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author:("Xu, jinyan")
1.  Epithelial ovarian cancer: An overview 
Ovarian cancer is the second most common gynecological cancer and the leading cause of death in the United States. In this article we review the diagnosis and current management of epithelial ovarian cancer which accounts for over 95 percent of the ovarian malignancies. We will present various theories about the potential origin of ovarian malignancies. We will discuss the genetic anomalies and syndromes that may cause ovarian cancers with emphasis on Breast cancer type 1/2 mutations. The pathology and pathogenesis of ovarian carcinoma will also be presented. Lastly, we provide a comprehensive overview of treatment strategies and staging of ovarian cancer, conclusions and future directions.
doi:10.5528/wjtm.v3.i1.1
PMCID: PMC4267287  PMID: 25525571
Epithelial ovarian cancer; Breast cancer type 1; Chemotherapy
2.  Triple Negative Breast Cancer – An Overview 
Hereditary genetics : current research  2013;2013(Suppl 2):001.
Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous disease that based on immunohistochemistry (IHC) is estrogen receptor (ER) negative, progesterone receptor (PR) negative and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) negative. TNBC is typically observed in young AA women and Hispanic women who carry a mutation in the BRCA1 gene. TNBC is characterized by a distinct molecular profile, aggressive nature and lack of targeted therapies. The purpose of this article is to review the current and future novel signalling pathways as therapeutic approaches to TNBC. Recent Identification of a new BRCA1 trafficking pathway holds promise in the future for the development of targeted therapies for TNBC.
doi:10.4172/2161-1041.S2-001
PMCID: PMC4181680  PMID: 25285241
TNBC; BRCA1; CISPLATIN; EGFR; PARP; Hedgehog; NOTCH; BCL-2; UBC9; WNT/B-CATENIN
3.  Angiomyofibroblastoma-like tumor of the scrotum: A case report and literature review 
Oncology Letters  2013;7(2):435-438.
The purpose of the present study was to increase the knowledge of angiomyofibroblastoma (AMF)-like tumors in males by describing the second case of this rare lesion in the Chinese population with a long period of follow-up and by reviewing the literature. AMF-like tumor is a rare, circumscribed, slow-growing mesenchymal tumor that occurs predominantly in the vulva, perineum and pelvis of females. The present report presents a case of left scrotal AMF-like tumor in a 37-year-old male. Complete surgical excision was performed. The tumor was composed of spindle-shaped cells and small vessels proliferating in the edematous stroma. Immunohistologically, the tumor cells stained positive for smooth muscle actin and negative for S-100, CD34 and actin. Following seven years of follow-up the patient was asymptomatic and no evidence of tumor was found. In addition, the current literature was reviewed and the characteristics of this tumor were summarized. AMF-like tumors must also be distinguished from spindle cell lipoma, solitary fibrous tumor and aggressive angiomyxoma.
doi:10.3892/ol.2013.1741
PMCID: PMC3881198  PMID: 24396463
angiomyofibroblastoma; scrotum; male
4.  Mitochondrial localization, ELK-1 transcriptional regulation and Growth inhibitory functions of BRCA1, BRCA1a and BRCA1b proteins 
Journal of cellular physiology  2009;219(3):634-641.
BRCA1 is a tumor suppressor gene that is mutated in families with breast and ovarian cancer. Several BRCA1 splice variants are found in different tissues, but their subcellular localization and functions are poorly understood at the moment. We previously described BRCA1 splice variant BRCA1a to induce apoptosis and function as a tumor suppressor of triple negative breast, ovarian and prostate cancers. In this study we have analyzed the function of BRCA1 isoforms (BRCA1a and BRCA1b) and compared them to the wild type BRCA1 protein using several criteria like studying expression in normal and tumor cells by RNase protection assays, sub cellular localization/fractionation by immunofluorescence microscopy and western blot analysis, transcription regulation of biological relevant proteins and growth suppression in breast cancer cells. We are demonstrating for the first time that ectopically expressed GFP-tagged BRCA1, BRCA1a, and BRCA1b proteins are localized to the mitochondria, repress ELK-1 transcriptional activity and possess antiproliferative activity on breast cancer cells. These results suggest that the exon 9,10 and 11 sequences (aa 263 – 1365) which contain two nuclear localization signals, p53, Rb, c-Myc, γ- tubulin, Stat, Rad 51, Rad 50 binding domains, angiopoietin-1 repression domain are not absolutely required for mitochondrial localization and growth suppressor function of these proteins. Since mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of cancer, we can speculate that the mitochondrial localization of BRCA1 proteins may be functionally significant in regulating both the mitochondrial DNA damage as well as apoptotic activity of BRCA1 proteins and mislocalization causes cancer.
doi:10.1002/jcp.21708
PMCID: PMC3693557  PMID: 19170108
BRCA1/1a/1b proteins; breast cancers; mitochondria; growth suppression; transcriptional regulation; ELK-1
5.  BRCA1 proteins regulate growth of ovarian cancer cells by tethering Ubc9 
Mutation in the BRCA1 gene is associated with increased risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. In sporadic ovarian tumors, BRCA1 dysfunction is thought to be common. BRCA1 is a nuclear-cytoplasm shuttling protein. Our group has previously reported that BRCA1 proteins, unlike K109R and cancer-predisposing mutant C61G BRCA1 proteins, bind the sole SUMO E2-conjugating enzyme Ubc9. In this study, we examined the result of altered Ubc9 binding and knockdown on the sub-cellular localization and growth inhibitory function of BRCA1 proteins in ovarian cancer cells. Using live imaging of YFP, RFP-tagged BRCA1 and BRCA1a proteins, our results show enhanced cytoplasmic localization of K109R and C61G mutant BRCA1 proteins in ES-2, NIHOVCAR3 and UWB 1.289 ovarian cancer cells. Down-regulation of Ubc9 in ovarian cancer cells using Ubc9 siRNA resulted in cytoplasmic localization of BRCA1 and BRCA1a proteins. These mutant BRCA1a proteins were impaired in their capacity to inhibit growth of ES-2 ovarian cancer cells. Several ovarian cancer cells, including a BRCA1-null ovarian cancer cell line, showed higher levels of expression of Ubc9. This is the first study demonstrating the physiological link between loss of Ubc9 binding and loss of growth suppression of disease-associated mutant BRCA1a proteins in ovarian cancer cells. BRCA1, by turning off or on Ubc9 binding, regulates growth of ovarian cancers.
PMCID: PMC3433105  PMID: 22957306
BRCA1; BRCA1a; Ubc9; Ovarian cancer; RING domain mutants; nuclear import; Growth suppression
6.  Ubc9 Mediates Nuclear Localization and Growth Suppression of BRCA1 and BRCA1a Proteins 
Journal of Cellular Physiology  2011;226(12):3355-3367.
BRCA1 gene mutations are responsible for hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. In sporadic breast tumors, BRCA1 dysfunction or aberrant subcellular localization is thought to be common. BRCA1 is a nuclear–cytoplasm shuttling protein and the reason for cytoplasmic localization of BRCA1 in young breast cancer patients is not yet known. We have previously reported BRCA1 proteins unlike K109R and cancer-predisposing mutant C61G to bind Ubc9 and modulate ER-α turnover. In the present study, we have examined the consequences of altered Ubc9 binding and knockdown on the subcellular localization and growth inhibitory function of BRCA1 proteins. Our results using live imaging of YFP, GFP, RFP-tagged BRCA1, BRCA1a and BRCA1b proteins show enhanced cytoplasmic localization of K109 R and C61G mutant BRCA1 proteins in normal and cancer cells. Furthermore, down-regulation of Ubc9 in MCF-7 cells using Ubc9 siRNA resulted in enhanced cytoplasmic localization of BRCA1 protein and exclusive cytoplasmic retention of BRCA1a and BRCA1b proteins. These mutant BRCA1 proteins were transforming and impaired in their capacity to inhibit growth of MCF-7 and CAL51 breast cancer cells. Interestingly, cytoplasmic BRCA1a mutants showed more clonogenicity in soft agar and higher levels of expression of Ubc9 than parental MCF7 cells. This is the first report demonstrating the physiological link between cytoplasmic mislocalization of mutant BRCA1 proteins, loss of ER-α repression, loss of ubiquitin ligase activity and loss of growth suppression of BRCA1 proteins. Thus, binding of BRCA1 proteins to nuclear chaperone Ubc9 provides a novel mechanism for nuclear import and control of tumor growth.
doi:10.1002/jcp.22695
PMCID: PMC3329759  PMID: 21344391

Results 1-6 (6)