treatment attenuated proteinuria as well as the biochemical and tubulointerstitial structural abnormalities seen in the Ren2 rats.
Conclusions
Our observations suggest that Ang II activation of the AT1R contributes to PT brush border injury and remodeling, in part, due to enhanced mTOR/S6K1 signaling which promotes tubulointerstitial fibrosis through loss of N-cadherin.
doi:10.1159/000329327
PMCID: PMC3130895  PMID: 21720156
Angiotensin II; mTOR; N-Cadherin; Proximal tubule; Tubulointerstitial fibrosis
2.  Retinal Redox Stress and Remodeling in Cardiometabolic Syndrome and Diabetes 
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a significant cause of global blindness; a major cause of blindness in the United States in people aged between 20–74. There is emerging evidence that retinopathy is initiated and propagated by multiple metabolic toxicities associated with excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The four traditional metabolic pathways involved in the development of DR include: increased polyol pathway flux, advanced glycation end-product formation, activation of protein kinase Cisoforms and hexosamine pathway flux. These pathways individually and synergisticallycontribute to redox stress with excess ROS resulting in retinal tissue injury resulting in significant microvascular blood retinal barrier remodeling. The toxicity of hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia, increased cytokines and growth factors, in conjunction with redox stress, contribute to the development and progression of DR. Redox stress contributes to the development and progression of abnormalities of endothelial cells and pericytes in DR. This review focuses on the ultrastructural observations of the blood retinal barrier including the relationship between the endothelial cell and pericyte remodeling in young nine week old Zucker obese (fa/ fa) rat model of obesity; cardiometabolic syndrome, and the 20 week old alloxan induced diabetic porcine model. Preventing or delaying the blindness associated with these intersecting abnormal metabolic pathways may be approached through strategies targeted to reduction of tissue inflammation and oxidative—redox stress. Understanding these abnormal metabolic pathways and the accompanying redox stress and remodeling mayprovide both the clinician and researcher a new concept of approaching this complicated disease process
doi:10.4161/oxim.3.6.14786
PMCID: PMC3154050  PMID: 21307645
3.  Pericytopathy: Oxidative Stress and Impaired Cellular Longevity in the Pancreas and Skeletal Muscle in Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes 
The pericyte's role has been extensively studied in retinal tissues of diabetic retinopathy; however, little is known regarding its role in such tissues as the pancreas and skeletal muscle. This supportive microvascular mural cell plays an important and novel role in cellular and extracellular matrix remodeling in the pancreas and skeletal muscle of young rodent models representing the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Transmission electron microscopy can be used to evaluate these tissues from young rodent models of insulin resistance and T2DM, including the transgenic Ren2 rat, db/db obese insulin resistantߞT2DM mouse, and human islet amyloid polypeptide (HIP) rat model of T2DM. With this method, the earliest pancreatic remodeling change was widening of the islet exocrine interface and pericyte hypercellularity, followed by pericyte differentiation into islet and pancreatic stellate cells with early fibrosis involving the islet exocrine interface and interlobular interstitium. In skeletal muscle there was a unique endothelial capillary connectivity via elongated longitudinal pericyte processes in addition to pericyte to pericyte and pericyte to myocyte cellcell connections allowing for paracrine communication. Initial pericyte activation due to moderate oxidative stress signaling may be followed by hyperplasia, migration and differentiation into adult mesenchymal cells. Continued robust oxidative stress may induce pericyte apoptosis and impaired cellular longevity. Circulating antipericyte autoantibodies have recently been characterized, and may provide a screening method to detect those patients who are developing pericyte loss and are at greater risk for the development of complications of T2DM due to pericytopathy and rarefaction. Once detected, these patients may be offered more aggressive treatment strategies such as early pharmacotherapy in addition to lifestyle changes targeted to maintaining pericyte integrity. In conclusion, we have provided a review of current knowledge regarding the pericyte and novel ultrastructural findings regarding its role in metabolic syndrome and T2DM.
doi:10.4161/oxim.3.5.13653
PMCID: PMC3154033  PMID: 21150342

Results 1-3 (3)