Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death and disability in the world. Genome-wide association studies have implicated the importance of the genetic contribution of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) function in CAD susceptibility. The aberrant phenotypic modulation of VSMC is responsible for the pathological vascular intima hyperplasia that is the hallmark for atherosclerotic morphology. NEXN is a muscle-specific F-actin binding protein and is regulated by inflammatory cytokines in VSMCs. Whether NEXN contributes to human vascular disorders is still unknown. In this study, we genotyped 5 SNPs, tagging all of the 17 common SNPs within 54 kilobases (kb) covering NEXN gene and its flanking region, in 1883 patients with CAD and 1973 healthy individuals from Han Chinese, and identified one SNP, rs1780050, which was strongly associated with CAD trait. The Bonferroni corrected P-value was 7.65×10−5. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 1.23 (1.12–1.36) with statistical power of 0.994. Functional analysis showed that NEXN promotes VSMC to a contractile phenotype in vitro and inhibits balloon-injury induced neointima formation in vivo. Further eQTL analysis demonstrated that the risk allele T of rs1780050 is associated with decreased expression of NEXN, thus contributing to a higher risk of CAD susceptibility in the population. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to identify NEXN as a novel CAD susceptibility gene with both genetic and functional evidence.
Background and Aims
Differences in dormancy and germination requirements have been documented in heteromorphic seeds of many species, but it is unknown how this difference contributes to maintenance and regeneration of populations. The primary aim of this study was to compare the seed bank dynamics, including dormancy cycling, of the two seed morphs (black and brown) of the cold desert halophyte Suaeda corniculata and, if differences were found, to determine their influence on regeneration of the species.
Seeds of the two seed morphs were buried, exhumed and tested monthly for 24 months over a range of temperatures and salinities, and germination recovery and viability were determined after exposure to salinity and water stress. Seedling emergence and dynamics of the soil seed bank were also investigated for the two morphs.
Black seeds had an annual dormancy/non-dormancy cycle, while brown seeds, which were non-dormant at maturity, remained non-dormant. Black seeds also exhibited an annual cycle in sensitivity of germination to salinity. Seedlings derived from black seeds emerged in July and August and those from brown seeds in May. Seedlings were recruited from 2·6 % of the black seeds and from 2·8 % of the brown seeds in the soil, and only 0·5 % and 0·4 % of the total number of black and brown seeds in the soil, respectively, gave rise to seedlings that survived to produce seeds. Salinity and water stress induced dormancy in black seeds and decreased viability of brown seeds. Brown seeds formed only a transient soil seed bank and black seeds a persistent seed bank.
The presence of a dormancy cycle in black but not in brown seeds of S. corniculata and differences in germination requirements of the two morphs cause them to differ in their germination dynamics. The study contributes to our limited knowledge of dormancy cycling and seed bank formation in species producing heteromorphic seeds.
Dormancy; halophyte seeds; salinity; seed germination; seedling recruitment; seed bank dynamics; Suaeda corniculata
β-adrenoceptors are the common pharmacological targets for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and asthma. Genetic modifications of β-adrenergic system in engineered mice affect their lifespans. Here we tested whether genes encoding for key components of the β-adrenergic signaling pathway are associated with human longevity. We performed a 10-year follow-up study of the Chinese longitudinal healthy longevity survey. The Han Chinese population in this study consisted of 963 long-lived and 1028 geography matched young individuals. Sixteen SNPs from ADRB1, ADRB2, ADCY5, ADCY6, and MAPK1 were selected and genotyped. Two SNPs, rs1042718 (C/A) and rs1042719 (G/C), of ADRB2 in linkage disequilibrium (D′ = 1.0; r2 = 0.67) were found to be associated with enhanced longevity in males in two geographically isolated populations. Bonferroni corrected p values in a combined analysis were 0.00053–0.010. Men with haplotype A-C showed an increased probability to become centenarians (the frequency of A-C in long-lived and young individuals are 0.332 and 0.250, respectively, OR = 1.49, CI95% = 1.17–1.88, p = 0.0007), in contrast to those with haplotype C-G (the frequency of C-G in long-lived and young individuals are 0.523 and 0.635, respectively, OR = 0.63, CI95% = 0.51–0.78, p = 0.000018). The permuted p values were 0.00005 and 0.0009, respectively. ADRB2 encodes the β2-adrenergic receptor; the haplotype A-C markedly reduced its translational efficiency compared to C-G (p = 0.002) in transfected HEK293 cells. Thus, our data indicate that enhanced production of β2-adrenergic receptors caused by genetic variants is inversely associated with human lifespan.
β2-adrenergic receptor; single nucleotide polymorphism; haplotype; longevity; translational efficiency
Follicular helper T (Tfh) cells exert an important role in autoimmune diseases. Whether it might be involved in type 1 diabetes (T1D) is unknown. Our aim was to investigate the role of Tfh cells in patients with T1D and the effect of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (rituximab) on Tfh cells from T1D patients.
Patients and Methods
Fifty-four patients with T1D and 37 healthy controls were enrolled in the current study. 20 of those patients were treated with rituximab. The frequencies of circulating CD4+CXCR5+ICOS+T cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. The serum autoantibodies were detected by radioligand assay. The levels of IL-21, IL-6 and BCL-6 were assessed using ELISA and/or real-time PCR.
Increased frequencies of circulating Tfh cells together with enhanced expression of IL-21 were detected in patients. The correlation between the frequencies of circulating Tfh cells and the serum autoantibodies or C-peptide level was comfirmed. After rituximab therapy, follow-up analysis demonstrated that the frequencies of circulating Tfh cell and serum IA2A were decreased. The levels of IL-21, IL-6 and Bcl-6 mRNA were decreased after treatment. Furthermore, beta cell function in 10 of 20 patients was improved.
These data indicate Tfh cells may participate in the T1D-relatede immune responses and B cells might play a role in the development of Tfh responses in the disease progression.
The effects of C-phycocyanin (C-PC) on atherosclerosis and the regulatory effects of CD59 gene on anti-atherosclerotic roles of C-PC were investigated. Apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE(−/−)) mice were randomly divided into four groups: control group, C-PC treatment group, CD59 transfection group and C-PC+CD59 synergy group. The mice were fed with high-fat-diet and treated with drug intervention at the same time. Results showed the atherosclerotic mouse model was successfully established. CD59 was over-expressed in blood and tissue cells. Single CD59 or C-PC could reduce blood lipid levels and promote the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 but inhibit pro-apoptotic Fas proteins in endothelial cells. The expression levels of cell cycle protein D1 (Cyclin D1) and mRNA levels of cyclin dependent protein kinase 4 (CDK4) in smooth muscle cells were restrained by CD59 and C-PC. CD59 or C-PC alone could inhibit the formation of atherosclerotic plaque by suppressing MMP-2 protein expression. In addition, C-PC could promote CD59 expression. So both CD59 and C-PC could inhibit the progress of atherosclerosis, and the anti-atherosclerotic effects of C-PC might be fulfilled by promoting CD59 expression, preventing smooth muscle cell proliferation and the apoptosis of endothelial cells, reducing blood fat levels, and at last inhibiting the development of atherosclerosis.
Doxorubicin is an anthracycline DNA intercalator that is among the most commonly used anti-cancer drugs . Doxorubicin causes DNA double-strand breaks in rapidly dividing cells, although whether it also affects general chromatin properties is unknown. Here, we use a metabolic labeling strategy to directly measure nucleosome turnover  to examine the effect of doxorubicin on chromatin dynamics in squamous cell carcinoma cell lines derived from genetically defined mice. We find that doxorubicin enhances nucleosome turnover around gene promoters, and turnover correlates with gene expression level. Consistent with a direct action of doxorubicin, enhancement of nucleosome turnover around promoters gradually increases with time of exposure to the drug. Interestingly, enhancement occurs both in wild-type cells and in cells lacking either the p53 tumor suppressor gene or the master regulator of the DNA damage response, Atm, suggesting that doxorubicin action on nucleosome dynamics is independent of the DNA damage checkpoint. In addition, another anthracycline drug, aclarubicin, shows similar effects on enhancing nucleosome turnover around promoters. Our results suggest that anthracycline intercalation promotes nucleosome turnover around promoters by its effect on DNA topology, with possible implications for mechanisms of cell killing during cancer chemotherapy.
CATCH-IT; Squamous cell carcinoma; p53; Atm
A meta-analysis was performed to assess the association between the PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism and susceptibility to diabetes mellitus (DM), diabetic nephropathy (DN), diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic coronary artery disease (CAD). A literature-based search was conducted to identify all relevant studies. The fixed or random effect pooled measure was calculated mainly at the allele level to determine heterogeneity bias among studies. Further stratified analyses and sensitivity analyses were also performed. Publication bias was examined by the modified Begg’s and Egger’s test. Twenty published articles with twenty-seven outcomes were included in the meta-analysis: 6 studies with a total of 1,333 cases and 3,011 controls were analyzed for the PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism with diabetes risk, 7 studies with 1,060 cases and 1,139 controls for DN risk, 10 studies with 1,327 cases and 1,557 controls for DR and 4 studies with 610 cases and 1,042 controls for diabetic CAD risk respectively. Using allelic comparison (4G vs. 5G), the PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism was observed to have no significant association with diabetes (REM OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.96, 1.20), DN (REM OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.98, 1.25), DR (REM OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.97, 1.22) or diabetic CAD risk (REM OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.81, 1.42), and similar results were obtained in the dominant, recessive and co-dominant models. Our meta-analyses suggest that the PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism might not be a risk factor for DM, DN, DR or diabetic CAD risk in the populations investigated. This conclusion warrants confirmation by further studies.
The melanocortin-3 receptor (MC3R) is a member of family A rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptor. Mouse genetic studies suggested that MC3R and the related MC4R are non-redundant regulators of energy homeostasis. Lack of Mc3r leads to higher feed efficiency and fat mass. However, until now only a few MC3R mutations have been identified in humans and the role of MC3R in the pathogenesis of obesity was unclear. In the present study, we performed detailed functional studies on nine naturally occurring MC3R mutations recently reported. We found that all nine mutants had decreased cell surface expression. A260V, M275T, and L297V had decreased total expression whereas the other six mutants had normal total expression. Mutants S69C and T280S exhibited significant defects in ligand binding and signaling. The dramatic defects of T280S might be partially caused by decreased cell surface expression. In addition, we found mutants M134I and M275T had decreased maximal binding but displayed similar signaling properties as wild-type MC3R. All the other mutants had normal binding and signaling activities. Co-expression studies showed that all mutants except L297V did not affect wild-type MC3R signaling. Multiple mutations at T280 demonstrated the necessity of Thr for cell surface expression, ligand binding, and signaling. In summary, we provided detailed data of these novel human MC3R mutations leading to a better understanding of structure-function relationship of MC3R and the role of MC3R mutation in obesity.
Melanocortin-3 receptor; Naturally occurring mutations; Obesity; Binding; Signaling; Cell surface expression
Hepatic scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) plays an important role in selective high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) uptake, which is a pivotal step of reverse cholesterol transport. In this study, the potential involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in posttranscriptional regulation of hepatic SR-BI and selective HDL-C uptake was investigated. The level of SR-BI expression was repressed by miRNA 185 (miR-185), miR-96, and miR-223, while the uptake of 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI)-HDL was decreased by 31.9% (P < 0.001), 23.9% (P < 0.05), and 15.4% (P < 0.05), respectively, in HepG2 cells. The inhibition of these miRNAs by their anti-miRNAs had opposite effects in these hepatic cells. The critical effect of miR-185 was further validated by the loss of regulation in constructs with mutated miR-185 target sites. In addition, these miRNAs directly targeted the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of SR-BI with a coordinated effect. Interestingly, the decrease of miR-96 and miR-185 coincided with the increase of SR-BI in the livers of ApoE KO mice on a high-fat diet. These data suggest that miR-185, miR-96, and miR-223 may repress selective HDL-C uptake through the inhibition of SR-BI in human hepatic cells, implying a novel mode of regulation of hepatic SR-BI and an important role of miRNAs in modulating cholesterol metabolism.
An epidemic caused by influenza A (H7N9) virus was recently reported in China. Deep sequencing revealed the full genome of the virus obtained directly from a patient’s sputum without virus culture. The full genome showed substantial sequence heterogeneity and large differences compared with that from embryonated chicken eggs.
H7N9; influenza A virus; deep sequencing; direct sequencing; culture-free; avian-origin; influenza; viruses
Persistent Jak/Stat3 signal transduction plays a crucial role in tumorigenesis and immune development. Activated Jak/Stat3 signaling has been validated as a promising molecular target for cancer therapeutics discovery and development. Berbamine (BBM), a natural bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, was identified from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Berberis amurensis used for treatment of cancer patients. While BBM has been shown to have potent antitumor activities with low toxicity in various cancer types, the molecular mechanism of action of BBM remains largely unknown. Here, we determine the antitumor activities of thirteen synthetic berbamine derivatives (BBMDs) against human solid tumor cells. BBMD3, which is the most potent in this series of novel BBMDs, exhibits over 6-fold increase in biological activity compared to natural BBM. Moreover, BBMD3, directly inhibits Jak2 autophosphorylation kinase activity in vitro with IC50 = 0.69 μM. Autophosphorylation of Jak2 kinase at Tyr1007/1008 sites also was strongly inhibited in the range of 1 μM to 5 μM of BBMD3 in human melanoma cells at 4 h after treatment. Following inhibition of autophosphorylation of Jak2, BBMD3 blocked constitutive activation of downstream Stat3 signaling in melanoma cells. BBMD3 also down-regulated expression of the Stat3 target proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL, associated with induction of apoptosis. In sum, our findings demonstrate that the novel berbamine derivative BBMD3 is an inhibitor of the Jak2/Stat3 signaling pathway, providing evidence for a molecular mechanism whereby BBMD3 exerts at least in part the apoptosis of human melanoma cells. In addition, BBMD3 represents a promising lead compound for development of new therapeutics for cancer treatment.
Berbamine derivatives (BBMDs); Jak2; Stat3; Apoptosis
Background and Purpose
Brain microvascular disorders, including cerebral microscopic hemorrhage, have high prevalence but few treatment options. To develop new strategies for these disorders, we analyzed effects of several phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors on human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBEC).
We modified barrier properties and response to histamine of HBEC using cilostazol (PDE-3 inhibitor), rolipram (PDE-4 inhibitor), and dipyridamole (non-specific PDE inhibitor).
Cilostazol and dipyridamole altered distribution of endothelial F-actin. Cilostazol increased expression of tight junction protein claudin-5 by 118 % compared to control (p<.001). Permeability to albumin was decreased by cilostazol (21% vs control, p<.05), and permeability to dextran (70Kd) was decreased by both cilostazol (37% vs control, p<.001) and dipyridamole (44% vs control, p<.0001). Cilostazol increased trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER) after 12 hours by 111% compared to control (p<.0001). Protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors H89 and KT5720 attenuated the TEER increase by cilostazol. Transient increased permeability in response to histamine was significantly mitigated by cilostazol, but not other PDE inhibitors.
These findings demonstrate distinctive effects of cilostazol and other PDE inhibitors on HBEC, including enhanced barrier characteristics and mitigation of response to histamine. PKA-mediated effects of cilostazol were prominent in this model. These in vitro findings are consistent with therapeutic potential of PDE inhibitors in human brain microvascular disorders.
cell culture; endothelial; microcirculation; phosphodiesterase; histamine
The aim of the present study was to determine the possible mechanism underlying the enhanced migration and proliferation of endothelial cells caused by glioma stem cells (GSCs). Tumor spheres enriched in GSCs derived from the mouse GL261 glioma cell line, and the brain microvessel endothelial cell line, b.END3, were used in this study. A Transwell co-culture system, RNAi experiments, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent, cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) proliferation, Transwell migration and wound-healing assays were used in this study to determine the migration and proliferation ability, as well as the Hedgehog (HH) pathway-related gene expression in the b.END3 cells. Based on the results, it was demonstrated that the migration and proliferation of the endothelial cells were enhanced following co-culture with GSCs. The gene expression of the HH pathway-related genes, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) and Hedgehog-interacting protein (Hhip) was altered in the endothelial cells when co-cultured with GSCs. Overexpression of glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 indicated activation of the HH pathway. Following knockdown of smoothened (Smo) in the endothelial cells, the migration and proliferation abilities of the cells were inhibited. GSCs have little effect on enhancing these behaviors in endothelial cells following Smo-knockdown. Further investigation revealed that Shh levels in the supernatant of the co-culture system were elevated, indicating the importance of secreted Shh from the endothelial cells. In conclusion, GSCs enhanced the migration and proliferation of the endothelial cells in vitro, which was likely associated with the activation of the HH pathway in the endothelial cells, caused by the increased secretion of Shh.
glioma stem cell; Hedgehog pathway; endothelial cell; migration; proliferation
Vitamin nutritional status may influence some xenobiotic metabolism or vice versa.
This analysis examines the relationship between B-vitamin concentrations and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDT) isomers and metabolites in healthy women. Serum pp′DDT, pp′DDE, pp′DDD, op′DDT, op′DDE, and serum folate, cysteine, and vitamins B6 and B12 were measured in 296 nonsmoking female textile workers (21–34 yr) in Anhui, China. Mean (SD) age and body mass index of this cohort were 24.9 (1.5) y and 19.7 (2.0) kg/m2, respectively.
Median pp′DDT, pp′DDE, pp′DDD, op′DDT, and op′DDE were 1.5, 29.2, 0.22, 0.17, and 0.09 ng/g, respectively. Median folate and cysteine were 9.2 and 200.0 nmol/L, respectively. Folate was significantly inversely associated with pp′DDT and pp′DDE: β (95% confidence interval [CI]) = −0.23 (−0.39, −0.07) and −0.20 (−0.36, −0.05), respectively, and it was marginally associated with pp′DDD. Cysteine was significantly inversely associated with pp′DDT, β (95% CI) = −0.69 (−1.00, −0.37); pp′DDE, β (95% CI) = −0.32 (−0.62, −0.02); pp′DDD, β (95% CI) = −0.31 (−0.59, −0.03); and op′DDT, β (95% CI) = −0.35 (−0.68, −0.02).
Folate and cysteine are independently inversely associated with DDT isomers, adjusting for vitamins B6 and B12, age, and body mass index. These nutrients may play a role in DDT metabolism; however, it is also possible that DDT may exert a negative impact on folate and cysteine levels. Longitudinal studies are needed to ascertain the direction of this association.
DDT isomers/metabolites; folate; cysteine; vitamin B6; vitamin B12
This study investigated whether the association between passive smoking exposure and dysmenorrhea is modified by two susceptibility genes, CYP1A1MspI and CYP1A1HincII.
This report includes 1645 (1124 no dysmenorrhea, 521 dysmenorrhea) nonsmoking and nondrinking newly wed female workers at Anqing, China between June 1997 and June 2000. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations of passive smoking exposure and genetic susceptibility with dysmenorrhea, adjusting for perceived stress.
When stratified by women genotype, the adjusted OR of dysmenorrhea was 1.6 (95%CI=1.3-2.1) for passive smoking group with Ile/Ile462 genotype, and 1.5 (95%CI=1.1-2.1) with C/C6235 genotype, compared to non passive smoking group, respectively. The data further showed that there was a significant combined effect between passive smoking and the CYP1A1 Msp1 C/C6235 and HincII Ile/Ile462 genotype (OR=2.6, 95%CI=1.3-5.2).
CYP1A1 MspI and HincII genotypes modified the association between passive smoking and dysmenorrhea.
Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1; dysmenorrhea; polymorphism; genetic; tobacco smoke polution
The objective of the study was to determine the effect of landing surface on plantar kinetics during a half-squat landing. Twenty male elite paratroopers with formal parachute landing training and over 2 years of parachute jumping experience were recruited. The subjects wore parachuting boots in which pressure sensing insoles were placed. Each subject was instructed to jump off a platform with a height of 60 cm, and land on either a hard or soft surface in a half-squat posture. Outcome measures were maximal plantar pressure, time to maximal plantar pressure (T-MPP), and pressure-time integral (PTI) upon landing on 10 plantar regions. Compared to a soft surface, hard surface produced higher maximal plantar pressure in the 1st to 4th metatarsal and mid-foot regions, but lower maximal plantar pressure in the 5th metatarsal region. Shorter T- MPP was found during hard surface landing in the 1st and 2nd metatarsal and medial rear foot. Landing on a hard surface landing resulted in a lower PTI than a soft surface in the 1stphalangeal region. For Chinese paratroopers, specific foot prosthesis should be designed to protect the1st to 4thmetatarsal region for hard surface landing, and the 1stphalangeal and 5thmetatarsal region for soft surface landing.
Understanding plantar kinetics during the half-squat landing used by Chinese paratroopers can assist in the design of protective footwear.
Compared to landing on a soft surface, a hard surface produced higher maximal plantar pressure in the 1st to 4th metatarsal and mid-foot regions, but lower maximal plantar pressure in the 5th metatarsal region.
A shorter time to maximal plantar pressure was found during a hard surface landing in the 1st and 2nd metatarsals and medial rear foot.
Landing on a hard surface resulted in a lower pressure-time integral than landing on a soft surface in the 1st phalangeal region.
For Chinese paratroopers, specific foot prosthesis should be designed to protect the 1st to 4th metatarsal region for a hard surface landing, and the 1st phalangeal and 5th metatarsal region for a soft surface landing.
Half-squat landing; plantar kinetics; plantar pressure; surface reaction force; pressure time integral
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common anxiety disorder that usually begins in adolescence. Childhood maltreatment is highly prevalent and increases the possibility for developing a variety of mental disorders including anxiety disorders. An earlier age at onset of GAD is significantly related to maltreatment in childhood. Exploring the underpinnings of the relationship between childhood maltreatment and adolescent onset GAD would be helpful in identifying the potential risk markers of this condition.
Twenty-six adolescents with GAD and 25 healthy controls participated in this study. A childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ) was introduced to assess childhood maltreatment. All subjects underwent high-resolution structural magnetic resonance scans. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to investigate gray matter alterations.
Significantly larger gray matter volumes of the right putamen were observed in GAD patients compared to healthy controls. In addition, a significant diagnosis-by-maltreatment interaction effect for the left thalamic gray matter volume was revealed, as shown by larger volumes of the left thalamic gray matter in GAD patients with childhood maltreatment compared with GAD patients without childhood maltreatment as well as with healthy controls with/without childhood maltreatment. A significant positive association between childhood maltreatment and left thalamic gray matter volume was only seen in GAD patients.
These findings revealed an increased volume in the subcortical regions in adolescent GAD, and the alterations in the left thalamus might be involved in the association between childhood maltreatment and the occurrence of GAD.
To investigate the effects of RNA interference-mediated downregulation of Human Solute Carrier Family 35 member F2 (SLC35F2) expression on the biological behavior of lung cancer H1299 cells.
The lentiviral vector of small interfering RNA targeting SLC35F2 was introduced into H1299 cells by liposome-mediated transfection. Expression of the SLC35F2 protein was measured by western blot. The proliferation of H1299 cells was determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. The migration of H1299 cells was measured by Transwell migration assay. Cell cycle analysis used fluorescence-activated cell sorting.
SLC35F2 expression was markedly downregulated in H1299 cell clone (transfected with the lentiviral vector harboring small interfering RNA targeting SLC35F2). Proliferation decreased significantly compared with that of non-transfected H1299 cells. Transwell migration assay showed that fewer cells moved through the artificial basement membrane compared with untransfected H1299 cells (38.3 ± 5.7 vs. 113.5 ± 8.5, P < 0.05). The cell cycle of H1299 cells was changed, the percentage of H1299 cells in S and G2/M phases being significantly decreased compared with untransfected H1299 cells (S phase: 15.3% ± 3.0% vs. 27.0% ± 5.4%, P > 0.05; G2/M phase; 3.0% ± 1.1% vs. 10.5% ± 1.7%, P < 0.05), whereas the percentage of H1299 cells in G0/G1 phase increased markedly (81.7% ± 4.0% vs. 62.5% ± 1.9%, P < 0.05).
RNA interference-mediated downregulation of SLC35F2 expression by lentiviral vector can attenuate the proliferation, migration and invasion of H1299 cells.
Lung carcinoma; SLC35F2; RNA interference; Lnvasion; Migration
The 21-residue compact tertiapin-Q (TPNQ) toxin, a derivative of honey bee toxin tertiapin (TPN), is a potent blocker of inward-rectifier K+ channel subtype, rat Kir1.1 (rKir1.1) channel, and their interaction mechanism remains unclear.
Based on the flexible feature of potassium channel turrets, a good starting rKir1.1 channel structure was modeled for the accessibility of rKir1.1 channel turrets to TPNQ toxin. In combination with experimental alanine scanning mutagenesis data, computational approaches were further used to obtain a reasonable TPNQ toxin-rKir1.1 channel complex structure, which was completely different from the known binding modes between animal toxins and potassium channels. TPNQ toxin mainly adopted its helical domain as the channel-interacting surface together with His12 as the pore-blocking residue. The important Gln13 residue mainly contacted channel residues near the selectivity filter, and Lys20 residue was surrounded by a polar “groove” formed by Arg118, Thr119, Glu123, and Asn124 in the channel turret. On the other hand, four turrets of rKir1.1 channel gathered to form a narrow pore entryway for TPNQ toxin recognition. The Phe146 and Phe148 residues in the channel pore region formed strong hydrophobic protrusions, and produced dominant nonpolar interactions with toxin residues. These specific structure features of rKir1.1 channel vestibule well matched the binding of potent TPNQ toxin, and likely restricted the binding of the classical animal toxins.
The TPNQ toxin-rKir1.1 channel complex structure not only revealed their unique interaction mechanism, but also would highlight the diverse animal toxin-potassium channel interactions, and elucidate the relative insensitivity of rKir1.1 channel towards animal toxins.
Cell therapy holds promise as a method for the treatment of ischemic disease. However, one significant challenge to the efficacy of cell therapy is poor cell survival in vivo. Here we describe a non-viral, gene therapy approach to improve the survival and engraftment of cells transplanted into ischemic tissue. We have developed biodegradable poly(β-amino esters) (PBAE) nanoparticles as vehicles to genetically modify human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF transfection using these nanoparticles significantly enhanced VEGF expression in HUVECs, compared with a commercially-available transfection reagent. Transfection resulted in the upregulation of survival factors, and improved viability under simulated ischemic conditions. In a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia, VEGF nanoparticle transfection promoted engraftment of HUVECs into mouse vasculature as well as survival of transplanted HUVECs in ischemic tissues, leading to improved angiogenesis and ischemic limb salvage. This study demonstrates that biodegradable polymer nanoparticles may provide a safe and effective method for genetic engineering of endothelial cells to enhance therapeutic angiogenesis.
Polymer nanoparticles; Genetic engineering; Endothelial cells; Angiogenesis; Ischemia
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection can lead to a rapidly progressing, life-threatening, and severe neurological disease in young children, including the development of human hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). This study aims to further characterize the specific immunological features in EV71–mediated HFMD patients presenting with differing degrees of disease severity.
Comprehensive cytokine and chemokine expression were broadly evaluated by cytokine antibody array in EV71–infected patients hospitalized for HFMD compared to Coxsackievirus A16-infected patients and age-matched healthy controls. More detailed analysis using Luminex-based cytokine bead array was performed in EV71–infected patients stratified into diverse clinic outcomes. Additionally, immune cell frequencies in peripheral blood and EV71–specific antibodies in plasma were also examined.
Expression of several cytokines and chemokines were significantly increased in plasma from EV71–infected patients compared to healthy controls, which further indicated that: (1) GM-CSF, MIP-1β, IL-2, IL-33, and IL-23 secretion was elevated in patients who rapidly developed disease and presented with uncomplicated neurological damage; (2) G-CSF and MCP-1 were distinguishably secreted in EV71 infected very severe patients presenting with acute respiratory failure; (3) IP-10, MCP-1, IL-6, IL-8, and G-CSF levels were much higher in cerebrospinal fluid than in plasma from patients with neurological damage; (4) FACS analysis revealed that the frequency of CD19+HLADR+ mature B cells dynamically changed over time during the course of hospitalization and was accompanied by dramatically increased EV71–specific antibodies. Our data provide a panoramic view of specific immune mediator and cellular immune responses of HFMD and may provide useful immunological profiles for monitoring the progress of EV71–induced fatal neurological symptoms with acute respiratory failure.
Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized mainly by progressive cerebellar ataxia, oculocutaneous telangiectasia, and immunodeficiency. This disease is caused by mutations of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (Atm) gene. More than 500 Atm mutations that are responsible for A-T have been identified so far. However, there have been very few A-T cases reported in China, and only two Chinese A-T patients have undergone Atm gene analysis. In order to systemically investigate A-T in China and map their Atm mutation spectrum, we recruited eight Chinese A-T patients from six unrelated families nationwide. Using direct sequencing of genomic DNA and the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, we identified twelve pathogenic Atm mutations, including one missense, four nonsense, five frameshift, one splicing, and one large genomic deletion. All the Atm mutations we identified were novel, and no homozygous mutation and founder-effect mutation were found. These results suggest that Atm mutations in Chinese populations are diverse and distinct largely from those in other ethnic areas.
Ataxia telangiectasia; Mutation analysis; Sequencing; MLPA
As a response to harsh environments, the crustacean artemia produces diapause gastrula embryos (cysts), in which cell division and embryonic development are totally arrested. This dormant state can last for very long periods but be terminated by specific environmental stimuli. Thus, artemia is an ideal model organism in which to study cell cycle arrest and embryonic development.
Our study focuses on the roles of H3K56ac in the arrest of cell cycle and development during artemia diapause formation and termination. We found that the level of H3K56ac on chromatin increased during diapause formation, and decreased upon diapause termination, remaining basal level throughout subsequent embryonic development. In both HeLa cells and artemia, blocking the deacetylation with nicotinamide, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, increased the level of H3K56ac on chromatin and induced an artificial cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, we found that this arrest of the cell cycle and development was induced by H3K56ac and dephosphorylation of the checkpoint protein, retinoblastoma protein.
These results have revealed the dynamic change in H3K56ac on chromatin during artemia diapause formation and termination. Thus, our findings provide insight into the regulation of cell division during arrest of artemia embryonic development and provide further insight into the functions of H3K56ac.
The epidemiology and molecular characteristics of human enterovirus B (HEV-B) associated with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) outbreaks in China are not well known. In the present study, we tested 201 HEV isolates from 233 clinical specimens from patients with severe HFMD during 2010–2011 in Linyi, Shandong, China. Of the 201 isolates, 189 were fully typed and 18 corresponded to HEV-B species (six serotypes CVA9, CVB1, CVB4, Echo 6, Echo 25 and Echo 30) using sensitive semi-nested polymerase chain reaction analysis of VP1 gene sequences. Phylogenetic analysis based on the VP1 region showed that eight E30SD belonged to a novel sub-genogroup D2; E25SD belonged to a novel sub-genogroup D6; E6SD belonged to sub-lineage C6 and five CVB1SD belonged to subgroup 4C; and B4SD belonged sub-lineage D2. The full viral genomes of the CVB1SD, E6SD, E25SD and E30SD isolates were sequenced. Analysis of phylogenetic and similarity plots indicated that E25SD recombined with E25-HN-2, E30FDJS03 and E4AUS250 at noncontiguous P2A–P3D regions, while E30SD, E30FDJ03, E25-HN-2 and E9 DM had shared sequences in discrete regions of P2 and P3. Both E6SD and B1SD shared sequences with E1-HN, B4/GX/10, B5-HN, and A9-Alberta in contiguous regions of most of P2 and P3. Genetic algorithm recombination detection analysis further confirmed the existence of multiple potential recombination points. In conclusion, analysis of the complete genomes of E25SD, E30SD, CVB1SD and E6SD isolated from HFMD patients revealed that they formed novel subgenogroup. Given the prevalence and recombination of these viruses in outbreaks of HFMD, persistent surveillance of HFMD-associated HEV-B pathogens is required to predict potential emerging viruses and related disease outbreaks.