The rising global epidemic of diabetic nephropathy (DN) will likely lead to increase in the prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality posing a serious burden for public health care. Despite greater understanding of the etiology of diabetes and the development of novel treatment strategies to control blood glucose levels, the prevalence and incidence rate of DN is increasing especially in minority populations including Mexican Americans. Mexican Americans with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are three times more likely to develop microalbuminuria, and four times more likely to develop clinical proteinuria compared to non-Hispanic whites. Furthermore, Mexican Americans have a six fold increased risk of developing renal failure secondary to T2DM compared to Caucasians. Prevention and better treatment of DN should be a high priority for both health-care organizations and society at large. Pathogenesis of DN is multi-factorial. Familial clustering of DN-related traits in MAs show that DN and related traits are heritable and that genes play a susceptibility role. While, there has been some progress in identifying genes which when mutated influence an individual’s risk, major gene(s) responsible for DN are yet to be identified. Knowledge of the genetic causes of DN is essential for elucidation of its mechanisms, and for adequate classification, prognosis, and treatment. Self-identification and collaboration among researchers with suitable genomic and clinical data for meta-analyses in Mexican Americans is critical for progress in replicating/identifying DN risk genes in this population. This paper reviews the approaches and recent efforts made to identify genetic variants contributing to risk for DN and related phenotypes in the Mexican American population.
Diabetic Nephropathy; Mexican Americans; ACR; GFR; Type 2 Diabetes; linkage; candidate gene; SNPs
MicroRNAs regulate post-transcriptomic landscape in many tumors including renal cell carcinoma. We have recently shown significantly increased expression of miR-21 in renal tumors and that this miRNA contributes to the proliferation of renal cancer cells in culture. However, the mechanism by which miR-21 regulates renal cancer cells proliferation is poorly understood. Addiction to constitutive NFκB activity is hallmark of many cancers including renal cancer. Using miR-21 Sponge in renal cancer cells to block endogenous function of miR-21, we show inhibition of phosphorylation of p65 subunit of NFκB, IKKβ and IκB, which results in attenuation of NFκB transcriptional activity. Subtle reduction in the tumor suppressor PTEN has been linked to various malignancies. We showed previously that miR-21 targeted PTEN in renal cancer cells. Inhibition of PTEN by siRNAs restored miR-21 Sponge-induced suppression of phosphorylation of p65, IKKβ, IκB and NFκB transcriptional activity along with reversal of miR-21 Sponge-reduced phosphorylation of Akt. Expression of constitutively active Akt protected against miR-21 Sponge- and PTEN-mediated decrease in p65/IKKβ/IκB phosphorylation and NFκB transcriptional activity. Furthermore, IKKβ and p65 were required for miR-21-induced renal cancer cell proliferation. Interestingly, miR-21 controlled the expression of cyclin D1 through NFκB-dependent transcription. Finally, we demonstrate that miR-21-regulated renal cancer cell proliferation is mediated by cyclin D1 and CDK4. Together, our results establish a molecular order of a phosphatase-kinase couple involving PTEN/Akt/IKKβ and NFκB-dependent cyclin D1 expression for renal carcinoma cell proliferation by increased miR-21 levels.
microRNA; Renal cancer; PTEN; NFκB
Enhanced TGFβ activity contributes to the accumulation of matrix proteins including collagen I (α2) by proximal tubular epithelial cells in progressive kidney disease. Although TGFβ rapidly activates its canonical Smad signaling pathway, it also recruits noncanonical pathway involving mTOR kinase to regulate renal matrix expansion. The mechanism by which chronic TGFβ treatment maintains increased mTOR activity to induce the matrix protein collagen I (α2) expression is not known. Deptor is an mTOR interacting protein that suppresses mTOR activity in both mTORC1 and mTORC2. In proximal tubular epithelial cells, TGFβ reduced deptor levels in a time-dependent manner with concomitant increase in both mTORC1 and mTORC2 activities. Expression of deptor abrogated activity of mTORC1 and mTORC2, resulting in inhibition of collagen I (α2) mRNA and protein expression via transcriptional mechanism. In contrast, neutralization of endogenous deptor by shRNAs increased activity of both mTOR complexes and expression of collagen I (α2) similar to TGFβ treatment. Importantly, downregulation of deptor by TGFβ increased the expression of Hif1α by increasing translation of its mRNA. TGFβ-induced deptor downregulation promotes Hif1α binding to its cognate hypoxia responsive element in the collagen I (α2) gene to control its protein expression via direct transcriptional mechanism. Interestingly, knockdown of raptor to specifically block mTORC1 activity significantly inhibited expression of collagen I (α2) and Hif1α while inhibition of rictor to prevent selectively mTORC2 activation did not have any effect. Critically, our data provide evidence for the requirement of TGFβ-activated mTORC1 only by deptor downregulation, which dominates upon the bystander mTORC2 activity for enhanced expression of collagen I (α2). Our results also suggest the presence of a safeguard mechanism involving deptor-mediated suppression of mTORC1 activity against developing TGFβ-induced renal fibrosis.
Podocyte apoptosis is a critical mechanism for excessive loss of urinary albumin that eventuates in kidney fibrosis. Pharmacological doses of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor rapamycin reduce albuminuria in diabetes. We explored the hypothesis that mTOR mediates podocyte injury in diabetes. High glucose (HG) induces apoptosis of podocytes, inhibits AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, inactivates tuberin, and activates mTOR. HG also increases the levels of Nox4 and Nox1 and NADPH oxidase activity. Inhibition of mTOR by low-dose rapamycin decreases HG-induced Nox4 and Nox1, NADPH oxidase activity, and podocyte apoptosis. Inhibition of mTOR had no effect on AMPK or tuberin phosphorylation, indicating that mTOR is downstream of these signaling molecules. In isolated glomeruli of OVE26 mice, there is a similar decrease in the activation of AMPK and tuberin and activation of mTOR with increase in Nox4 and NADPH oxidase activity. Inhibition of mTOR by a small dose of rapamycin reduces podocyte apoptosis and attenuates glomerular injury and albuminuria. Our data provide evidence for a novel function of mTOR in Nox4-derived reactive oxygen species generation and podocyte apoptosis that contributes to urinary albumin excretion in type 1 diabetes. Thus, mTOR and/or NADPH oxidase inhibition may represent a therapeutic modality of diabetic kidney disease.
Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), a measure of kidney function, is heritable, suggesting that genes influence renal function. Genes that influence eGFR have been identified through genome-wide association studies. However, family-based linkage approaches may identify loci that explain a larger proportion of the heritability. This study used genome-wide linkage and association scans to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) that influence eGFR.
Genome-wide linkage and sparse association scans of eGFR were performed in families ascertained by probands with advanced diabetic nephropathy (DN) from the multi-ethnic Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND) study. This study included 954 African Americans (AA), 781 American Indians (AI), 614 European Americans (EA) and 1,611 Mexican Americans (MA). A total of 3,960 FIND participants were genotyped for 6,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using the Illumina Linkage IVb panel. GFR was estimated by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula.
The non-parametric linkage analysis, accounting for the effects of diabetes duration and BMI, identified the strongest evidence for linkage of eGFR on chromosome 20q11 (log of the odds [LOD] = 3.34; P = 4.4×10−5) in MA and chromosome 15q12 (LOD = 2.84; P = 1.5×10−4) in EA. In all subjects, the strongest linkage signal for eGFR was detected on chromosome 10p12 (P = 5.5×10−4) at 44 cM near marker rs1339048. A subsequent association scan in both ancestry-specific groups and the entire population identified several SNPs significantly associated with eGFR across the genome.
The present study describes the localization of QTL influencing eGFR on 20q11 in MA, 15q21 in EA and 10p12 in the combined ethnic groups participating in the FIND study. Identification of causal genes/variants influencing eGFR, within these linkage and association loci, will open new avenues for functional analyses and development of novel diagnostic markers for DN.
Increased serum uric acid (SUA) is a risk factor for gout and renal and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The purpose of this study was to identify genetic factors that affect the variation in SUA in 632 Mexican Americans participants of the San Antonio Family Heart Study (SAFHS). A genome-wide association (GWA) analysis was performed using the Illumina Human Hap 550K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray. We used a linear regression-based association test under an additive model of allelic effect, while accounting for non-independence among family members via a kinship variance component. All analyses were performed in the software package SOLAR. SNPs rs6832439, rs13131257, and rs737267 in solute carrier protein 2 family, member 9 (SLC2A9) were associated with SUA at genome-wide significance (p < 1.3 × 10−7). The minor alleles of these SNPs had frequencies of 36.2, 36.2, and 38.2%, respectively, and were associated with decreasing SUA levels. All of these SNPs were located in introns 3–7 of SLC2A9, the location of the previously reported associations in European populations. When analyzed for association with cardiovascular-renal disease risk factors, conditional on SLC2A9 SNPs strongly associated with SUA, significant associations were found for SLC2A9 SNPs with BMI, body weight, and waist circumference (p < 1.4 × 10−3) and suggestive associations with albumin-creatinine ratio and total antioxidant status (TAS). The SLC2A9 gene encodes an urate transporter that has considerable influence on variation in SUA. In addition to the primary association locus, suggestive evidence (p < 1.9 × 10−6) for joint linkage/association (JLA) was found at a previously-reported urate quantitative trait locus (Logarithm of odds score = 3.6) on 3p26.3. In summary, our GWAS extends and confirms the association of SLC2A9 with SUA for the first time in a Mexican American cohort and also shows for the first time its association with cardiovascular-renal disease risk factors.
variance components decomposition approach; joint linkage/association analysis; kinship; hyperuricemia
To enhance learning (knowledge, attitudes and practices) about the importance of family health history (FHH) information and familial risks.
A pre–post design with one group was employed in this study. Five learning sessions were conducted with a community-based sample (n = 75) recruited from five counties in Texas, USA. Each learning session included: a short online video; enactive instructions on how to use the online Surgeon General FHH tool; and a presentation on how to assess familial risks. Participants completed the pre–post knowledge, attitudes and practices questionnaires and the study's satisfaction survey, and participated in a short focus group interview.
Participants’ average age was 48.1 ± 13.3 years. Over half of the participants (79%) were female, and 55% described themselves as non-Hispanic White. Our findings showed significant changes (p < 0.05) in participants’ specific knowledge about factors that affect their familial risks. Similarly, significant changes (p < 0.05) in participants’ attitudes toward familial risks assessment for common disease complications and confidence in controlling these risks have been documented. Participants’ reported a high level of satisfaction in using online FHH tools, yet no significant change (p > 0.05) was detected in their reported practices regarding sharing FHH information with their providers or relatives. Focus group interviews revealed that participants were uncertain about providers’ or relatives’ reactions to sharing FHH information.
Using different learning styles may have a significant impact on improving knowledge and attitudes about familial risks.
familial risks assessment; family health history tool; genomics; learning; online Surgeon General
Naturally occurring type-2 diabetes has been found in a colony of baboons. Ongoing characterization of the baboon colony maintained at the Southwest National Primate Research Center has revealed a significant range of glucose sensitivity with some animals clearly diabetic. Seven baboons, 4 with diabetes and 3 without diabetes underwent histopathological investigation. Three diabetic animals were diagnosed using fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin A1C and intravenous glucose tolerance test, and a fourth one was known to have hyperglycemia. One control baboon and 3 baboons with diabetes had microalbuminuria. On kidney biopsy, diabetic baboons had thickening of the glomerular basement membrane and mesangial matrix expansion compared to controls. Immunohistochemistry showed the diabetic animals had increased mesangial expression of cellular fibronectin ED-A. Two diabetic animals with microalbuminuria had evidence of mesangiolysis with formation of an early nodule. One diabetic animal had a Kimmestiel-Wilson nodule. We conclude that the baboon represents a useful primate model of diabetes and nephropathy that resembles the nephropathy associated with type-2 diabetes in humans.
Glomerular basement membrane; mesangium; diabetic nephropathy; baboon; renal morphology
The objective of this study is to identify and characterize the genetic variants related to the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) linkage on 2q37. Of the positional candidate genes, we selected IRS1 and resequenced its 2-kb promoter region and exons for sequence variants in 32 subjects. A total of 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified. To comprehensively cover the 59-kb-long intron-1, eight additional tagging SNPs were selected from the HapMap. All the 19 SNPs were genotyped by TaqMan Assay in the entire data set (N = 670; 39 families). Association analyses between the SNPs and GFR and type 2 diabetes–related traits were performed using the measured genotype approach. Of the SNPs examined for association, only the Gly(972)Arg variant of IRS1 exhibited a significant association with GFR (P = 0.0006) and serum triglycerides levels (P = 0.003), after accounting for trait-specific covariate effects. Carriers of Arg972 had significantly decreased GFR values. Gly(972)Arg contributed to 26% of the linkage signal on 2q. Expression of IRS1 mutant Arg972 in human mesangial cells significantly reduced the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of IRS1 and Akt kinase. Taken together, the data provide the first evidence that genetic variation in IRS1 may influence variation in GFR probably through impaired insulin receptor signaling.
African Americans (AAs) have increased susceptibility to non-diabetic nephropathy relative to European Americans.
Follow-up of a pooled genome-wide association study (GWAS) in AA dialysis patients with nondiabetic nephropathy; novel gene-gene interaction analyses.
Setting & Participants
Wake Forest sample: 962 AA nondiabetic nephropathy cases; 931 non-nephropathy controls. Replication sample: 668 Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND) AA nondiabetic nephropathy cases; 804 non-nephropathy controls.
Individual genotyping of top 1420 pooled GWAS-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 54 SNPs in six nephropathy susceptibility genes.
APOL1 genetic association and additional candidate susceptibility loci interacting with, or independently from, APOL1.
The strongest GWAS associations included two non-coding APOL1 SNPs, rs2239785 (odds ratio [OR], 0.33; dominant; p = 5.9 × 10−24) and rs136148 (OR, 0.54; additive; p = 1.1 × 10−7) with replication in FIND (p = 5.0 × 10−21 and 1.9 × 10−05, respectively). Rs2239785 remained significantly associated after controlling for the APOL1 G1 and G2 coding variants. Additional top hits included a CFH SNP(OR from meta-analysis in above 3367 AA cases and controls, 0.81; additive; p = 6.8 × 10−4). The 1420 SNPs were tested for interaction with APOL1 G1 and G2 variants. Several interactive SNPs were detected, the most significant was rs16854341 in the podocin gene (NPHS2) (p = 0.0001).
Non-pooled GWAS have not been performed in AA nondiabetic nephropathy.
This follow-up of a pooled GWAS provides additional and independent evidence that APOL1 variants contribute to nondiabetic nephropathy in AAs and identified additional associated and interactive non-diabetic nephropathy susceptibility genes.
African American; APOL1; CFH; end-stage renal disease; FIND; FSGS; hypertension
Evidence for linkage of albuminuria to GABRB3 marker region on chromosome 15q12 was previously reported in Mexican Americans. The objective of this study is to scan a positional candidate gene, Transient Receptor Potential cation channel, subfamily M 1 (TRPM1), for genetic variants that may contribute to the variation in albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR).
To identify the sequence variants, the exons and 2 kb putative promoter region of TRPM1 were PCR amplified and sequenced in 32 selected individuals. Identified variants were genotyped in the entire data set (N=670; 39 large families) by TaqMan assays. Association analyses between the sequence variants and ACR, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and related phenotypes were carried out using a measured genotype approach as implemented in the program SOLAR.
Sequencing analysis identified 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including 8 SNPs in the coding regions, 7 SNPs in the promoter region and 3 SNPs in introns. Of the 8 SNPs identified in the coding regions, 3 were non synonymous [Met(1)Thr, Ser(32)Asn, Val(1395)Ile] and one SNP caused stop codon (Glu1375/*). Of the SNPs examined, none of them exhibited statistically significant association with ACR after accounting for the effect of age, sex, diabetes, duration of diabetes, systolic blood pressure and anti-hypertensive medications. However, a SNP (rs11070811) located in the putative promoter region showed a modest association with triglycerides levels (P = 0.039).
The present investigation found no evidence for an association between sequence variation at the TRPM1 gene and ACR in Mexican Americans, although it appears to have modest influence on T2DM risk factors.
TRPM1; Type 2 diabetes; Albumin to creatinine ration; polymorphisms; association analysis; Mexican Americans
We have previously demonstrated that melatonin, at pharmacological concentrations, causes rapid reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation at the antimycin-A sensitive site of mitochondrial complex III (MC-3). In the current work, we used this melatonin response to investigate the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the development of diabetic nephropathy. We find that the development of diabetic nephropathy, as indicated by hyperfiltration and histopathological lesions in the kidney of db/db mice, is associated with diminished melatonin-induced ROS generation and MC-3 activity, indicating impaired MC-3 at the antimycin-A site. The MC-3 protein level in the renal mitochondria was equivalent in db/db and the non-diabetic db/m mice whereas mitochondrial complex I (MC-1) protein was dramatically upregulated in the db/db mice. This differential regulation in mitochondrial complexes may alter the equilibrium of the electron transport in renal mitochondria and contribute to ROS overproduction. The study provides one mechanism of enhanced oxidative stress that may be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy in db/db mice.
melatonin; mitochondria; mitochondrial complex I and III; reactive oxygen species; glomerular filtration rate; hyperfiltration; diabetic nephropathy
The T-786C, Glu298Asp, and 27 bp variable number of tandem repeats (27 bp-VNTR-a/b) polymorphsims of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene are thought to alter nitric oxide production and contribute to the development of vascular and renal disease risk. The objective of this study is to investigate whether these three polymorphisms examined previously by others are associated with cardiovascular and renal disease risk in Mexican Americans. Study participants (N = 848; 21 families) were genotyped for T-786C, Glu298Asp, and 27 bp-VNTR-a/b polymorphisms by PCR followed by restriction digestion. Association analyses were performed by a measured genotype approach implemented in the program SOLAR. Of the phenotypes (type 2 diabetes, hypertension, body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR), and estimated glomerular filtration rate) examined for association, the 27 bp-VNTR-a/b variant exhibited statistically significant association with ACR (P = 0.047) after accounting for the trait specific covariate effects. In addition, the promoter variant (T-786C) showed a significant association with triglycerides (P = 0.034) after accounting for covariate influences. In conclusion, the present study adds evidence to the role of eNOS candidate gene polymorphisms in modulating the risk factors related to cardiovascular-renal disease in Mexican Americans although the magnitude of the genetic effect is small.
eNOS; Genetic polymorphisms; Association analyses; ACR; Triglycerides; Mexican Americans
To assess veterans’ experience and satisfaction in using the Surgeon General’s (SG) online family health history (FHH) tool, and determine the perceived facilitators and barriers to using the online SG-FHH tool.
Materials & methods
A mixed-method using both qualitative and quantitative approaches was employed in this study. A total of 35 veterans at the VA Medical Center in San Antonio, Texas, USA were invited to enter their FHH information using the online SG-FHH tool, complete the study’s satisfaction survey and participate in a short semi-structured interview. The goal of the semi-structured interviews was to assess participants perceived facilitators and barriers to using the online SG-FHH tool. All participants were also provided with a printed copy of their pedigree, which was generated by the SG-FHH tool and were encouraged to share it with their relatives and providers.
The majority of participants (91%) said that they had access to a computer with internet capability and 77% reported that they knew how to use a computer. More than two-thirds of the participants felt that items on the SG-FHH tool were easy to read and felt that FHH categories were relevant to their family’s health. Approximately 94% of participants viewed the SG-FHH tool as useful, and the majority of participants (97%) indicated that they were likely to recommend the tool to others. Content analysis of the semi-structured interviews highlighted several barriers to veterans’ use of the SG-FHH tool and their FHH information. These included: lack of patients’ knowledge regarding their relatives’ FHH, and privacy and confidentiality concerns.
This study provides information on the performance and functionality of an inexpensive and widely accessible method for FHH collection. Furthermore, our findings highlight several opportunities and challenges facing the utilization of FHH information as a clinical and genomic tool at the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). The results suggest that strategies that improve veterans’ knowledge regarding the importance of their FHH information and that address their concerns about privacy and confidentiality may enhance the successful implementation of FHH information into VHA clinical practice.
identifying a locally accepted method for FHH collection and documentation which can be conducted outside of the patient visit will reduce time burdens for providers and patients and allow for a focus on other important topics during clinic visits. Improvement in familial risk screening and assessment will enable the VHA to be prepared for personalized medicine and focus their resources on promoting critically important health behaviors for populations with the highest risk of developing chronic diseases and their complications.
family health history; genomic services; Surgeon General’s online tool
Metastatic renal cancer manifests multiple signatures of gene expression. Deviation in expression of mature miRNAs has been linked to human cancers. Importance of miR-21 in renal cell carcinomas is proposed from profiling studies using tumor tissue samples. However, the role of miR-21 function in causing renal cancer cell proliferation and invasion has not yet been shown. Using cultured renal carcinoma cells, we demonstrate enhanced expression of mature miR-21 along with pre-and pri-miR-21 by increased transcription compared to normal proximal tubular epithelial cells. Overexpression of miR-21 Sponge to quench endogenous miR-21 levels inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of renal cancer cells. In the absence of mutation in the PTEN tumor suppressor gene, PTEN protein levels are frequently downregulated in renal cancer. We show that miR-21 targets PTEN mRNA 3′untranslated region to decrease PTEN protein expression and augments Akt phosphorylation in renal cancer cells. Downregulation of PTEN as well as overexpression of constitutively active Akt kinase prevented miR-21 Sponge-induced inhibition of renal cancer cell proliferation and migration. Moreover, we show that miR-21 Sponge inhibited the inactivating phosphorylation of the tumor suppressor protein tuberin and attenuated TORC1 activation. Finally, we demonstrate that expression of constitutively active TORC1 attenuated miR-21 Sponge-mediated suppression of proliferation and migration of renal cancer cells. Our results uncover a layer of post-transcriptional regulation of PTEN by transcriptional activation of miR-21 to force the canonical oncogenic Akt/TORC1 signaling conduit to drive renal cancer cell proliferation and invasion.
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The multicenter FIND consortium aims to identify genes for DN and its associated quantitative traits, e.g. the urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR). Herein, the results of whole-genome linkage analysis and a sparse association scan for ACR and a dichotomous DN phenotype are reported in diabetic individuals.
A genomewide scan comprising more than 5,500 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism markers (average spacing of 0.6 cM) was performed on 1,235 nuclear and extended pedigrees (3,972 diabetic participants) ascertained for DN from African-American (AA), American-Indian (AI), European-American (EA) and Mexican-American (MA) populations.
Strong evidence for linkage to DN was detected on chromosome 6p (p = 8.0 × 10−5, LOD = 3.09) in EA families as well as suggestive evidence for linkage to chromosome 7p in AI families. Regions on chromosomes 3p in AA, 7q in EA, 16q in AA and 22q in MA displayed suggestive evidence of linkage for urine ACR. The linkage peak on chromosome 22q overlaps the MYH9/APOL1 gene region, previously implicated in AA diabetic and nondiabetic nephropathies.
These results strengthen the evidence for previously identified genomic regions and implicate several novel loci potentially involved in the pathogenesis of DN.
Albuminuria; Diabetes mellitus; Renal failure; End-stage renal disease; Linkage; Allelic association
Genetic variants of the eNOS gene such as T-786C, Glu298Asp, and 27bp-VNTR have been examined for their association with type 2 diabetes (T2DM)-related traits in different populations but not in Mexican Americans. However, the results from such studies have been controversial. This study investigated whether these three polymorphisms are associated with T2DM and its related traits in Mexican Americans, a population at high risk for T2DM and its complications. The study participants (N = 670; 39 families) were genotyped for the three polymorphisms using polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Association analyses between these polymorphisms and T2DM and its related phenotypes were carried out using a measured genotype approach as implemented in the computer program SOLAR. Of the variants examined, only the 27bp-VNTR variant exhibited significant association with high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (P = 0.04) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels (P = 0.02) after accounting for trait-specific covariates. The carriers of the rare allele (27bp-VNTR-4a) are associated with decreased HDL-C and increased DBP levels. In conclusion, of the genetic polymorphisms examined at the eNOS locus, only 27bp-VNTR appears to be a minor contributor to the variation in T2DM-related traits in Mexican Americans.
eNOS gene; type 2 diabetes; genetic polymorphisms; association analyses; Mexican Americans
Tuberin (protein encodes by tuberous sclerosis complex 2, Tsc2) deficiency is associated with the decrease in the DNA repair enzyme 8-oxoG-DNA glycosylase (OGG1) in tumour kidney of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) patients. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms by which tuberin regulates OGG1. The partial deficiency in tuberin expression that occurs in the renal proximal tubular cells and kidney cortex of the Eker rat is associated with decreased activator protein 4 (AP4) and OGG1 expression. A complete deficiency in tuberin is associated with loss of AP4 and OGG1 expression in kidney tumour from Eker rats and the accumulation of significant levels of 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine. Knockdown of tuberin expression in human renal epithelial cells (HEK293) with small interfering RNA (siRNA) also resulted in a marked decrease in the expression of AP4 and OGG1. In contrast, overexpression of tuberin in HEK293 cells increased the expression of AP4 and OGG1 proteins. Downregulation of AP4 expression using siRNA resulted in a significant decrease in the protein expression of OGG1. Immunoprecipitation studies show that AP4 is associated with tuberin in cells. Gel shift analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation identified the transcription factor AP4 as a positive regulator of the OGG1 promoter. AP4 DNA-binding activity is significantly reduced in Tsc2−/− as compared with Tsc2+/+ cells. Transcriptional activity of the OGG1 promoter is also decreased in tuberin-null cells compared with wild-type cells. These data indicate a novel role for tuberin in the regulation of OGG1 through the transcription factor AP4. This regulation may be important in the pathogenesis of kidney tumours in patients with TSC disease.
Diabetic nephropathy is a classic complex trait, whose development in a given individual reflects contributions from multiple genes and whose expression is modulated by environmental factors. Numerous genetic strategies have been used to identify common disease risk loci and genes, including candidate gene analyses, linkage analysis, transmission disequilibrium testing (a family based association test to identify linkage between a genetic marker and a biological trait or disease), and admixture mapping (also referred to as mapping by admixture linkage disequilibrium). Choosing the best genetic strategy to identify susceptibility genes in a disease is dependent on knowing whether the disorder is monogenic (the result of one gene), oligogenic (the result of a few genes), or polygenic (the result of many genes). The likelihood of finding risk loci for a disease with a putative genetic contribution is in part owing to the disease recurrence risk ratio (the risk of expressing the disease phenotype in siblings of the proband divided by the risk observed in the general population), the genotypic risk ratio (the risk of expressing the phenotype if the gene is present divided by the risk if the gene is not present), the number of susceptibility genes, how the susceptibility genes interact, how much of the disease risk is contributed by environmental factors, and the disease penetrance (the likelihood that the phenotype will be expressed if the gene is present).
Admixture mapping; diabetic nephropathy risk loci; Mexican-Americans
Previous studies have shown that, in addition to environmental influences, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has a strong genetic component. The goal of the current study is to identify regions of linkage for T2DM in ethnically diverse populations.
Phenotypic and genotypic data were obtained from African American (AA; total number of individuals (N)=1004), American Indian (AI; N=883), European American (EA; N=537), and Mexican American (MA; N=1634) individuals from the Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes. Nonparametric linkage analysis, using an average of 4,404 SNPs, was performed in relative pairs affected with T2DM in each ethnic group. In addition, family-based tests were performed to detect association with T2DM.
Statistically significant evidence for linkage was observed on chromosomes 4q21.1 (LOD=3.13; genome-wide p=0.04) in AA. In addition, a total of eleven regions showed suggestive evidence for linkage (estimated at LOD>1.71), with the highest LOD scores on chromosomes 12q21.31 (LOD=2.02) and 22q12.3 (LOD=2.38) in AA, 2p11.1 (LOD=2.23) in AI, 6p12.3 (LOD=2.77) in EA, and 13q21.1 (LOD=2.24) in MA. While no region overlapped across all ethnic groups, at least five loci showing LOD>1.71 have been identified in previously published studies.
The results from this study provide evidence for the presence of genes affecting T2DM on chromosomes 4q, 12q, and 22q in AA, 6p in EA, 2p in AI, and 13q in MA. The strong evidence for linkage on chromosome 4q in AA provides important information given the paucity of diabetes genetic studies in this population.
FIND; Type 2 Diabetes; linkage analysis; ethnicity
Several novel genes that are up regulated in the kidney in diabetes have been identified including GREM1, which encodes gremlin 1. GREM1 maps to human chromosome 15q12, a region previously found to be linked to albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) in Mexican Americans. The objective of this study is to investigate whether genetic variants in GREM1, a positional candidate gene, contribute to variation in ACR. By sequencing 32 individuals for both exons and 2 kb putative promoter region of GREM1, we identified 19 genetic variants including 5 in the promoter region and 13 in the 3′UTR. Of 19 polymorphisms identified, 13 polymorphisms were genotyped in the entire cohort (N=670; 39 large families) either by restriction fragment length polymorphism or by TaqMan Assays. Association analyses between the genotypes and ACR, type 2 diabetes and related phenotypes were carried out using a measured genotype approach as implemented in the variance component analytical tools (SOLAR). Of the variants examined for association, none exhibited statistically significant association with ACR after accounting for the effects of covariates such as age, sex, diabetes, duration of diabetes, systolic blood pressure and anti-hypertensive medications. However, two novel variants at the 3′ UTR showed significant association with estimated glomerular filtration rate (P = 0.010 and P = 0.049) and body mass index (P = 0.013 and P = 0.019) after accounting for trait-specific covariate influences. Also, a novel variant located in the promoter exhibited a significant association with systolic (P = 0.038) and diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.005) after adjusting for the effects of age, sex, diabetes, and antihypertensive medications. In conclusion, the variants examined at GREM1 are not significant contributors to variation in ACR in Mexican Americans, although they appear to minimally influence risk factors related to ACR.
Human 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (OGG1) excises oxidatively damaged promutagenic base 8-oxoguanine, a lesion previously observed in a rat model of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The objective of the present study is to determine whether genetic variation in OGG1 is associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in a Mexican American cohort.
Ten SNPs including two tagging SNPs (rs1052133, rs2072668) across the OGG1 gene region were selected from the Hapmap database and genotyped in the entire cohort (n = 670; 29% diabetes; 39 families) by TaqMan assay. Association analyses between the SNPs and T2DM were performed using the measured genotype approach as implemented in the program SOLAR.
Of the ten SNPs genotyped, only five were polymorphic. The minor allele frequencies of these 5 SNPs ranged from 1–38%. Of the SNPs examined for association, the Ser(326)Cys (rs1052133) exhibited significant association with T2DM (p = 0.016) after accounting for age and sex effects. Another intronic variant (rs2072668), which was in strong linkage disequilibrium (r2 = 0.96) with Ser(326)Cys also exhibited significant association with T2DM (p = 0.031).
These results suggest for the first time that the variants in OGG1 could influence diabetes risk in these Mexican American families and support a role for alterations of OGG1 in the pathogenesis of T2DM.
Mexican Americans; OGG1; Type 2 diabetes; Ser326Cys polymorphism; Association; Tagging SNPs; rs1052133
We investigated the role of cytochrome P450 of the 4A family (CYP4A), its metabolites, and NADPH oxidases both in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis of podocytes exposed to high glucose and in OVE26 mice, a model of type 1 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Apoptosis, albuminuria, ROS generation, NADPH superoxide generation, CYP4A and Nox protein expression, and mRNA levels were measured in vitro and in vivo.
Exposure of mouse podocytes to high glucose resulted in apoptosis, with approximately one-third of the cells being apoptotic by 72 h. High-glucose treatment increased ROS generation and was associated with sequential upregulation of CYP4A and an increase in 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) and Nox oxidases. This is consistent with the observation of delayed induction of NADPH oxidase activity by high glucose. The effects of high glucose on NADPH oxidase activity, Nox proteins and mRNA expression, and apoptosis were blocked by N-hydroxy-N′-(4-butyl-2-methylphenol) formamidine (HET0016), an inhibitor of CYP4A, and were mimicked by 20-HETE. CYP4A and Nox oxidase expression was upregulated in glomeruli of type 1 diabetic OVE26 mice. Treatment of OVE26 mice with HET0016 decreased NADPH oxidase activity and Nox1 and Nox4 protein expression and ameliorated apoptosis and albuminuria.
Generation of ROS by CYP4A monooxygenases, 20-HETE, and Nox oxidases is involved in podocyte apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of selected cytochrome P450 isoforms prevented podocyte apoptosis and reduced proteinuria in diabetes.
Genetic polymorphisms in the PON2 gene thought to alter its activity and contribute to the development of cardiovascular and renal disease risk. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the Arg148Gly, Cys311Ser and rs12794795 polymorphisms of PON2 examined previously by others, are associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and subclinical measures of cardiovascular and renal disease risk in Mexican Americans.
Study participants (N=848; 21 families) were genotyped for the three polymorphisms by TaqMan assay. Association between the genotypic and phenotypic data were performed by measured genotype approach as implemented in the variance component analytical tools.
The Arg148Gly variant was found to be monomorphic in our data set. Of the phenotypes examined for association, the A/C variant located in intron-1 (rs12794795) exhibited statistically significant association only with diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.018) after accounting for the trait specific covariate effects. The Cys311Ser variant failed to show statistically significant association with any of the phenotypes examined.
In conclusion, the variants examined at the PON2 locus in Mexican Americans do not appear to be a major contributor to T2DM, cardiovascular or renal disease risk, although it exhibited a small effect on the blood pressure values.
PON2; genetic polymorphisms; association analyses; systolic blood pressure; Mexican Americans
The aim of this study was to examine whether the ACE-I/D, AGT-M235T, and AT1R-A1166C polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) genes are associated with cardiovascular and renal-related risk factors in Mexican Americans. Study participants (N=848) were genotyped by Taqman assays. Association analyses were performed by measured genotype approach. Of the phenotypes examined, the ACE-I/D, AGT-M235T, and AT1R-A1166C polymorphisms exhibited significant association with systolic blood pressure, glomerular filtration rate and body mass index, respectively. The data suggest that the polymorphisms examined in the RAS may modulate the risk factors associated with cardiovascular-renal disease.
ACE; AGT; AT1R; polymorphisms; association analysis; SBP; GFR; BMI; Mexican Americans