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1.  Heart Rate Variability is a Predictor of Mortality in CKD - A Report from the CRIC Study 
American journal of nephrology  2013;38(6):517-528.
Background/Aims
Low heart rate variability (HRV) is a risk factor for adverse outcomes in the general population. We aimed to determine the factors associated with HRV and evaluate the association between low HRV and clinical outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Methods
A 10 second electrocardiogram was obtained at baseline in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. HRV was measured by the standard deviation of all R-R intervals (SDNN) and the root mean square of successive differences between R-R intervals (RMSSD).
Results
In 3245 CRIC participants with available baseline SDNN and RMSSD, lower HRV was associated with older age, lack of exercise, heart failure, elevated phosphorus and hemoglobin A1c, and low estimated glomerular filtration rate. After a median follow-up of 4.2 years, in fully adjusted models, lower HRV was not associated with renal (SDNN: HR=0.96 (95% CI 0.88–1.05); RMSSD: HR=0.97 (95% CI 0.88–1.07)) or cardiovascular outcomes (SDNN: HR=1.02 (95% CI 0.92–1.13); RMSSD: HR=1.00 (95% CI 0.90–1.10)). There was a non-linear relationship between RMSSD and all-cause mortality with increased risk with both low and high RMSSD (P=0.04).
Conclusions
In a large cohort of participants with CKD, multiple risk factors for renal and cardiovascular disease were associated with lower HRV. Lower HRV was not associated with increased risk for renal or cardiovascular outcomes, but both low and high RMSSD were associated with increased risk for all-cause mortality. In conclusion, HRV as measured by RMSSD may be a novel and independent risk factor for mortality in CKD patients.
doi:10.1159/000357200
PMCID: PMC3920657  PMID: 24356377
electrocardiography; autonomic nervous system; chronic renal insufficiency; cardiovascular diseases; mortality
2.  APOL1 Risk Variants, Race, and Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease 
The New England journal of medicine  2013;369(23):2183-2196.
BACKGROUND
Among patients in the United States with chronic kidney disease, black patients are at increased risk for end-stage renal disease, as compared with white patients.
METHODS
In two studies, we examined the effects of variants in the gene encoding apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) on the progression of chronic kidney disease. In the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK), we evaluated 693 black patients with chronic kidney disease attributed to hypertension. In the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study, we evaluated 2955 white patients and black patients with chronic kidney disease (46% of whom had diabetes) according to whether they had 2 copies of high-risk APOL1 variants (APOL1 high-risk group) or 0 or 1 copy (APOL1 low-risk group). In the AASK study, the primary outcome was a composite of end-stage renal disease or a doubling of the serum creatinine level. In the CRIC study, the primary outcomes were the slope in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the composite of end-stage renal disease or a reduction of 50% in the eGFR from baseline.
RESULTS
In the AASK study, the primary outcome occurred in 58.1% of the patients in the APOL1 high-risk group and in 36.6% of those in the APOL1 low-risk group (hazard ratio in the high-risk group, 1.88; P<0.001). There was no interaction between APOL1 status and trial interventions or the presence of baseline proteinuria. In the CRIC study, black patients in the APOL1 high-risk group had a more rapid decline in the eGFR and a higher risk of the composite renal outcome than did white patients, among those with diabetes and those without diabetes (P<0.001 for all comparisons).
CONCLUSIONS
Renal risk variants in APOL1 were associated with the higher rates of end-stage renal disease and progression of chronic kidney disease that were observed in black patients as compared with white patients, regardless of diabetes status. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and others.)
doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1310345
PMCID: PMC3969022  PMID: 24206458
3.  Urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels do not improve risk prediction of progressive chronic kidney disease 
Kidney international  2013;83(5):909-914.
Novel biomarkers may improve our ability to predict which patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at higher risk for progressive loss of renal function. Here we assessed the performance of urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) for outcome prediction in a diverse cohort of 3386 patients with CKD in the CRIC study. In this cohort, the baseline mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 42.4 ml/min/1.73m2; the median 24-hour urine protein was 0.2 gm/day; and the median urine NGAL concentration was 17.2 ng/mL. Over an average follow-up of 3.2 years, there were 689 cases in which the eGFR was decreased by half or incident end-stage renal disease developed. Even after accounting for eGFR, proteinuria and other known CKD progression risk factors, urine NGAL remained a significant independent risk factor (Cox model hazard ratio 1.70 highest to lowest quartile). The association between baseline urine NGAL levels and risk of CKD progression was strongest in the first two years of biomarker measurement. Within this time frame, adding urine NGAL to a model which included eGFR, proteinuria and other CKD progression risk factors led to net reclassification improvement of 24.7%; but the C-statistic remained nearly identical. Thus, while urine NGAL was an independent risk factor of progression among patients with established CKD of diverse etiology, it did not substantially improve prediction of outcome events.
doi:10.1038/ki.2012.458
PMCID: PMC3642209  PMID: 23344473
4.  Metabolic Syndrome, Components, and Cardiovascular Disease Prevalence in Chronic Kidney Disease: Findings from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study 
American Journal of Nephrology  2011;33(6):477-484.
Background/Aims
Metabolic syndrome may increase the risk for incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in the general population. It is unclear whether, and to what degree, metabolic syndrome is associated with CVD in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We determined metabolic syndrome prevalence among individuals with a broad spectrum of kidney dysfunction, examining the role of the individual elements of metabolic syndrome and their relationship to prevalent CVD.
Methods
We evaluated four models to compare metabolic syndrome or its components to predict prevalent CVD using prevalence ratios in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study.
Results
Among 3,939 CKD participants, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 65% and there was a significant association with prevalent CVD. Metabolic syndrome was more common in diabetics (87.5%) compared with non-diabetics (44.3%). Hypertension was the most prevalent component, and increased triglycerides the least prevalent. Using the bayesian information criterion, we found that the factors defining metabolic syndrome, considered as a single interval-scaled variable, was the best of four models of metabolic syndrome, both for CKD participants overall and for diabetics and non-diabetics separately.
Conclusion
The predictive value of this model for future CVD outcomes will subsequently be validated in longitudinal analyses.
doi:10.1159/000327618
PMCID: PMC3095834  PMID: 21525746
Cardiovascular disease; Chronic kidney disease; Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study; Metabolic syndrome

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